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  1. 1. EcologyEcology II Definitions:Definitions: A.A. Ecology: The scientific study of interactionsEcology: The scientific study of interactions amongamong organisms and between organisms andorganisms and between organisms and their environment or surroundings.their environment or surroundings. B.B. Biosphere: contains the combined portions of theBiosphere: contains the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists, including land,planet in which all life exists, including land, water and air or atmosphere.water and air or atmosphere. 1.1. It extends 8 km above the earthIt extends 8 km above the earth 2.2. and 11 km below the surface of the ocean.and 11 km below the surface of the ocean.
  2. 2. IIII Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization A.A. Species: A group of organisms that are so similarSpecies: A group of organisms that are so similar to one another that they can breed and produceto one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.fertile offspring. B.B. Population: Groups of individuals that belong toPopulation: Groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.the same species and live in the same area. C.C. Communities: Assemblages of differentCommunities: Assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area.populations that live together in a defined area. D.D. Ecosystem: This is a collection of all theEcosystem: This is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular area togetherorganisms that live in a particular area together with the living and non-living environment.with the living and non-living environment. E.E. Biome: A group of ecosystems that have the sameBiome: A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.climate and similar dominant communities. EcologyEcology
  3. 3. Smart Board
  4. 4. EcologyEcology IIIIII Energy FlowEnergy Flow A.A. Producers: Organisms that make (produce)Producers: Organisms that make (produce) their own food.their own food. 1.1. Autotroph: Plants, algae and bacteria thatAutotroph: Plants, algae and bacteria that can capture energy from sunlight orcan capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to producechemicals and use that energy to produce 2.2. Photosynthesis: The use of sunlight byPhotosynthesis: The use of sunlight by autotrophs to power chemical reactionsautotrophs to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water tothat convert carbon dioxide and water to oxygen and sugar.oxygen and sugar. 3.3. Chemosynthesis: This is a process used byChemosynthesis: This is a process used by autotrophs that have no access to sunlightautotrophs that have no access to sunlight (ocean(ocean depths) and rely on chemical bondsdepths) and rely on chemical bonds of inorganic molecules to obtain energy.of inorganic molecules to obtain energy.
  5. 5. EcologyEcologyB.B. Consumers:Consumers: 1.1. Organisms that must consume otherOrganisms that must consume other organismsorganisms in order to obtain food and order to obtain food and energy. They cannotThey cannot produce food by usingproduce food by using energy from the sun orenergy from the sun or chemical bonds.chemical bonds. These organisms are alsoThese organisms are also calledcalled heterotrophs.heterotrophs. 2.2. Heterotrophs (consumers)Heterotrophs (consumers) a.a. Herbivores: eat only plantsHerbivores: eat only plants b.b. Carnivores:Carnivores: eat only other animalseat only other animals c.c. Omnivores: eat plants and/or animals.Omnivores: eat plants and/or animals. d.d. Detrivores (scavenger): feed on deadDetrivores (scavenger): feed on dead plants orplants or animals (earthworms, snails,animals (earthworms, snails, vultures, etc.).vultures, etc.). e.e. Decomposers: break down organicDecomposers: break down organic matter andmatter and return nutrients to the earthreturn nutrients to the earth
  6. 6. EcologyEcology IVIV Feeding Relationships (Energy Flow)Feeding Relationships (Energy Flow) A.A. Energy flows through an ecosystem inEnergy flows through an ecosystem in oneone direction from the sun todirection from the sun to autotrophs (producers)autotrophs (producers) to heterotrophsto heterotrophs (consumers)(consumers)
  7. 7. Ecology B.B. Food Chain: A series of steps by which energyFood Chain: A series of steps by which energy stored in producers is passed on to consumersstored in producers is passed on to consumers byby eating oreating or being eaten.being eaten. Plants Deer Mountain lion
  8. 8. C.C. Food Web: A complex network of food chains in anFood Web: A complex network of food chains in an ecosystem.ecosystem.
  9. 9. EcologyEcology VV Ecological PyramidEcological Pyramid A.A. Energy PyramidEnergy Pyramid 1.1. A diagram that shows the relativeA diagram that shows the relative amounts ofamounts of energy contained in each trophicenergy contained in each trophic level of a foodlevel of a food chain or web.chain or web. 2.2. Producers are able to keep about 50% ofProducers are able to keep about 50% of thethe energy they get from the they get from the sun. 3.3. Each succeeding level of the energyEach succeeding level of the energy pyramidpyramid (herbivores, carnivores) transfers(herbivores, carnivores) transfers only 10% ofonly 10% of the available energy in thatthe available energy in that trophic level.trophic level.
