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The opportunities and challenges for livestock and aquaculture research for development in Asia


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Presentation by Steve Staal (ILRI) at the APAARI High Level Policy Dialogue, 8 dec 2015

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The opportunities and challenges for livestock and aquaculture research for development in Asia

  1. 1. The Opportunities and Challenges for Livestock and Fish R&D in Asia Steve Staal High Level Policy Dialogue on Investment in Agricultural Research for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific Bangkok 8-9 Dec. 2015
  2. 2. Outline of the Presentation  Trends in livestock and fish in Asia  Implications and opportunities for smallholders  Constraints  Framework for investment
  3. 3. Animal agriculture to 2050: TRENDS GLOBAL TRENDS: Livestock demand and production are increasing rapidly in developing countries •Unprecedented rising demand for livestock commodities will continue over the coming 5 decades •Where and how most livestock commodities are produced, sold and consumed is changing significantly
  4. 4. Gains in meat consumption in developing countries are outpacing those of developed countries 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1980 1990 2002 2015 2030 Millionmetrictonnes developing developed FAO 2006
  5. 5. Rising per capita consumption in Asia 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 2000 2010 2020 2030 2050 PoultryMeat PigMeat MuttonGoatMeat Milk Eggs BovineMeat Livestock product kg/capita in Asia to 2050 Enahoro 2015, IFPRI IMPACT model
  6. 6. Asian demand doubling to 2050 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 2010 2050 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 100,000 2010 2050 Demand for milk in Asia will double to 2050 from 2010 levels Demand for poultry, mutton and bovine meat will more than double Enahoro 2015, IFPRI IMPACT model
  7. 7. Imports into Asia will rise -10,000 -5,000 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 PoultryMeat PigMeat MuttonGoatMeat Eggs BovineMeat Particularly for pork and poultry Enahoro 2015, IFPRI IMPACT model
  8. 8. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Global 1987 Global 2012 Asia 1987 Asia 2012 In$2004/06billions Crops Livestock Share of value of agricultural production shifting to livestock Source: Delgado (2014) • The share of value of production in Asia has grown to nearly half of the global total, and the share of livestock in value of agricultural production had also increased significantly, both globally and in Asia.
  9. 9. Demand for fish growing Sources: Phillips: WRI (2014) FAO (2012a), FAO (2012b), FAO (2013), FAO (2014). Million tons Capture fisheries stagnating. Aquaculture has emerged to meet fish demand
  10. 10. Supply of farmed fish needs to grow rapidly Sources: Phillips: Production data 1961–2010: FAO (2014a), FAO (2014b). Aquaculture production must more than double by 2050 to satisfy projected fish demand Million tons
  11. 11. Nearly 90 percent of aquaculture production is in Asia Tons (2012)
  12. 12. Importance of fish in ASFs in Asia
  13. 13. Various sources: BMGF, FAO and ILRI Smallholders still dominate livestock production in many countries of Asia Region (definition of ‘smallholder’) % production by smallholder livestock farms Beef Chicken meat Sheep/goa t meat Milk Pork Eggs East Africa (≤ 6 milking animals) 60-90 Bangladesh (< 3ha land) 65 77 78 65 77 India (< 2ha land) 75 92 92 69 71 Vietnam (small scale) 80 Philippines (backyard) 50 35
  14. 14. Livestock multiplies rural incomes Rural income multipliers are higher for livestock than for other commodities and higher even than non-agricultural activities.
  15. 15. Steinfeld et al. 2006 Large productivity gaps persist between rich and poor countries, including in Asia Some developing country regions have gaps of up to 430% in milk Factors are combination of feeds, animal health, and genetics, combined with poor management
  16. 16. Importance of fish for the diets of the poor • Millions of people, particularly women and children, suffer from deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc • Fish, including small indigenous or farmed fish in household ponds provide a ready source
  17. 17. Livestock sub-Sector in Asia: Issues 50-92% production from smallholders in mixed systems The growing demand thus represents large opportunities for smallholders and rural development However Complexity from coexistence of a range of production systems Large productivity gaps Mostly informal wet markets (up to 80%) Investment generally lower than in crops
  18. 18. Aquaculture in Asia: Issues  Large and growing opportunities for farmed fish to address the key micronutrients and protein needs among poor consumers  Asia is the center of aquaculture However, constraints to involve the poor in aquaculture remain  Limited access to resources  Availability and high price of external inputs  Capital investment  Poorly performing markets  Access to improved genetics
  19. 19. Investing in research for livestock in Asia: the next round of CRPs with partners The new Livestock CGIAR Collaborative Research Program features four research pillars, all linked to national partner programs and priorities 1. Animal Health 2. Animal Genetics 3. Animal Feeds and Forages 4. Livelihoods and ASF Agri-food Systems Cross cutting programs on Gender, Capacity Development and Nutrition
  20. 20. Investing in research for fish in Asia: the next round of CRPs with partners The new Fish CGIAR Collaborative Research Program features three research pillars, all linked to national partner programs and priorities 1. Integrated Sustainable Aquaculture 2. Sustaining Smallscale Fisheries 3. Fish Valuechains and Nutrition Cross cutting programs on Gender and Capacity Building
  21. 21. Summary and Conclusions • Demand for livestock and fish in Asia is outpacing that for staple crops • Both comprise key components of food and nutritional security and support rural development • Production is unlikely to be able to match that demand, threatening food and nutritional security • Important to correct the imbalance of public investment to reflect the changing shares in Ag GDP and demand • A strong partnership framework of national and international researchers is available and should be leveraged
  22. 22. CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish aims to increase the productivityof small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable across the developing world. CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish Thank you for your attention