How could you use these theories and theorists to understand identity and the ways in which audiences
use media texts to create their sense of identity?
Which theorists here might agree/ disagree with each other? Compare them.
Concepts, Theories and theorists - Identity
1. Judith Butler – Gender is 2. David Gauntlett – “Identities are
performance: our gender exists not ‘given’ but are constructed
3. Michel Maffesoli – wrote a book
only in the way we behave and and negotiated.” "These [male]
entitled “The time of tribes: The
in the way we perform. It is a magazines are all about the
decline of individualism in
social construct that is always social construction of
fluid and changing. Gender is masculinity. That is, if you like,
what you do, not what you are. their subject-matter."
4. Mikhail Bakhtin – identity is 5. Marjorie Ferguson – Female
6. Angela McRobbie – “a kind of
lifestyle magazines construct
“the unfinalised self” – a person false sisterhood that assumes a
“The cult of femininity”;
can never be fully revealed, common definition of
“consciously cultivated female
finalised, labelled or known. womanhood or girlhood”
7. Janice Winship - “a magazine is
like a club. Its first function is to 8. Uses and Gratification Theory – 9. Hypodermic Needle Theory –
provide readers with a Audiences use media texts to Meaning is injected into
comfortable sense of community create their own pleasures/ uses audiences
and pride in their identity”
11. Postmodern concept of identity
– Identities are fragmented; 12. Dr Linda Papadopolous – Media
10. Modernist concept of identity – pick and mix; hybrid; affects the psychological
Grand narratives; inner self; intertextual; referential (we do development of young people
discovery of your true identity; not mean on our own, but mean and leads to the sexualisation of
life is a journey through reference to other young people and anti-social
things/ people); fluid; ironic; behaviour.
superficial; surface meanings;
13. Antonio Gramsci – Hegemony:
The dominant meanings and 14. Hermes was a messenger for the
ideologies of dominant media gods of Ancient Greece. Said to
texts shift and change over change shape/ form in order to
time, perpetuating the social get messages through/ to fit in
structures/ relations that retain to different situations.
power for the already powerful.