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Lecture 11 part i- american expansion west - mexican territories & west

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Lecture 11 part i- american expansion west - mexican territories & west

  1. 1. US History – CHEE Lecture 11 – American Expansion West (including Mexican Territories and Chinese Immigration)
  2. 2. The Conquest & Settlement of the West o Manifest Destiny o Conquest of Native American & Mexican Territories o The Gold Rush in California o Opportunities and Limitations for Women, African Americans, Indians and Chinese o Mormons Trek West for Religious/Cultural Freedoms
  3. 3. Manifest Destiny and the Conflict over Slavery in the New Territories “to overspread the continent alloted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” “Race…the key …to the history of nations…” Journalist John L. O’Sullivan, 1845
  4. 4. John Gast. Manifest Destiny, 1872
  5. 5. Go West, Young Man! John L.B. Soule, Terre Haute Express 1.4 million go 1845-69
  6. 6. Settlement of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840s 1840s – 350K men, women and children went West 10% died along the way
  7. 7. Despite U.S. Government Promises to Major Indian Nations Their Permanent Possession of Western Territories
  8. 8. Cheyenne leader Yellow Wolf 1846 - Saw the number of his people diminishing noticed the “decrease of the once abundant buffalo” and he said that they would “have to adopt the habits of the white people”
  9. 9. Cheyenne leader Yellow Wolf 1864 – killed in a massacre by U.S. soldiers in Colorado territory
  10. 10. Spain Controlled the Trans- Mississippi West until Mexico Gained Independence in 1821 Mexico geographically as large as the U.S. with a population size 2/3 that of the U.S., of 6.5 million American Expansion West: The Conquest of Mexican Territories
  11. 11. North of California – Oregon to Alaska Russia, Spain & Great Britain had claims
  12. 12. Mexico Gained Independence from Spain 1820-21 (Guanajuato, Mexico) Geographically as large as the U.S. with a population size 2/3 that of the U.S., of 6.5 million
  13. 13. Spanish & gold/silver mines in Mexico Cathedral in Guanajuato
  14. 14. Americans Move West: Annexing Texas by 1845
  15. 15. Virginian Stephen Austin start colonizing in Mexican province of Coahuila-Texas ~1820s o Post-independent Mexico in 1821, invited Americans to settle o Texas had 5K Tejanos, Comanche & Kiowa Indians o southerners start settling Texas, ~15K Americans with 1K slaves, calling them, “permanent indentured servitude” because Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829 o American settlers quickly start outnumbering Tejanos 10 to 1
  16. 16. 1830s – Tejanos, or Spanish speaking residents, Comanche, Kiowa Indians lose territories to American settlers - under a new Mexican government, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, starts to drive Americans out 1835 – Battle of Alamo - Mexican troops under General Santa Ana attack the Alamo, an abandoned mission near San Antonio, and killed 187 Americans, for refusing to surrender 1836 – Houston attacked santa Ana, killed 630 Mexicans treaty grants Texas independence from Mexico. Tejas Becomes the Republic of Texas 1836
  17. 17. 1845 – President John Tyler pushed for annexation, throwing off the 13 – free states to 13 slave states off balance 1845 – U.S. Annexes Texas James Polk (Tennessee Governor) elected president as the Texas Manifest Destiny candidate
  18. 18. The U.S. Expands Further West: War against Mexico, 1846–1848 “Inspired by the expansionist fervor of manifest destiny…” but really an attempt to acquire new territories for slavery (Foner) This war was ‘one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger nation against a weaker nation…’ General Ulysses S. Grant
  19. 19. War Atrocities in the U.S. War against Mexico US Army General in Chief, on American atrocities: “make Heaven weep and every American of Christian morals blush for his country…” some American soldiers moved over to the Mexican side
  20. 20. U.S. Cuts Mexico Cut in Half: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 Henry Robinson (after a drawing by Edward W. Clay) 1846, lithograph – NY Historical Society o US gained ½ of Mexican territory: New Mexico, AZ, Utah, Nevada & California (Mexico gave up all claims to Texas) o US compensated Mexico – only $15 million o Mexican citizens to be guaranteed civil, political, and property rights o American opinions on war mixed: o abolitionists – blood-drenched gift from American taxpayers to slaveholders o others – Polk could have taken all of Mexico!
  21. 21. Gold, Gold, Gold, 1848 California 80K people go by 1849 $½ billion in gold
  22. 22. The Gold Rush Changed California California’s Population ~1821 o150K Native Americans in the interior? o20K Native Americans in missions o3.2K missionaries, soldiers & settlers including Mexican cattle ranchers the Californios aka gente de razon
  23. 23. Who went to California? 80K people go in 1849 o Mostly young men! o 2/3 from New England, some slaves, Cherokees o 1/3 from other parts of the world, including the Chinese
  24. 24. Chinese Forty-Niners 1852 – 25K Chinese immigrants or ¼ of the workforce in California
  25. 25. Chinese Mostly Single Men Working as Gold Miners
  26. 26. Occasionally Chinese families also arrived Photo from Oregon –
  27. 27. Some Women in California Found Opportunities Gold Rush Era Prostitutes Women worked as oProstitutes oLaundresses oCooks oBusiness owners – shops, boardinghouses, restaurants Laundry, cooking, domestic chores – other houses
  28. 28. Pioneer Women’s Work and Rights o Remarriage easy! o Borrowed Mexican women’s legal rights – control property, custody of children, right to sue in court without husband/father’s consent o Physically grueling farmwork - Gathering fuel, hauling water, milking cows, keeping chickens, churning butter, making clothes, feeding the family, cleaning house o Took on men’s roles of driving wagons, caring for horses, burying the deadWomen were so rare called “petticoated astonishments!”
  29. 29. Work and Race in California o African Americans – free but could NOT o vote, o claim a homestead, o Hold public office, o serve on jury o attend school with white children o Or ride streetcars in San Francisco o Blacks, Mulattos or Indians could not testify against whites in court - Asians (Chinese) are Indians - People v. George Hall o Native Americans killed, or sold as slaves. 150K to 30K after the Mexican War
  30. 30. A Gold Rush Fashion Invention: Jeans Levi Strauss & Jacob Davis invent jeans- durable cotton pants with rivets
  31. 31. Early Persecutions to One of the Most Powerful Churches in America: Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints o Joseph Smith founded in the 1820s in Upstate New York (claimed that ancient Hebrews emigrated to America and became the American Indians o Persecuted often for polygamy – men with multiple wives o moved headquarters from New York, to Nauvoo, Illinois o 1944 – Smith murdered in prison Joseph Smith 1805-1844
  32. 32. Mormons Trek West to Utah o Under the leadership of Brigham Young, 10K Mormons migrated West and settled in Salt Lake City, a desert city, by 1852 o violent massacre - September 11, 1857 Mountain Meadow Massacre on a Baker-Fancher wagon train, o Mormons (with Paiute Indian assistance & on orders from Brigham Young) of 120 men, women and children, over the age of 7 Brigham Young 1801-1877
  33. 33. Mormons Massacre 120 Men, Women, Children on a Baker-Fancher Wagon Train the 1857 Mountain Meadow Massacre September 11, 1857 o Mormons (with Paiute Indian assistance & on orders from Brigham Young) of 120 men, women and children, over the age of 7, headed to California on the Baker-Fancher Wagon Train
  34. 34. Grace Chee Copyright 4.2015 Message to Students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slide share presentations and recommends that you read primary sources, text, and other readings/videos as assigned

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