  10. 10. B.B. Biomass Pyramid: Shows the total amount of livingBiomass Pyramid: Shows the total amount of living tissue in each trophic leveltissue in each trophic level
  11. 11. Smart Board
  12. 12. EcologyEcology VIVI Cycles of MatterCycles of Matter A.A. The Water CycleThe Water Cycle 1.1. EvaporationEvaporation 2.2. Transpiration: evaporation of waterTranspiration: evaporation of water through thethrough the leaves.leaves. 3.3. Condensation: cooling of water in theCondensation: cooling of water in the upperupper atmosphereatmosphere 4.4. PrecipitationPrecipitation 5.5. RunoffRunoff 6.6. Seepage into the ground and root uptakeSeepage into the ground and root uptake..
  13. 13. EcologyEcology B.B. Carbon CycleCarbon Cycle 1.1. Photosynthesis absorbs carbon dioxidePhotosynthesis absorbs carbon dioxide from thefrom the atmosphere to make glucose andatmosphere to make glucose and release oxygen.release oxygen. 2.2. Animals breathe in oxygen and releaseAnimals breathe in oxygen and release carboncarbon dioxide into the atmosphere.dioxide into the atmosphere. 3.3. Carbon dioxide is also released into theCarbon dioxide is also released into the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions andatmosphere from volcanic eruptions and wastewaste products of industry.products of industry.
  14. 14. EcologyEcology Bacteria
  15. 15. Ecology C.C. Nitrogen CycleNitrogen Cycle 1.1. Nitrogen is important to all organismsNitrogen is important to all organisms because itbecause it is used to make used to make proteins. 2.2. Most of the Earth’s nitrogen is in the form ofMost of the Earth’s nitrogen is in the form of nitrogen gas that makes up 78% of ournitrogen gas that makes up 78% of our atmosphere.atmosphere. Most organisms cannot use nitrogen inMost organisms cannot use nitrogen in this form.this form. 3.3. Nitrogen fixation: The conversion nitrogenNitrogen fixation: The conversion nitrogen gas intogas into ammonia by bacteria on the roots ofammonia by bacteria on the roots of legumes and inlegumes and in soils (decomposers)soils (decomposers) 4.4. Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia intoNitrifying bacteria convert ammonia into nitrates ornitrates or nitrites that can be absorbed by plants.nitrites that can be absorbed by plants. 5.5. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates intoDenitrifying bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogennitrogen gas.gas.
  16. 16. Ecology
  17. 17. D.D. Phosphorus cyclePhosphorus cycle 1.1. Phosphorus is necessary for thePhosphorus is necessary for the production ofproduction of ATP, DNA and RNA.ATP, DNA and RNA. 2.2. It is found in rock, soil minerals and inIt is found in rock, soil minerals and in oceanocean sediments.sediments. 3.3. Phosphorus is absorbed by plants from thePhosphorus is absorbed by plants from the soilsoil and passed on from producer to consumerand passed on from producer to consumer in thein the food chain. Ecology
  18. 18. EcologyEcology VII Nutrient Limitation A. Primary productivity: The rate at which organic matter is created in an ecosystem. B. Limiting nutrient: A nutrient that is scarce or cycles slowly and controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem. C. Algal bloom: An immediate increase in the amount of algae in an aquatic environment as a result of a large input of a limiting nutrient.
  19. 19. EcologyEcology VIIIVIII Role of ClimateRole of Climate A.A. Climate: The average, year-after-year,Climate: The average, year-after-year, conditions of temperature and rainfallconditions of temperature and rainfall in ain a particular region. Weather is the day-particular region. Weather is the day- to-dayto-day conditions in an area.conditions in an area. B.B. The greenhouse effect: A situation inThe greenhouse effect: A situation in whichwhich carbon dioxide, methane, watercarbon dioxide, methane, water vapor andvapor and other gases trap heat energy andother gases trap heat energy and maintainmaintain the Earth’s temperature.the Earth’s temperature.
