High Food Prices: Poor households in the developing world spend 60-80 percent of their incomes on food
High Food Prices: Poor households in the developing world spend 60-80 percent of their incomes on food
Discuss in Order:G-8 New AllianceUSG response with FTFAR4D investments are increased BUT:Impact is critical - priority assessment critical because funds are finite, and return on investment is demanded – more scrutiny as gov’ts must show impact from resource allocations Public-Private partnerships part of the new landscape in multiple ways – will be explored here
TOP LINE MESSAGE on G8: New Alliance focusedon getting existing technologies out into the field and rapidly scaled up and it is not about research per se.TOP LINE LINK TO AR4D: Though G8 is not focused on research, donors recognize the importance of a pipeline for agricultural research to ensure technology outputs can be plugged into tech transfer systems when developed.TEE UP NEXT SLIDE - USG RESPONSE TO FOOD CRISES - FTF4 enabling actions:1) identify yield targets in line with CAADP investment plans2)bring technologies, like seed, that are currently avail to help achieve those targets; 3) deploy technologies and work on facilitating an enabling environment – through addressing policy or market constraints to ensure the tech gets in the hands of farmers. Working with IFPRI, FARA, and AGRA on this. 4th category directly related to agriculture is the ICT extension challenge fundICT – extension challenge fund is separate – essentially: uses cell phones to deliver info to farmers.
OUR Response: FTF – links to value chain work at Mission levelRecognition of AR4D as integral component
Looking at povertyPrevalence…much of Africa, Indo Gangetic plainsSouth Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa…South Asia numbers greater than SSA, but if we went down to 50 cents, Africa appears the greater challenge
This process led to the identification of the overarching goal – sustainably intensifying production in key agro-ecologies.Strategy relies on integrating component technologies – developed thru initiatives to Advance the Productivity Frontier and those focused on nutrition and food safety.Emergent research implementation plan: next slide
USAID and the ARP team in particular has both short and long term research that can be broken down into themes and ultimately lead to a focus on a specific region
Researchable questions along the value chainPrivate sector important partner where technology capacity/expertise can complement public sector capacity (e.g. breeding – Water Efficient Maize for Africa with Monstanto (perhaps don’t want to lead off on an example with Monsanto…)Technology transfer through NGO partners is important, particularly where private sector has not yet moved inBut connections between research and producers along value chains is far more complex – see interlinking value chains in next slide.
USAID funds research among public sector partnersUSAID funds development activities with private sector partners – to get relevant technologies transferred to farmers who would otherwise not have access to these innovationsMOST PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PATHWAYS GO FROM DEVELOPMENT TO DELIVERY, ADDED SLIDE WITHOUT BIOSAFETY CIRCLE IF YOU WANT MORE GENERAL CYCLEWe’ll start with the on-farm productivity research activities – specifically around technology development that is only possible with partnership with private firms that have proprietary technologies. Bt eggplant model is an example of how we’ve engaged not only with private sector research and outputs of biotechnology, but also economics research on market segmentation approaches – conducted by IFPRI
Market segmentation in this context allows for two markets to emerge that facilitate technology access among different types of farmers, not just those most able to take advantage of hybrid technologies through repeat purchases. OPVs would be made available to smallholder producers who have fewer assets and capacity to take advantage of hybrid technology.Another example that involves significant private sector engagement is the development of Bt cowpea.
Many partners, each contributing their relevant skills and abilities.
This Anchor Link idea puts the farmer at the center of these value chains that feed into each other.Our research along the value chain takes note of this – and includes both social science and biophysical research to ensure that all factors associated with update of technology are integrated into the biophysical research agenda to improve the potential for uptake and impact.
Research collaborations among CG fields of expertise are one element, but private sector engagement to get technology out to farmers is key.
To do all this requires partnershipSpecific example CSISA in Bangladesh
These value chain activities involve private partners, so CSISA activities will link in and partner where needed to these value chain programsValue chain programs are a clear place for public-private partnership, as with Pepsico chickpea project in Ethiopia
NGOs help extend the technologyFarmers received:Technology package – Grinkan variety + agronomic packageHarvest techniques – tarps to keep grain cleanStorage capacity – communities paid for granaries, USAID paid for roofs. Grain stored until prices peakedSelling clean grain at premium price point made system profitable for farmers to continue with input purchases and to meet other household expenses.
In addition to integrated research along the value chain, you have targeted research that facilitates access to markets.This kind of research makes access to markets more affordable for smallholders, since cost of detection is so much cheaper.
