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Speaking Points - Hazen Symposium: Ivy Plus Libraries Collective Collections Development and Management

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Speaking points for a presentation given at:
The Transformation of Academic Library Collecting
A Symposium Inspired by Dan C. Hazen
http://library.harvard.edu/hazen-symposium

The recently appointed Ivy Plus Director of Collection Initiatives Galadriel Chilton will discuss the initial steps underway to further the work for this network of libraries around a vision of collective collection development and management.

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Speaking Points - Hazen Symposium: Ivy Plus Libraries Collective Collections Development and Management

  1. 1. Hazen Symposium October 20-21, 2016 Part II: Collective Collections Galadriel Chilton, Ivy PlusDirectorof CollectionInitiatives The recentlyappointedIvyPlusDirectorof CollectionInitiativesGaladriel Chiltonwilldiscussthe initial stepsunderwaytofurtherthe workfor thisnetworkof librariesaroundavisionof collective collection developmentandmanagement. Slide SpeakingPoints Good morning!ThankyouSarah the invitationtojoinyou all thismorningto talkaboutthe IvyPlusLibrariesandthe workof the IvyPlusLibraries’CollectionsGroup.Thank youas well SusanCassidyandall of the people atHarvard for arrangingthe logisticsof thisgreatevent. Before lookingforward atwhatstepsare underwayto explore andenable collectivecollectionswork,let’stake a brief momenttolookback - what isIvyPlusLibraries, and more specifically, whatisthe IvyPlusLibraries Collections Group, andhow didwe gethere? From the quite successful Borrow Directresource sharing service questionsemergesuchas:  What doesour scholars’use of Borrow Direct tell us aboutour general collectionsasanecosystem of information?  How doesscholars’use of Borrow Directinform and evolve managementof ourcollections? Strivingtoexplore andanswerthese questions,infall 2014, the AULs of collectionsatthe Borrow Direct participatinginstitutionssentaproposal totheir UniversityLibrariansthat - basedonthe successof Borrow Direct as well asthe collaborative work of this groupof AULs goingback to 2008 - soughtsupportto expandworkoncollaborative,collectivecollections. The resultwas thatthe UniversityLibrariansaskedthe AULs of collectionstodrafta businessplanfortheir initiativesandvision.The UniversityLibrariansalsoput fortha new name forthe group: IvyPlusCollection DevelopmentGroupwithrepresentativesfromeachof the 13 cooperatingIvyPlusLibraries.Borrow Direct remainsthe resource sharingnetworkservice thatisthe IvyPlusLibraries’ firstcooperativeinitiative. One could
  2. 2. say: IvyPlusLibraries,the cooperativebroughttoyouby Borrow Direct. Thisis an excerptfromthe IvyPlusLibrariesCollections Group’svisionstatement: “The IvyPluslibrariesembrace avisionfor collection developmentandmanagementwhichrecognizesour preeminentacademicresearchandspecial collectionsas one great collectioninsupportof the teaching,research and publicmissionsof ourrespective institutionsandthe global scholarlycommunity.The IvyPluslibrarieswill endeavortoimplementprojectsandinitiativeswhichin time will move researchmaterialsinavarietyof formats ‘above the institution’toembedtheminanetworked infrastructure thatfosterscollaboration,cooperationand consolidationinsupportof buildingandprovidingaccess to distinctive academicresearchcollections.” In additiontothe CollectionsGroup’scooperative endeavors,there are otherexamplesof cooperative collectionswork thatbeginwithselectorscoming togethertoaddress problemscollaborativelysuchas:  Music: Withthe distributedacquisitionof contemporarycomposer’sscoresbyparticipating institutions,and  Latin AmericanStudies: The purchase of Brazilian monographsdistributedby geographicregionby participatingIvyPlusLibraries. Whenit comesto these existingcollective collections…  How dowe review/assess/evaluate themandwhat do we considerasuccess?  How dowe assesandevolve cooperative arrangementstoreflectthe vibrantunpredictability of research aswell asthe full lifecycleof collection management? These are justtwo of the manyquestionsthe Collections Group and colleaguesthroughoutthe IvyPlusLibraries are asking. Since I beganas the inaugural Directorof Collections InitiativesinJune, one of the initiativesthat colleagues and I have beenworkingon isa projectplanfor Collective CollectionsAnalysis tohelpusbegintoanswersuch questions. We are at the verybeginningof thiswork,the trail head.
