GEMS  Space Science Sequence for Grades 6-8 <ul><li>Laura Tucker </li></ul><ul><li>Network and Professional Development Co...
<ul><li>“ The GEMS Space Science Sequence represents the next generation of instructional materials for teaching astronomy...
<ul><li>The Sequence Has Two Parts </li></ul><ul><li>3-5 th  grade – 20 class sessions over four units: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Flexible Implementation “Horizontal” or “Vertical” <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We teach space  science across  grades.” </li...
GEMS Guides  vs.  GEMS Sequences part 1 GEMS Guides GEMS Sequences Supplementary curriculum. Core curriculum can be built ...
GEMS Guides  vs.  GEMS Sequences part 2 GEMS Guides GEMS Sequences Includes ideas for going further. Going further activit...
Features Designed to Maximize  Ease of Use ,  Helpful Guidance , and  Flexibility Left-hand pages — Step-by-step procedure...
 
Developing Key Concepts  in the  Space Science Sequence <ul><li>Selected key concepts to be taught for full understanding....
<ul><li>Concise enough so teachers will actually use it.  </li></ul><ul><li>Significant time spent on meaning-making, disc...
Four Units in the Sequence <ul><li>Unit 1 - How Does the Sun Effect the Earth? </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 2 - Why Are There Se...
Unit 2 <ul><li>Why Are There Seasons? </li></ul>
What One Teacher Said <ul><li>“ Having the questionnaires really opened my eyes to what my students know and don’t know.  ...
Post on Concept Wall: Scientists use models to demonstrate ideas, explain observations,  and make predictions.
Make Key Concepts Explicit for Students <ul><li>Classroom “concept wall” builds over time. </li></ul>
Scale for football field model: 1 yard = 2 million miles 10 yards = 20 million miles 50 yards = 100 million miles Distance...
Post on Concept Wall: Earth travels around the Sun  in nearly a circular orbit. The Sun is very close to the  center of th...
 
 
 
 
Session 2.2 Does Variation in the Sun-Earth Distance Cause the Seasons?
Post on Concept Wall: Patterns of average-temperature change (and seasons) are opposite for the  Northern and Southern Hem...
<ul><li>Scale size of Earth: 1mm </li></ul><ul><li>Scale size of Sun: 10 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Scale size of model: 1cm = 1...
What One Teacher Said <ul><li>“ One student jumped up in the middle of the class and yelled, ‘I get it!  I finally get it!...
Post on Concept Wall: Earth’s tilt does not significantly  change its distance from the Sun.
Session 2.3 Hours of Daylight and Seasons
Session 2.4 Observing Seasons
Session 2.5 Intensity of Sunlight
Session 2.6 The Reasons for Seasons
Evidence Circle procedure: <ul><li>1. One student says what he thinks, and the reasons why.  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Other st...
Statement #3: In summer, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.  This tilt makes sunlight more intense in summe...
Common Student Misconceptions <ul><li>The Earth’s orbit is highly elliptical or oval </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth is closer...
Unit 2 Results
Pre-Post Questionnaires for Each Unit Measure  Conceptual Understanding of Key Space Science Concepts For grades 6-8, the ...
The  Sequence  Incorporates Existing and New Curriculum <ul><li>For example : </li></ul><ul><li>The Solar System travel br...
Multiple Measures of  Conceptual Understanding  of Key Space Science Concepts <ul><li>Pre-Test and Post Tests </li></ul><u...
Structure of Units <ul><li>Take interactive questionnaire.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gather evidence that relates to questions. <...
Embedded Assessment Tasks Measure Understanding of the NATURE OF SCIENCE/INQUIRY <ul><li>Scientists use models to demonstr...
Evidence Circles <ul><li>In small groups, students are given </li></ul><ul><li>scaffolded opportunities to engage in disco...
Student Readings <ul><li>Engaging accounts of historical and current scientific activities. </li></ul><ul><li>A second-han...
<ul><li>“ They have really progressed through this curriculum from spectators in the beginning to active participants in t...
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  • Sss Grades 6 8 Unit 2

