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Building ladders across the scales of personification: from brains in social interaction to genes in human evolution

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Presentation at "Personification Across Disciplines" at Durham University on September 16th, 2018

Abstract: The interdisciplinary endeavour of cognitive science has been encompassing the study of many scales in both space, time, and fields. This talk will illustrate how building "ladders” between scales provides alternatives heuristics to understand how we come up to understand others. We will start by the interactive turn taken recently by social neuroscience, discussing how the study of human-human and human-machine interaction demonstrate how low-level sensorimotor coordination with others not only shapes our individual mind but also how we infer high-level intentions to them. We will finish with recent analyses of the phylogeny of the primate nervous system, including archaic hominids such as Neanderthal and Denisovan, and discuss how genetics at evolutionary time scale questions the singularity of the human brain and the emergence of social skills like language.

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Building ladders across the scales of personification: from brains in social interaction to genes in human evolution

  1. 1. Emergence with Roberto Toro TUSCI by Magali Daniaux & Cédric Pigot with Nicolas Montgermont 101NightswithNathalieRegardLeCahierdesLimbeswithLucHallard COGITObyDanielaPaulis(photo:SandroBocci)
  2. 2. Building ladders across the scales of personification: from brains in social interaction to genes in human evolution Personnification Across Disciplines — Durham University, September 19th, 2018 Guillaume Dumas, Ph.D – @introspection Human Genetics & Cognitive Functions unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris
  3. 3. Introduction 3 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  4. 4. Bayesian Cognitivist Dynamicist 4 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  5. 5. Maturana & Varela (1992) The Tree of Knowledge 5 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  6. 6. Maturana & Varela (1992) The Tree of Knowledge 6 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  7. 7. 7 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  8. 8. 8 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  9. 9. 9 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  10. 10. Varela et al., Nat Neuro Rev 2001 10 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  11. 11. Adapted from Rudrauf et al. (2003) Sensori- motor coupling Nervous system Generates neural assemblies Modulates the dynamics Environment 11 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  12. 12. 12 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  13. 13. 13 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  14. 14. 14 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Hari & Kujala, Physiological Reviews 2009
  15. 15. Pfeiffer et al., Front Hum Neurosci 2013 15 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 N individuals
  16. 16. 16 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  17. 17. 17 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  18. 18. A) Human~Human Hyperscanning-EEG 18 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  19. 19. Montague et al., NeuroImage 2002 19 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  20. 20. Hasson et al., Science 2004 20 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  21. 21. Hasson et al., Science 2004 21 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  22. 22. Babiloni et al., Proc 28th IEEE 2006 Greater Coherence in the gamma band within players in the same team 22 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  23. 23. Tognoli et al., PNAS 2007 Joint Spectral & Spatial Specificity 23 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  24. 24. Tognoli et al., SfN 2005 «Idiosyncrasicpatterns,forexample,thisfrontal(driver)toparietal(follower)network» 10-20 Hz 24 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  25. 25. Lindenberger et al., BMC Neuroscience 2009 25 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Theta band 3 -8Hz
  26. 26. Nadel, 1999 ; Nadel & Soussignan, 2005 ; Soussignan & Nadel, 2006 26 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  27. 27. Dumas et al., PLoS ONE 2010 27 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  28. 28. 28 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 NVNM 15s NVM 15s Spontaneous Imitation (SI) 1min 30s
  29. 29. 29 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas et al., PLoS ONE 2010 57,27% 13,42% 8,65% 26,66% Synchroneous Imitations Imitation without Synchrony Synchrony without Imitation No Synchrony No Imitation
  30. 30. 30 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas et al. 2012 In the same way as segregation and integration form a complementary pair in brain activity, a successful communication needs altogether a clear repartition of the roles and a co- regulation of the exchange. This co-regulation and the sharing of purpose between the interactants ensure the autonomy of the two partners as well as their ability to make the distinction between what originates from self and what originates from the other. Self-agency and Beta frequency Other agency and Delta frequency
  31. 31. 31 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Guionnet et al. 2011; Dumas et al. 2012; Nadel & Dumas, J Cog Edu & Psych 2010
  32. 32. 32 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas et al., PLoS ONE 2010
  33. 33. Phase Locking Value Matrix Histograms Behavioral indexing Synchrony (S/NS) & imitation (I/NI): 33 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 PLV h-PLV (intra-brain) (inter-brain)
  34. 34. 34 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas et al., PLoS ONE 2010 Brain-to-brain synchronization correlates with the social roles
  35. 35. 35 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Goldstein, Weissman-Fogel, Dumas, Shamay-Tsoory, PNAS (2018) Pain reduction Inter-brain synchronization modulation
  36. 36. B) Machine~Machine 36 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  37. 37. 37 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 How does it relate to anatomical and physiological similarities? At the intra-individual level? At the inter-individual level? Dynamique+Structure
  38. 38. Dumas et al., PLoS ONE 2012 38 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 + x 2 = Dual-brain model (Kuramoto oscillators, realistic brain areas, realistic connectivity) and their interbrain sensorimotor coupling
  39. 39. Dumas et al., PLoS ONE 2012 39 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 FFTBrainAreaSignals Cortical Level Scalp Level Cintra CintraFFTEEGSignals
  40. 40. Dumas et al., PLoS ONE 2012 40 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Normal Shuffle
  41. 41. 41 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas et al., PLoS ONE 2012 Real connectivity facilitate inter-brain synchronization Residual synchronization Anatomical structure facilitates:
  42. 42. 42 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Communication Unidirectional Reciprocal Similarity Behavioural Neurobiological Cultural Fairhurst & Dumas (in preps.)