GP3 Team at University of GeorgiaPublic sector developed technology, transferred to private sector, improved food safety.Dry roast at 140 degrees Celcius for 25 minutesCoolDeskin the peanutsManually, identify discolored/dark peanuts– aflatoxin levels of the discarded peanuts up to 16,000 ppb !!!Anyone can do this – no matter the size/scale of processingThe Philippine company ultimately increased sales so much, they purchased an automated sorter to distinguish between dark and light peanuts – and no longer had to do this with manual sorting.
C1.2. Innovative Partnerships & Agricultural Research
Innovative Partnerships & Agricultural Research Rob Bertram, PhD USAID Bureau for Food Security October 2012 GCARD 2
Partnership critical for AR4D Public Sector Civil Private Society Sector AR4D
The Global ChallengeGlobal Food Prices Source: FAO
The Global ChallengeClimate change alreadyimpacting yields - drought,high temperatures andunpredictable climatesAs arable land is lost tourbanization and other uses,we need to produce more foodon less landWater, energy, labor andfertilizer availabilityconstraining productionSystem diversification andintensification needed toimprove nutrition, incomes
Global Response• G-8 attention to food security – L’Aquila – New Alliance for Nutrition and Food Security• Renewed focus on agriculture• Increased investment in AR4D – Rigorous priority setting – Greater coordination & collaboration among public and private sectors and civil society
G8: New Alliance for Food Security & Nutrition• 15 enabling actions – Including yield targets, technology platform and scaling – Collaborative platform with CGIAR, FARA, AU and AGRA• Includes private sector engagement: LOIs
USG Response: Feed the Future1. Help farmers produce more2. Help farmers get more food to market3. Support Research & Development to improve smallholder agriculture in a changing climate4. Strengthen Regional Trade5. Create a better Policy Environment6. Improve Access to Nutritious Food and Nutrition Services
Defining FTF Research Priorities Using poverty & nutrition lens: Identify key production systems where hunger and poverty are significant… PrevalenceSub-national poverty ca. 2005 (<$1.25/day) Source: Stan Wood et al. (IFPRI) 2009. Number
Prevalence of stunting in children under-5, 2003-08 Source: UNICEF, 2009Prevalence of underweight inchildren under-5, 2003-08
FTF Research StrategyOverarching Goal Emerged: Sustainable Intensification Three research themes: • Advancing the productivity frontier • Transforming key production systems • Improving nutrition and food safety Anchored by key geographies: • Indo-gangetic plains in South Asia • Sudano-sahelien systems in West Africa • Maize-mixed systems in East and Southern Africa • Ethiopian highlands
Food Security Research Priorities Longer-term Research - Major Themes 1. Heat and drought tolerant, climate adapted cerealsLonger-Term Investments 2. Advanced technology solutions for animal and plant diseases 3. Legume productivity for improved nutrition and incomes Application of Advanced Research for Productivity and Resilience - Policy, social science and nutrition research (e.g. utilization of food) - Increased availability and access to high quality foods for improved diets (animal sourced food, horticulture, aflatoxin control) Sustainable Intensification of Key Production Systems Complement Mission investments in select value chainsNear-Term Impact Integrate component technologies, policies, social sciences, nutrition Maize-mixed Sudano- South Asia Indo- Ethiopian East & Southern Sahelian West Gangetic Plains Highlands Africa Africa Bangladesh Tanzania Ghana Ethiopia
Research along the value chain On-farm productivity & profitability Crop genetic improvement Postharvest handling/Marketing Agronomy Economics of: Utilization Farm animal management • Harvest practices • Storage Developing new Crop Protection/Animal • End-user market processes/products Health opportunities/quality requirements Addressing nutrition goals Technology adoption with food technology and research recipe formulationPartner outreach improves research outputs and facilitates technology uptake
Product Development Pathway USAID Involvement • Product Identification & USAID support based on ex ante analysis of target crop • Focus on crops with high rate of return and not being developed by other meansSource: ABSPII Private sector excels here
Insect Resistant (Bt) Eggplant Model Clippings
Bt Eggplant Model• Mahyco develops commercial hybrids using Monsanto Bt gene• Monsanto offers royalty free license of Bt gene for open pollinated varieties• ABSPII/Cornell University partners with Indian universities and vegetable research center to develop varieties using Monsanto gene.• Mahyco submits dossier of event for biosafety approval – GEAC recommends environmental release Mahyco sells commercial hybrids, universities/NARS distribute OPV’s 15
Insect Resistant Cowpea• Managed by African Agricultural Technology Foundation• Use of Bt gene donated by Monsanto Co. for cowpea in Africa• Development of transgenic cowpea in Australia by Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)• Breeding and seed distribution by African National Agricultural Research organizations.• Regulatory/Biosafety support by Program for Biosafety Systems• Scientific support among members of Network for the Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for Africa – NGICA
Farm-Centered StrategySmallholder is producer in agriculturecommodity value chain. An agriculture commodity value chain Smallholder is consumer in agriculture input value chain or input supply sub-system Smallholder is producer in agribusiness The small holder farmer system can be viewed as a link An agriculture input value chain between chains Adapted from: A Strategic Framework for African Agricultural Input Supply System Development, IFAD
Value Chain Anchor link concept - EthiopiaAfricaRISING – applied Wheat value chain – post producer links -research recommendations for markets, processing, and other links in the chain.optimized profit andsustainability of the small Livestock value chain – post producer links -holder integrated system with markets, processing, other links in the chain.advisory services – an input of Small holderknowledge and skills farming system – Chick pea value chain – post producer links - integrates markets, processing, other links in the chain.Input supply system multiplelink for multiple value chains Malt barley value chain – post producer links -value chains: Wheat, malt markets, processing, other links in the chain.Must provide for all barley, chickthe small holders peas, forage, Vegetable value chain – post producer links -input needs across vegetables markets, processing, other links in the chain.the multiple value Forage value chain – post producer links -chains. markets, processing, other links in the chain. ANCHOR LINK Small holder system is not treated as a link in each of the multiple separate value chains but as one big link that integrates the multiple and diversified value chains.