  20. 20. EcologyEcology C.C. The effect of latitude on climateThe effect of latitude on climate 1.1. Distance from the equator (latitude)Distance from the equator (latitude) andand the tilt of the Earth on its axis resultthe tilt of the Earth on its axis result inin three main climate zonesthree main climate zones a)a) Polar zonePolar zone b)b) TemperateTemperate zonezone c)c) Tropical zoneTropical zone
  21. 21. EcologyEcology IXIX Elements of an EcosystemElements of an Ecosystem A.A. Biotic factors: All the livingBiotic factors: All the living organisms inorganisms in an ecosysteman ecosystem B.B. Abiotic factors: All the non-livingAbiotic factors: All the non-living thingsthings in anin an ecosystemecosystem 1.1. TemperatureTemperature 2.2. RainfallRainfall 3.3. SoilSoil 4.4. Atmospheric gasesAtmospheric gases 5.5. SunlightSunlight
  22. 22. EcologyEcology C.C. Habitat: The place where an organism livesHabitat: The place where an organism lives (address) which includes the biotic and abiotic(address) which includes the biotic and abiotic factors.factors. D.D. Niche: The full range of physical and biologicalNiche: The full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and theconditions in which an organism lives and the way in which it uses those conditionsway in which it uses those conditions (occupation).(occupation).
  23. 23. EcologyEcology
  24. 24. EcologyEcology E.E. Community InteractionsCommunity Interactions 1.1. Competitive exclusion principle:Competitive exclusion principle: No twoNo two species can occupy the samespecies can occupy the same niche at theniche at the same time. Competitionsame time. Competition between speciesbetween species determines whodetermines who will occupy the niche.will occupy the niche. 2.2. Predation: One organism capturesPredation: One organism captures andand feeds off another organism.feeds off another organism.
  25. 25. EcologyEcology 3.3. Symbiosis: Any relationship in which two speciesSymbiosis: Any relationship in which two species live closely closely together. a.a. Mutualism (+,+): Both species benefit from theMutualism (+,+): Both species benefit from the relationship.relationship. Example: flower provides nectar for insectsExample: flower provides nectar for insects and theand the insects help the flowers to reproduce.insects help the flowers to reproduce. b.b. Commensalism (+, 0): One organism benefitsCommensalism (+, 0): One organism benefits and theand the other is neither benefited nor harmed.other is neither benefited nor harmed. Example:Example: Barnacles on the skin of whales.Barnacles on the skin of whales. Barnacles are able toBarnacles are able to get food as water passesget food as water passes over the swimming whale.over the swimming whale. c.c. Parasitism (+, - ): One organism benefits andParasitism (+, - ): One organism benefits and thethe other are harmed.other are harmed. Example: Pinworms in a human.Example: Pinworms in a human.
  26. 26. EcologyEcology F.F. Ecological Succession: The series ofEcological Succession: The series of predictable changes that occur in anpredictable changes that occur in an ecosystem over time.ecosystem over time. 1.1. Primary succession: Succession that occursPrimary succession: Succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil ever existedon surfaces where no soil ever existed (reforestation on a mountain after a volcanic(reforestation on a mountain after a volcanic eruption). A pioneer organism is the firsteruption). A pioneer organism is the first organism to appear in the area.organism to appear in the area. 2.2. Secondary succession: A disturbanceSecondary succession: A disturbance changes the existing community withoutchanges the existing community without removing the soil (clearing a forest).removing the soil (clearing a forest).
  27. 27. Smart board
  28. 28. EcologyEcology G. Land Biomes 1. Tropical rain forest a. Abiotic factors: Hot and wet year round, thin poor soil b. Dominant plants: Broad leaf evergreen trees (climax organism), ferns & orchids. Canopy covering & an under story of small trees. c. Dominant wildlife: Herbivores (sloth's, tapirs), predators (jaguars, piranhas).
  29. 29. 2.2. Tropical Dry Forest - rainfall is seasonal ratherTropical Dry Forest - rainfall is seasonal rather thanthan year roundyear round a.a. Abiotic factors: Warm year round withAbiotic factors: Warm year round with wet and dry seasonswet and dry seasons b.b. Dominant plants: Tall deciduous treesDominant plants: Tall deciduous trees (climax organism), orchids and aloes(climax organism), orchids and aloes c.c. Dominant wildlife: tigers, monkeys andDominant wildlife: tigers, monkeys and elephantselephants d.d. Geographic distribution: Africa, South &Geographic distribution: Africa, South & Central America, India and Mexico.Central America, India and Mexico. EcologyEcology
  30. 30. 3. Tropical Savanna a. Abiotic factors: warm temperatures, seasonal rainfall but not enough to support trees, compact soil. b. Dominant plants: tall grasses (climax organism) c. Dominant wildlife: lions, leopards, cheetahs, elephants, etc. d. Geographic distribution: Africa, Australia EcologyEcology
  31. 31. EcologyEcology 4. Desert a. Abiotic factors: low precipitation and variable temperatures b. Dominant plants: cacti (climax organisms) and occasional bushes c. Dominant wildlife: mountain lions, gray foxes, deer, etc.