  43. 43. C) Human~Machine 43 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  44. 44. Adapted from Tognoli, Dumas, Kelso 2017 44 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Empirical Theoretical
  45. 45. Kelso et al. PLoS ONE 2009; Dumas et al., PNAS 2014 45 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  46. 46. Dumas et al., PNAS 2014 46 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  47. 47. 47 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 • Synchronisation : movement phase coupling • Imitation: morphological / amplitude similarity • Goal understanding: in-phase or anti-phase? • Humanness attribution: human or robot? • Theory of Mind: cooperative or competitive? Sensorimotor level Representational level
  48. 48. Dumas et al. (in preps) 48 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 SubjectVerbalReport Virtual Partner Behavior In-phase Anti-phase Task:
  49. 49. 49 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Cleese & Chapman (1972)
  50. 50. Dumas et al. (in preps) 50 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  51. 51. Dumas et al. (in preps) 51 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 High Alpha (10-14Hz) Gamma (30-60Hz) rTPJ
  52. 52. 52 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  53. 53. Dumas et al. (in preps) 53 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  54. 54. Dumas et al. (in preps) 54 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  55. 55. Dumas et al. (in preps) 55 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Cooperation vs. Competition Human vs. Robot rTPJ SMA mPFC
  56. 56. Interlude 56 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  57. 57. 57 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas, Communicative & Integrative Biology 2011
  58. 58. 58 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Shea et al., Trends Cog Sci 2014
  59. 59. 59 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Wait a minute?! Don’t you need representation of others to interact with them as much as you need interactions to form representations of them? Dumas, Kelso & Nadel, Front Psych 2014 Tackling the social cognition paradox through multi-scale approaches.
  60. 60. ’’[Biological systems] are characterized by large numbers of highly heterogeneous components, be they genes, proteins, or cells. These components interact causally in myriad ways across a very large spectrum of space-time, from nanometers to meters and from microseconds to years. A complete understanding of these systems demands that a large fraction of these interactions be experimentally or computationally probed. This is very difficult.’’ Christof Koch (2012) Modular Biological Complexity. Science, 337(6094):531-532 DOI:10.1126/science.1218616 Cognition is multiscale!
  61. 61. A long, long time ago, in a country far, far away …
  62. 62. 63 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Noble, Exp Physiol 2007
  63. 63. 64 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Noble, Exp Physiol 2007
  64. 64. 65 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Wilson KG, Sci Am 1979
  65. 65. 66 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Comorbidities intellectual disability epilepsy motor control problems ADHD Tics Anxiety sleep disorders gastrointestinal problems. Epidemiology 0.7–1.1% of the population 4/1 male/female ratio Huguet, Ey & Bourgeron, Ann Rev Genom & Hum Gen 2013
  66. 66. 67 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Bressler and Tognoli 2006
  67. 67. 68 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 “Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” Theodosius Dobzhansky (1973)
  68. 68. 7.0 Chimpanzee–Human Last Common Ancestor (CHLCA, CLCA, or C/H LCA) Denisovan Neanderthal Homo Sapiens Pan Troglodytes (chimpanzee) Hominidae Common Ancestor 13 Tribe: Homini
  69. 69. 70 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Buzsáki, Logothetis, and Singer, Neuron (2013)
  70. 70. 71 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Reproduced from van Pelt et al. (2012) in Buzsáki, Logothetis & Singer (2013)
  71. 71. 72 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  72. 72. Orlando, L., Gilbert, M. T. P., & Willerslev, E. (2015). Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes. Nature Reviews Genetics, 16(7), 395–408. 73 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  73. 73. 74 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 2014
  74. 74. Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps)
  75. 75. OmegaGC Neutrality Index z ZZ Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps) Divergent genes Conserved genes Neutral genes
  76. 76. Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps)
  77. 77. Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps) SHANK2 Brain Genes Z-scoreZ-score Illumina Human Bodymap 2
  78. 78. Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps) Wilcoxon Kirby rank correlation Bonferoni