Africa RISING 1 research scope 2 research scope 2 research scope Equipment / fertilizer Post-harvest storage Maize Milling / packaging Seeds & Breeds Extension MarketingHorticulture Production Livestock Legumes Strong, formalized linkages
Africa RISINGBeyond tradeoffs• Increase above- and below-ground biomass to improve soil health & system productivity (e.g., fertilizer trees, legumes, N/P fertilization)• Diversification (crop & enterprise) for greater resilience, productivity, and nutrition• Integrating livestock and mechanization into conservation agriculture• Improve water productivity to reduce risk & enhance investment
The Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) Breeding/suitable germplasm development Adaptive research trialsLong term cropping (Research Station +systems research Farmer Field)platforms Policy Research / Enabling Environment Business Adoption & impact model/service tracking provider establishment “Hub” model facilitated delivery
Sustainable intensification in S. Asian context How can we intensify production in S. Asian rice and rice-wheat systems sustainably? Outcomes Target Interventions• Reduced erosion / run-off • Retention of Crop Residues• Improved water use efficiency & • Minimal/zero tillage of soil soil health • Innovative Cropping Systems• New crops in rotations • Mechanization• Reduced labor costs • Improved Varieties• Improve total factor productivity (not just yield!) • Integrate new crops/livestock
CSISA & Bangladesh Value Chains• Partners: WorldFish, IRRI, CIMMYT, AVRDC, BARI, BRAC• Aligned with key Mission Value Chains: – Rice, Fish, Horticulture (fruits, vegetables)• Integrated production systems for nutrition – Aquaculture: polyculture – Vegetables in dykes/gardens • orange fleshed sweet potato • gourds, beans, tomato, brinjal• Emphasis on women
Gender in Value Chains• Gender equity enhances competitiveness –Social context important –Changes affect gender roles –Diagnose gender-based constraints –Include men in decision-making –Enhance women’s roles from production through to marketing
Sorghum Millet CRSPImproving sorghum profitability (Mali) –NGO partnershipsProgram activities – Integrated sorghum breeding and agronomy research – Economics research on postharvest storage & marketsOutcomes – Profitable model developed – Afrique Verte & Catholic Relief Services engaged – USAID/Mali funding scaled-up dissemination of Grinkan variety + agronomic package + harvest & storage systems + targeting sales at peak prices
ICRISAT aids Peanut exports - MalawiAflatoxin detection in peanuts• ICRISAT developed inexpensive aflatoxin detection kits for farmers• Cut cost of testing from $25 to $1 per sample• Developed additional pre- and post-harvest approaches to reduce aflatoxin contamination• Enables farmers to pursue export opportunities more easily
Utilization research: Aflatoxin reduction in peanutsAflatoxin reduction in peanuts - Philippines• Scale neutral processing technology – Dry blanching/manual sorting for aflatoxin contaminated peanuts (GP3 Team, Peanut CRSP) – Reduces aflatoxin levels to undetectable levels• Originally developed in Philippines – processor began exporting to U.S.• Transferred to processors in Ghana and Uganda under FTF
Chickpea partnership in EthiopiaPepsico & Gov Ethiopia• Enterprise EthioPEA – 10,000 Ethiopian farmers double chickpea yields through sustainable intensification – Will create new markets – within Ethiopia and abroad• World Food Program will purchase chickpea-based ready-to-use supplementary food benefitting 40,000 Ethiopian children.• Strengthen chickpea value chain in Ethiopia