  3. 3. The goals of thisworkare:  To write an IvyPlus Librariescollections statementthatbuildsuponthe IvyPlusLibraries CollectionGroup’svision,and  To developamodel forcollectionanalysisthat supports collectivecollectioninitiativesfocused on bothprospective collectiondevelopmentof resourcesinall formatsas well assharedprint retention. Presentlywe are beginning Phase 1of thisproject which includes the behind-the-scenespreparation forcollection analysis:  EstablishinganIvyPlusLibrariescollections statement  Conductinganenvironmental scan soas to systematically gatherinformationaboutthe collectiongovernance andmanagement,existing collaborations,etc.abouteachinstitutionina comparable way.  Conductingadata inventoryanddata profiles.  Craftingrecommendationsfordatacollectionand data analysis.  DefiningtwopilotprojectsforPhase IIwhereby the conceptual model forcollectionanalysiswill be testedandrefined. The goal isthat by writing the collections statementfor the cooperative,buildingandtestingacollectionsanalysis model,IvyPlusLibrarieswill have ablueprintfor investigation thatwill be afoundationfor,andhelp enable data-informedcollective collections of all types,in all formats. Beyondthe taskof creatingan analysis model,whatare the keychallengesthatthe IvyPlusLibrariesface whenit comesto collective collections?  Well there are many to be sure,butlet’s consider a couple: o The concept of comprehensive collections. o The change frombrandedlocal ownership comparedto collective stewardshipand access.
  4. 4. To the first,it’simportantto rememberthatwhile all of the Ivy PlusLibraries have very rich,deep,andbroad collections,librarieshave neverhadcomprehensive collections orcollectionsthatare easilyaccessible and convenientlyavailable –thisiswhy it isnecessaryto have resource sharinglike interlibraryloanand Borrow Direct; servicesthatthrive,have name recognition, andthatour scholars relyon. So,let’sreplace  “strivingforcomprehensive collections”and  broad “justincase” collectiondevelopment” with  “addressingcomplex andever-changing conditions” through  “collectionsasa service” and workon careful alignmentamongstIvyPlusLibraries to create collective collections inacomplicated,organic, evolvingscholarlyecosystem. For as Dan Hazenwrote “The librarycan solidifyitsown sense of purpose,andalsopointthe campustowardthe future,byrecastingitsdocumentationintermsof all the researchresourcesassociatedwithitsusersandthe fields theyrepresent.Insistingonin-flexible,site-specific codificationsforourhardcopy acquisitionswill onlymire us inthe past." Lookingat the presentand intothe future so as notto become miredinthe past,IvyPlusLibrariesisdifferent than a 13-institutioncomprehensive collective collection. Lookingagainat the Ivy PlusLibrariesCollectionsgroup’s vision: “The IvyPluslibrarieswill endeavortoimplementprojects and initiativeswhichintime will moveresearchmaterials ina varietyof formats‘above the institution’…thatfosters collaboration,cooperation and consolidation insupport of buildingandprovidingaccesstodistinctive academic researchcollections.” The visioncallsforinitiatives:  That “...focusonmaximizingaccesswhile also reducingpurchasing,processing,sharing,and storage costs.”  Where “Makingevidence-baseddecisionsshould be the norm, not the exception.Pragmatism
  5. 5. shouldbe a touchstone. Likelihoodof use and sustainabilityare validconcerns.” Such a visionof collaborationthatmaximizesaccess, reducespurchasing,processing,andstorage costsis necessarybecause…. …of the evidence thatpointstothe necessity todoso, includingthe decrease infundsavailable formaterials. Thisgraph showsthe tremendouscollectionsacquisitions strengthof the Ivy PlusLibraries –11 out of the 13 institutionsare representedhere –butitalso showsthat fundsavailable are notsteadilyincreasingasinthe past. But, if dollarsare a vehicle,asDaniel Dollarnotedearlier thismorning,thenIvyPlusLibrariesstill have amighty convoy.How can we collaborate tomake thisconvoygo farther? The demandfor contentinmultiple formats,aswell as the needforfundsto supportthe infrastructure for accessingandhousingcollectionsof all types:discovery services,linkresolvers,institutional repositories,digitized collections,etc.meansthatmaterialsbudgetsare spent differentlyand thatthe fundsdonot all go to content. Here we see how fundsfor serials(e andprint), monographs(e andprint),andbibliographictoolshave shiftedovertime.