  32. 32. 5.5. Temperate grasslandTemperate grassland a.a. Abiotic factors: warm to hot summers,Abiotic factors: warm to hot summers, coldcold winters, moderate seasonal precipitationwinters, moderate seasonal precipitation && fertile soil.fertile soil. b.b. Dominant plant: lush perennial grassesDominant plant: lush perennial grasses (climax organisms) and herbs.(climax organisms) and herbs. c.c. Dominant wildlife: coyotes, badgers,Dominant wildlife: coyotes, badgers, bearsbears and deerand deer EcologyEcology
  33. 33. EcologyEcology 6. Temperate Woodland and Shrubland a. Abiotic factors: hot dry summers, cool mild winters and thin nutrient soil. b. Dominant plants: evergreen shrubs c. Dominant wildlife: coyotes, foxes, bear, deer, rabbits d. Geographic distribution: West coast of North and South America and Mediterranean basin.
  34. 34. 7.7. Temperate ForestTemperate Forest a.a. Abiotic factors: cold to moderate winters,Abiotic factors: cold to moderate winters, warmwarm summers, fertile soil.summers, fertile soil. b.b. Dominant plants: broadleaf deciduousDominant plants: broadleaf deciduous treestrees (climax organism) and some pine trees(climax organism) and some pine trees c.c. Dominant wildlife: deer, black bear,Dominant wildlife: deer, black bear, raccoonsraccoons EcologyEcology
  35. 35. EcologyEcology 8. Northwestern Coniferous Forest a. Abiotic factors: cold winters, cool mild summers, abundant rain b. Dominant plants: Douglas fir, Sitka spruce c. Dominant wildlife: bear, elk and deer
  36. 36. EcologyEcology 9. Boreal Forest (Taiga) a. Abiotic factors: long cold winters and short cool summers, nutrient poor soils. b. Dominant plants: needle-leaf conifers (climax organisms) c. Dominant wildlife: lynx, timber wolves, moose d. Geographic distribution: N. America, Asia and N. Europe
  37. 37. Ecology 10.10. TundraTundra a.a. Abiotic factors: permafrostAbiotic factors: permafrost (permanently(permanently frozen subsoil), lowfrozen subsoil), low precipitation, short soggyprecipitation, short soggy summers, long,summers, long, cold, dark winters.cold, dark winters. b.b. Dominant plants: mosses, lichens andDominant plants: mosses, lichens and shortshort grassesgrasses c.c. Dominant wildlife: foxes, caribou andDominant wildlife: foxes, caribou and lemmingslemmings
  38. 38. Smart board
  39. 39. XX Aquatic EcosystemsAquatic Ecosystems A.A. Fresh Water EcosystemsFresh Water Ecosystems 1.1. Flowing-water ecosystems:Flowing-water ecosystems: rivers,rivers, streams, etc.streams, etc. 2.2. Standing-water ecosystem: lakesStanding-water ecosystem: lakes andand pondsponds a)a) Plankton: tiny, free-floatingPlankton: tiny, free-floating organisms,organisms, live inlive in fresh &fresh & saltwater.saltwater. b)b) Phytoplankton: single-celledPhytoplankton: single-celled algaealgae c)c) Zooplankton: plankton areZooplankton: plankton are animals thatanimals that feed on phytoplanktonfeed on phytoplankton EcologyEcology
  40. 40. 3.3. Freshwater Wetlands: An ecosystem in whichFreshwater Wetlands: An ecosystem in which water covers the soil at least part of thewater covers the soil at least part of the year.year. EcologyEcology
  41. 41. EcologyEcology a)a) Bogs: depressions left by glaciers andBogs: depressions left by glaciers and covered by moss.covered by moss.
  42. 42. b)b) Marshes: wetlands along rivers and contain cattails and rushes. EcologyEcology
  43. 43. EcologyEcology c)c) Swamps: similar to a marsh except that a swampSwamps: similar to a marsh except that a swamp contains trees.contains trees.