  79. 79. Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps)
  80. 80. Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps)
  81. 81. Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps)
  82. 82. Demo? KIAAA0319
  83. 83. ❤ Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps) + = Correlation with studies involving social cognition including language (>19000 fMRI studies)
  84. 84. “much of the same machinery, the same brain regions and computational processing that are used in a social context to attribute awareness to someone else, are also used on a continuous basis to construct your own awareness and attribute it to yourself.” Michael S.A. Graziano (2015)
  85. 85. Conclusion 86 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  86. 86. 87 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Kelso, Dumas, & Tognoli, Neural Networks 2013 ExperimentalComputational
  87. 87. 88 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Beyond Autism: Introducing the Dialectical Misattunement Hypothesis and a Bayesian Account of Intersubjectivity. Bolis et al. 2017 Socio-cultural Cognitive-behavioral Biological
  88. 88. 89 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 1 gene Whole Genome 1 trait Whole Phenotype Epigenome
  89. 89. 90 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Acquisition Proteomics Biochemistry / Expression Epidémiology Data Processing Analyses / Models Patients Genes k k
  90. 90. 91 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Models Bourgeron, Nat Neuro Rev 2015
  91. 91. 92 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas, Malesys, & Bourgeron (in preps)
  92. 92. 93 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 "The averages must therefore be rejected, they confuse, while seeking to unify, they distort while trying to simplify." Claude Bernard (1865, p. 135)
  93. 93. 94 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Marquand et al. 2016
  94. 94. 95 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  95. 95. 96 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Longitudinal European Autism Project Nonparametric Normative Model based on LOESS Age (days) Z-scoreWorkingMemory CTR ASD ID ASD-ID Jumana Ahmad Eva Loth
  96. 96. 97 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  97. 97. 98 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Large Cohort Highly Heterogeneous Genetic Profiles Individuals Clusters Homogeneous Genetic Profiles
  98. 98. Bourgeron, Nat Neuro Rev 2015 99 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19
  99. 99. 100 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 CBT Response DrugResponse
  100. 100. 101 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 NRXN-NLGN SHANK mTOR Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxEPh ≈ G + E +GxEPh ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE Ph ≈ G + E +GxE ???
  101. 101. 102 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Crespi et al. 2010 "Systems are not in nature, but only in the minds of men." Claude Bernard (1865, p. 297)
  102. 102. 103 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Adapted from Micoulaud-Franchi et al. 2018 Subjective experience (semiology) Brain activity (physiology) Disease? (nosology) Additional creteria (epidemiology, sociology, …) Cause (etiology) Individuals / Patients Researchers MDs Policy makersAssociations
  103. 103. 104 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Micoulaud-Franchi, Quiles, Batail, Lancon, Masson, Dumas, Cermolace (2017) Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi DSM RDoC ?
  104. 104. 105 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas & Micoulaud-Franchi, Intellectica (accepted) RDoC + Social level
  105. 105. 106 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Dumas & Micoulaud-Franchi, Intellectica (accepted) RDoC + Social level Individual <–> Family / Friends Individual <–> Therapist / Educator But also: Practitioners <–> Practitioners Practitioners <–> Policy makers Policy makers <–> Policy makers Policy makers <–> Associations … Individual <–> their “voices”
  106. 106. Old-Paris Team Jacqueline Nadel Jacques Martinerie Robert Soussignan Mario Chavez Boca Raton Team New-Paris Team Collaborators J.-A. Micoulaud-Franchi Leonhard Schilbach Imme Zillekens Juha Lahnakoski Danilo Bzdok Elvis Dohmatob Denis Engemann Thomas Bourgeron Richard Delorme Jean-Pierre Changeux Aline Lefebvre Yang-Min Kim Roberto Toro Thomas Rolland Freddy Cliquet Anita Beggiato Alexandre Mathieu Hany Goubran-Botros Simon Malesys J.A. Scott Kelso Emmanuelle Tognoli Gonzalo DeGuzman Armin Fuchs Mengsen Zhang 107 • Guillaume Dumas • Building ladders across the scales of personification • Durham University, 2018-09-19 Eva Loth Jumana Ahmad Merle Fairhurst Viviane Kostrubiec Alexandre Lehmann Asaf Bachrach Julien Laroche Interdisciplinarity Open Science Art~Science
  107. 107. Phi
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