  6. 6. Additionally,circulationamong12 of the 13 IvyPlus Librarieshasdecreasedsteadily overthe last5 yearswith projections thatthe decrease willcontinue.Yet,despite decreasingcirculationof tangible items,the numberof monographspurchasedisstill steadilyincreasing though at a slowerrate. Furthermore,projectionsfrompublishingindustries aroundthe worldshow increases(exceptSouthKorea where there isa decrease) andgrowthmeaningthat the numberof possible publicationstopurchase continuesto increase. The numberof titleswithISBNsprintedinthe US shows an increase inavailable titlestoo –I’mnot sure whythere issuch a tremendousspike inpublicationsin2010, but if justlookat the dottedline andfuture projections,we see again,that the numberof publicationsavailableeachyear continuestoincrease. So, there is an increase inmaterial availabletopurchase that may be of interesttoour researchcommunities,and yet,we have lessfundstobuycontent, lessavailabilityof space to keepphysical collections, andthe circulationof physical monographsthat have beenpurchasedis decreasing. Also,asTomnotedearlier,there’salsoa greaterproliferationof documentationof the human experience (e.g.e-mail,twitterfeeds,blogposts,etc.) Additionally,whenitcomestothe humanintellectand skillsneeded tomanage collections,there isamuch broaderneedfora varietyof core skillstomatchwhere scholarsare goingandwhere collectionsare going:digital scholarshipanddata managementaswell asensuring that areassuch as e-resource management,collection discovery, metadata, etc.are robustlystaffedasa key part of collectionstewardship. Thisverybroad, bigpicture data supportscollaborative collectionanalysissothatthe IvyPlusLibraries’significant collectionsacquisitionspowercanbe usedto bringto life the visionof collaborationsthatreduce purchasing (especiallyunnecessaryduplication),processing,and storage costs,while maximizingaccess – especiallyto unique,neededcontent.
  7. 7. While we have datapointingtothe necessityfora significantchange,it’s alsoimportanttopause andrealize that whenitcomesto evidence-basedanddata-informed decisions, thataswe see data andevidence, ourhuman nature is to questionorrefute anydata that goesagainst our preexistingphilosophical structuresandpersonal stories – that iscounterto our currentconceptsand mental models. Dan Kahan,law and psychologyprofessoratYale Law School,andfounderof the Cultural CognitionProject notesthat whenitcomesto acceptingscientificdataand facts aboutglobal warming, the disposal of nuclear wastes,andthe effectof conceal andcarry laws,humans tendto accept andassimilate new facts ONLYif itfitsinto a pre-existingnarrativewithmeaning. So,whenit comesto ourcollections,if dataaboutour collectionsiscountertoourcurrent narratives,thenit’s time to craft new narratives, because asKahanstates “evidence can’tbe refutedbyjustsaying‘no’.” Eula Biss,a professorof EnglishatNorthwestern Universityandthe authorof On Immunity talksabout vaccinationsandhow for those againstvaccines, while facts alone maynot change our perceptions, the incorporationof personal narratives,analysisof the facts, and the philosophybehindthe facts maycreate a frameworkof understandingand helpcreate new philosophical structures. So,as we draftnew philosophiesof librarycollections, buildnew modelsforcollectionanalysisandevolve what isa librarycollection –thatis a collective andwithshared stewardshipinsteadof asingle institution’sownership – it’stime to buildanew structure,a new frameworkof understandingthatdescribeswhat isa “library collection.” But, buildingonthe new modelsforcollectionanalysis and collections managementsothatwe can then create a new structure of what are librarycollectionsrequires significantmentalandpragmaticshift. How dowe dothat? SociologistMarkGranovetterdescribesthe Threshold Model of Collective Behavior wherehumanshave beliefs- that isa positionone holdsintheirmindandheart –
