Lecture 12 part i - the civil war


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Lecture 12 part i - the civil war

  1. 1. US History – CHEE Lecture - the Civil War: America’s Second Revolution, 1861-1865
  2. 2. The Nation Disintegrates • The Forces Driving Secession • Southerners Consider Secession • The North Assesses the Price of Peace • The Civil War Begins
  3. 3. 1860 – election of Abraham Lincoln o 40% of the popular votes o Majority of electoral votes (but without a single southern electoral vote)
  4. 4. 1860 – election of Abraham Lincoln Lincoln - 40% of the popular votes Douglas – 30% of popular votes oLincoln – 180 Electoral votes, but no southern electoral vote oDouglas – 12 oBreckenridge - 72 oBegins the Second American Revolution or the Civil War
  5. 5. 1860 – election of Abraham Lincoln
  6. 6. Lincoln on North/South Tensions “You think slavery is right and ought to be extended; while we think it is wrong and ought to be restricted. That I suppose is the rub.” Lincoln to Congressman Alexander H. Stephens (later to become VP of the Confederacy)
  7. 7. The Process of Secession December 20, 1860 – SC secedes February 9, 1861– 7 states establish the Confederate States of America
  8. 8. Jefferson Davis as Confederate President o Grew up as a wealthy cotton planter & slave owner o Graduated from West Point o fought in the Mexican American war o served in the US senate, o served as Secretary of War.
  9. 9. Border States – example of Maryland A desperate Lincoln o Jailed secessionists o Arrested state legislators o Limited freedom of the press o Suspended the right of habeas corpus – protects citizens against arbitrary arrest & detention (wanted to detain and try their cases in military court)
  10. 10. A southern newspaper warned… “The contest for slavery will no longer be one between the North and the South. It will be in the South between people of the South.” The newspaper was expressing Southern slave owner fears of slave uprisings and southern yeomen developing potential alliances with the Republicans
  11. 11. Fort Sumter, SC – Southerners Open Fire April 12, 1861 Civil War Starts Secessionist spectators watching http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzeLoa1gwCU&list=PLA8CC511DE0CB8715&index=8&feature=plpp_video
  12. 12. The War for the Union & Against Slavery o Comparing Military Resources o African Americans Open the Door to Freedom o The “Peculiar Institution” Begins to Unravel o Union Officials Consider Emancipation
  13. 13. Economies of the North & South, 1860 Population North – 22 million South – 14 million 5 mil (whites)
  14. 14. The Stampede From Bull Run, Northern Virginia, July 21, 1861 Confederate troops pushing back Union troops Disorganized, ill-prepared, unprofessional armies
  15. 15. Border States that Did not Secede o Missouri, o Kentucky, o Maryland o Delaware
  16. 16. “Contrabands” in Cumberland Landing, Virginia General Benjamin Butler started giving runaway slaves sanctuary Endorsed by Lincoln
  17. 17. Caught in the Middle Harper’s Weekly May 1862 – the Southern captain “insisted upon their loading a cannon within range of Union sharpshooters… succeeded in forcing the Negroes to expose themselves, and they were shot…”
  18. 18. The “Peculiar Institution” Begins to Unravel Military argument for Emancipation o Led by Radical Republicans o Promoted Black enlistment in the Union Army o Impressment – Slaves as contrabands that would be enlisted into the Union army o Union officers saw the “horror of slavery” as they went into the south
  19. 19. European Diplomacy 1862 cartoon from Vanity Fair Confederate President attempting to gain diplomatic recognition from a skeptical Great Britain who chooses neutrality.
  20. 20. Lincoln on the Union & Slavery “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. What I do about Slavery and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save this Union.” Abraham Lincoln
  21. 21. Northern Victory in Antietam Bloodiest single day during the civil war: 20K died instantly, 3K more later of wounds
  22. 22. January 1, 1863 slaves in rebellion areas were “forever free” and invited them to enlist in the Union Army 450K in loyal border states – EXEMPT! 275K slave in Union-occupied Tennessee, Tens of thousands in Louisiana & Virginia – Union occupied Louisiana & Virginia Proclamation changed the nature of the war and became a symbolic call for freedom! Emancipation Proclamation
  23. 23. Writing the Emancipation Proclamation: A Pro-South View Baltimore pro-South Democrat Adalbert Johann Volck made these sketches in 1861-3. Lincoln surrounded by symbols of Satan, John Brown & Slave rebellions
  24. 24. The Cold Realities of War o Soldiers’ Lives Ailing in Body and Soul o hunger, insufficient supplies, barefoot soldiers often, freezing, sick from poor sanitation, disease, lice, diarrhea, fever… o first conscription in the U.S. bred resentment o Union Army - o Union army – 20% foreigners o African Americans – 200K in the Union Army – 1865, 10% of the military, 134K+ escaped slaves from the South, 37K died for the Union. o Confederate Army fared worse o inadequate transportation - primitive roads, railroad system, o threat of black soldiers who’d join the southern army o confederate desertion @50% in 1864
  25. 25. Cavalry Charge at Fairfax Court House, May 31, 1861 Romantic & very inaccurate pictures of the war, Harper’s Weekly - 1861
  26. 26. Technology & the Civil War: The Effect of a Minié Ball
  27. 27. Copyright 2014 Professor Chee Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations. Please read Civil War Part II