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Introduction to basic minerology and petrology

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Min Pet Presentation

  1. 1. Minerals and Rocks<br />An introduction to Geology:<br />Mineralogy and Petrology<br />
  2. 2. Minerals<br />A mineral is a naturally occurring solid with a specific chemical composition and atomic arrangement (crystalline structure).*<br />Quartz = Silica + Oxygen or SiO2<br />* Some references also add “inorganic” to the definition, but there are some rare organic minerals too (i.e., whewillite).<br />
  3. 3. Methods to Identify Minerals<br />Color<br />Streak<br />Luster<br />Fluorescence<br />Chemical Composition<br />Hardness<br />Talc<br />Gypsum<br />Calcite<br />Fluorite<br />Apatite<br />Orthoclase<br />Quartz<br />Topaz<br />Corundum<br />Diamond<br />( Mnemonic Devise - The Geologist Can Find An Ordinary Quartz Tourists Call Diamond)<br />Specific Gravity<br />Crystal Form<br />Optical Properties<br />Cleavage<br />Fracture<br />Magnetism<br />Electrical Properties<br />Melting Point<br />Geologic Setting<br />
  4. 4. Copper<br />
  5. 5. Gold<br />
  6. 6. Pyrite <br />(Fool’s Gold)<br />
  7. 7. Arsenic<br />
  8. 8. Bauxite (aluminum ore)<br />
  9. 9. Kaolin Mine Near Thomson, Georgia<br />
  10. 10. Barite (rose morphology)<br />
  11. 11. Quartz<br />
  12. 12. ROCKS<br /><ul><li> A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass of mineral or minerals.
  13. 13. There are three primary types of rocks:</li></ul>Sedimentary<br />Igneous<br />Metamorphic<br />
  14. 14. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS<br />Rocks formed from accumulation and hardening of water or airborne sediment, plant or animal remains, chemical action, or evaporation.<br />Some of the most common sedimentary rocks are:<br /><ul><li>Limestone
  15. 15. Shale
  16. 16. Sandstone</li></li></ul><li> Limestone<br />
  17. 17. Limestone with fossils<br />
  18. 18. Shale<br />
  19. 19. Sandstone<br />
  20. 20. Peat<br />Coal<br />
  21. 21. Igneous Rocks<br /><ul><li> Igneous rocks are formed by the cooling of magma from deep within the earth
  22. 22. There are two main categories of igneous rocks:</li></ul>Intrusive – formed underground<br />Extrusive – formed above ground<br />
  23. 23. The most common intrusive igneous rock is granite.<br />Some common extrusive igneous rocks include:<br /><ul><li> Basalt
  24. 24. Obsidian
  25. 25. Pumice</li></li></ul><li>Granite with thin-section<br />
  26. 26. ← Obsidian<br /> Pumice -><br />
  27. 27. Basalt – vesicular (with holes), dense, and thin-section<br />
  28. 28. Metamorphic Rocks<br />These rocks are formed by other rocks being buried deep within the earth and subjected to very high temperature and pressure.<br />Common metamorphic rocks include:<br /><ul><li> Marble
  29. 29. Greenstone
  30. 30. Slate
  31. 31. Schist
  32. 32. Gneiss</li></li></ul><li>Marble with thin section<br />
  33. 33. Greenstone<br />
  34. 34. Slate with Pyrite<br /> ↓<br /> ↑<br />Slate (plain)<br />
  35. 35. Gneiss<br />
  36. 36. Schist – highly folded<br />

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