  8. 8. - and humans alsohave a thresholdbefore theywill engage ina behavior– usuallyone thattheyperceive as irrational. (Granovetterfoundthatbeliefsandthresholdsoverlap sometimes,butsometimestheydon’t.) One’s thresholdof engagementoractionis strongly influenced bypeers,andone’sthresholdcanvarygreatly dependingonhow aperson thinksthat theiractionswill be perceivedbyothers,whatwill theirpeersthinkof whatthey’ve done? Now consideringthe necessitythatwe significantly change our collectionsdevelopmentandmanagement,it isthenalso necessarythatwe all lowerourthreshold for engaginginwhatmay feel like anirrational behavior whenitcomesto collections –as a group of peers,come togetherandconscientiously saythatyes, we will dothis. We will come togetherand:  Use quantitative andqualitative datawithcritical eyestocreate a clearerpicture of whatour communitiesof scholarsneed,andwe understandthattheirneedsare constantly shiftingand oftenunpredictable.  Use thisdata-informednarrative tocasta light ahead,and  We will lowerourthresholdasa community of peerstoinvoke thisnecessarychange. In 2013 Dan Hazenand DeborahJakubswrote: “Cultural expression,scholarlycommunication,anddata are movingtowarddigital modalitiesof creationanduse. The scale of meaningful activityinsupportof these shifts has clearlysurpassedwhatlibrariesandtheirinstitutions can accomplishontheirown. New perspectivesandapproachesare essential asthe entire scholarlycommunityaddressesthisemergent context.We have boththe opportunityandthe responsibilitytodevelopacoherentstrategytoadvance international scholarship.” - Dan Hazenand DeborahJakubs
  9. 9. Embracingthisopportunityandresponsibilitythatis before us isnecessaryforour librariestosurvive,evolve, and thrive… We’ve all heardHerbertSpencer’s phrase “survival of the fittest”thathe usedto describe Darwin’snatural selection. However,ethologistMarkBekoff notesthatthough “’Survival of the fittest’hasalwaysbeenusedtoreferto the most successful competitor,…infactcooperationmay be of equal ormore importance.” Bekoff continuesbywritingthat“if the group[of animals] workstogethertheneachindividual’schance forsurvival [andI’d addthriving] improves.”Bekoffnotesthat “Animalscertainlystill compete,butcooperationis central inevolutionof social behavior,andthisalone makesitkeyfor survival.” Thinkingonmyexperiencewiththe IvyPlusCollections Group these pastfourmonthsinthisnew position, I’m inspiredandexcitedabout the cooperation Isee andthe extraordinarypotential formovingtowhere collective collections asakeycomponentof libraries’supportingthe entiretyof the scholarlyecosystem - the whole research cycle - isthe normrather thanthe novelty. WhenI thinkof Ivy PlusLibraries asa community,Ithink of a flockof tundra swans,or snow geese –each bird remainsa distinct individual,yettheycome togetherand migrate as isnecessaryfortheirsurvival andinorderto thrive – theymigrate as a group,and as a flock cover significantlymore mileage infarlesstime than flyingsolo. Citations Beck,J. (2015, January29). AmericansBelieveinScience,JustNotItsFindings.The Atlantic.Retrieved fromhttp://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/01/americans-believe-in-science-just-not-its- findings/384937/ Bekoff,M.(2007). The emotional livesof animals:A leadingscientistexploresanimal joy,sorrow,and empathy--andwhytheymatter.Novato,Calif:New WorldLibrary. Bowker.(2014, August).PrintISBN counts,USA pubdate 2002-2013. http://media.bowker.com/documents/bowker-isbn_output_2002_2013.pdf
  10. 10. Granovetter,M. (1978). ThresholdModelsof Collective Behavior.AmericanJournalof Sociology,83(6), 1420-1443. Retrievedfromhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2778111 Hazen,D. C. (1995). CollectionDevelopmentPoliciesinthe InformationAge.College&Research Libraries,56(1),29–31. http://doi.org/10.5860/crl_56_01_29 Hazen,D.C. & Jakubs,D.(2013). The Global Dimensionsof Scholarship and Research Libraries: Finding Syndergies,Creating Convergance. https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/28553796. How Many BooksHave EverBeenPublished?(n.d.).RetrievedSeptember20, 2016, from http://mentalfloss.com/us/go/85305 Kahan,Dan M. andJenkins-Smith,HankandBraman,Donald,Cultural Cognitionof ScientificConsensus (February7, 2010). Journal of RiskResearch,Vol.14, pp.147-74, 2011; Yale Law School,PublicLaw WorkingPaperNo.205. Available atSSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1549444 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1549444 Transcript| This AmericanLife.(June24,2016) RetrievedSeptember14, 2016, from http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/590/transcript

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