Evaluations of Nuclear Power


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Group presentation on evaluation and hazard controls of nuclear power plants.

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  • Evaluations of Nuclear Power

    1. 1. Hazard Methodology, Evaluationsand Controls of Nuclear FacilitiesAndrewAntolicGregDoyonNiyiOlayinka
    2. 2. Background Clean Air Act of 1970 and its amendments EPAs National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
    3. 3. Measuring Tools Dosimeters measure an absolute dose received over a period of time. Film-badge dosimeters Ion-chamber dosimeters Thermo luminescent dosimeter
    4. 4. Measuring tools Equipment that measures direct radiation exposure Geiger counters Scintillation countersExample of direct radiation exposure http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yp9iJ3pPuL 8&feature=youtube_gdata_player
    5. 5. PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT 1rem= 0.01 Sv Dose limits notwithstanding, engineering controls to achieve occupational doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). PEL (Dose) Per Calendar Quarter
    6. 6. PELBODY PART CALENDAR 1/4 MONTHLY AVG MONTHY ALARAWhole body, head 1.25 rem (3 rem) 0.416 rem 0.010 remand trunk, activeblood-formingorgans, lens ofeye, or gonadsDose to Hands 18.75 rem 6.25 rem 0.150 remand forearms; feetand anklesSkin of whole 7.5 rem 2.5 rem 0.060 rembody
    7. 7. ACCUMULATED LIMIT Based upon a 5day week, 8hour day 1.25 rems/quarter translates approximately to 100/millirems per week (mrems/week), 20 mrems/day, and 2.5 mrems/hour (Action level) Accumulated Limit. occupational exposure shall not exceed 5 rems multiplied by the number of years beyond age 18
    8. 8. PEL and Radiation Dosage Minors (<18yrs) Pregnant women Maximum yearly dose Limit- US radiation workers? Annual dose at which increased lifetime risk of cancer evident? 50 rem- WBC 100 rem- Radiation sickness
    9. 9. Controls for Nuclear Industry Engineered controls and emergency back-up plans  Make sure if an accident happens it can be contained  Nuclear fission stops  Prevent nuclear explosions  Fukushima Plant  http://minnesota.publicradio.org/collections/specia l/columns/news_cut/archive/2011/03/how_many_ backup_plans_make_a_n.shtml
    10. 10. Controls for Nuclear Industry Eliminate worker error  Properly qualified and trained  Constant attention  Worker Rotation  Work one of three 8-hour shifts or one of two 12- hour shifts on a rotating basis. Prevention control  Inareas of ionizing radiation, signs MUST be present  PPE
    11. 11. Controls for Nuclear Industry Nuclear Power Plant Safety Act of 2011  New Legislation introduced by Edward Markey of Massachusetts  Require nuclear power plants to have emergency backup plans and systems that can withstand longer electricity outages.  Ensure that nuclear power plants and spent nuclear fuel pools can withstand and adequately respond to earthquakes, tsunamis, strong storms, long power outages, or other events that threaten a major impact.
    12. 12. Conclusion Variety of devices for measurements  Direct and overtime Daily exposure to ionizing radiation is common for workers  0.05 Sv yearly exposure Reactor meltdowns extremely rare  More controls and emergency plans are necessary  Prevention is key
    13. 13. QUESTIONS???Thank You