  44. 44. B. Estuaries: 1. Wetlands that form where rivers meet seas 2. Detritus: tiny pieces of organic material that provide for organisms at the base of an estuaries food chain. Ecology
  45. 45. Ecology C. Salt marshes: Temperate Zone estuaries dominated by salt-tolerant grasses.
  46. 46. D. Mangrove swamps: Coastal wetlands across tropical regions (Florida everglades). Ecology
  47. 47. EcologyEcology C. Marine Ecosystems 1. Photic regions: where photosynthesis can take place. 2. Aphotic regions: below 200 meters where no light can penetrate. 3. Intertidal zone: low tide zone 4. Coastal zone: from low tide area to the continental shelf. 5. Coral Reefs: coastal, tropical regions inhabited by coral. 6. Open ocean: from the continental shelf (500 meters out) to 11,000 meters in depth. 7. Benthic zone: ocean floor
  48. 48. Smart board
  49. 49. EcologyEcology XI Man’s Impact on the Environment A. Renewable and Non-renewable Resources 1. Renewable resource: Resources that can be regenerated and replaced. 2. Non-renewable resource: Resources that cannot be replaced by natural processes. 3. Sustainable use: Using natural resources in a way that doesn’t deplete them. 4. Desertification: Turning once productive areas into deserts by a combination of farming, overgrazing and drought.
  50. 50. EcologyEcology 5.5. Deforestation: loss of forests can cause soil erosionDeforestation: loss of forests can cause soil erosion when soil is exposed to heavy rains.when soil is exposed to heavy rains. 6.6. Aquaculture: The farming of aquatic organisms toAquaculture: The farming of aquatic organisms to replace those that have become scarce.replace those that have become scarce. 7.7. Acid Rain: Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen andAcid Rain: Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen and sulfur compounds from smoke stacks into thesulfur compounds from smoke stacks into the atmosphere that combine with water vapor toatmosphere that combine with water vapor to formform nitric and sulfuric acid or acid rainnitric and sulfuric acid or acid rain
  51. 51. Smart board
  52. 52. EcologyEcology B.B. BiodiversityBiodiversity 1.1. Biodiversity: The sum total of the geneticallyBiodiversity: The sum total of the genetically basedbased variety of all organisms in the biosphere.variety of all organisms in the biosphere. 2.2. Ecosystem diversity: The variety of habitats,Ecosystem diversity: The variety of habitats, communities and ecological processes in the living world.communities and ecological processes in the living world. 3.3. Species Diversity: The number of differentSpecies Diversity: The number of different species inspecies in the biosphere.the biosphere. 4.4. Genetic Diversity: The total of all the differentGenetic Diversity: The total of all the different geneticgenetic information carried by organisms livinginformation carried by organisms living on the Earth.on the Earth. 5.5. Benefits of biodiversity: foods, industrialBenefits of biodiversity: foods, industrial products andproducts and medicines.medicines.
  53. 53. Diversity quiz.notebook
  54. 54. EcologyEcology 6.6. Threats to Biodiversity:Threats to Biodiversity: a)a) Altering habitatsAltering habitats: destroys species in them and: destroys species in them and cancan produce “biological islands” or habitatproduce “biological islands” or habitat fragmentationfragmentation that is more vulnerable to changes.that is more vulnerable to changes. b)b) Over-hunting:Over-hunting: harms food chains and websharms food chains and webs c)c) Introducing toxic compounds into food webs:Introducing toxic compounds into food webs: causescauses biological magnificationbiological magnification. The concentration of. The concentration of harmfulharmful substances increases in organisms atsubstances increases in organisms at higher trophichigher trophic levels in the food chain.levels in the food chain. d)d) Introducing a foreign species into newIntroducing a foreign species into new environmentsenvironments:: can result in the new species becomingcan result in the new species becoming an invasivean invasive species. The invasive species will growspecies. The invasive species will grow rapidly andrapidly and replace nativereplace native species because it has nospecies because it has no predators.predators.
  55. 55. Smart board
  56. 56. 7. Conserving Biodiversity a) Using biological controls (predators) rather than pesticides or herbicides to control pest populations b) Plant and wildlife preserves prevent over hunting and deforestation. c) Pass laws to prevent harmful effects on the environment. d) Reduce the amount of chlorofluorohydrocarbons (CFC) into the atmosphere that destroys the ozone layer. Reduction in the ozone layer causes increased exposure to UV light that can cause skin cancer. e) Reduce the emission of “green house gases” like carbon dioxide that cause global warming. EcologyEcology