    1. 1. GEMS Space Science Sequence for Grades 6-8 <ul><li>Laura Tucker </li></ul><ul><li>Network and Professional Development Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Lawrence Hall of Science </li></ul><ul><li>University of California at Berkeley </li></ul><ul><li>Carson City ATLSS workshop </li></ul><ul><li>June 29, 2009 </li></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ The GEMS Space Science Sequence represents the next generation of instructional materials for teaching astronomy and space science. </li></ul><ul><li>Both sequences address four key questions in depth, with powerful support for teachers and students. The materials take advantage of the latest research to provide the best opportunity for all students to investigate, apply, and learn the important astronomical ideas that are part of every states’ standards.” </li></ul><ul><li>- George “Pinky” Nelson </li></ul><ul><li> Former Astronaut, NASA Space Shuttle </li></ul><ul><li> Director, Science,Mathematics and Technology Education, Western Washington University </li></ul><ul><li> Former President, AAAS </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>The Sequence Has Two Parts </li></ul><ul><li>3-5 th grade – 20 class sessions over four units: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIT 1: How Big and How Far? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIT 2: Earth’s Shape and Gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIT 3: How Does the Earth Move? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIT 4: Moon Phases and Eclipses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6-8 th grade – 30 class sessions over four units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIT 1: How does the Sun Affect Earth? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIT 2: Why Are There Seasons? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIT 3: What is the Solar System? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIT 4: What is Beyond the Solar System? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Flexible Implementation “Horizontal” or “Vertical” <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We teach space science across grades.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unit 1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How Does the Sun Affect Earth? </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Why are There Seasons? </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 3 </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Solar System? </li></ul><ul><li>“ We teach space science in grade 6.” </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 </li></ul><ul><li>How Does the Why Are What is the What is Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Affect Earth? There Seasons? Solar System? the Solar System? </li></ul>
    5. 5. GEMS Guides vs. GEMS Sequences part 1 GEMS Guides GEMS Sequences Supplementary curriculum. Core curriculum can be built from and around them. Intentionally designed as core curriculum . 2 to 12 sessions long. A few weeks long (32 sessions for 6-8 Space Science Sequence). Content goals arise from engaging experiences Content goals selectively chosen to reflect key ideas and standards. Some assessment included. Assessment more explicit and frequent.
    6. 6. GEMS Guides vs. GEMS Sequences part 2 GEMS Guides GEMS Sequences Includes ideas for going further. Going further activities tied to critical junctures in student understanding. Includes student activities on CD. Management tips and science content background included. Management tips, content background, key concepts and vocabulary, and more, are laid out with lesson write-ups. Thoughtfully planned and thoroughly tested. Thoughtfully planned and thoroughly tested. Materials obtainable without kit, but kits are available. Materials obtainable without kit, but kits are available.
    7. 7. Features Designed to Maximize Ease of Use , Helpful Guidance , and Flexibility Left-hand pages — Step-by-step procedure for getting ready and presenting the lessons. — First line introduction and summary of each step is bold. Right-hand pages — Science Notes – science content as you need it. — Class management suggestions. — Critical Junctures: Assessing and reinforcing key concepts. — Alternative and additional activities. — Pedagogically educative material. CD-ROM — Presentation features for teachers. — Activities and explorations for students. — Archive of all printed student material and transparencies.
    8. 9. Developing Key Concepts in the Space Science Sequence <ul><li>Selected key concepts to be taught for full understanding. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used research on common misconceptions in space science. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relied on National Science Education Standards and AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborated with NASA partners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed tools to assess student learning of key concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Combined elements of “Backward Design” with elements of “Iterative Process.” </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Concise enough so teachers will actually use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant time spent on meaning-making, discussion and exchange of ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple opportunities for assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for students to use evidence to back up their claims. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementary activities for reinforcement when assessments show they are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on activities with a reasonable amount of materials and preparation. </li></ul>
    10. 11. Four Units in the Sequence <ul><li>Unit 1 - How Does the Sun Effect the Earth? </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 2 - Why Are There Seasons? </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 3 - The Solar System </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 4 - Beyond the Solar System </li></ul>
    11. 12. Unit 2 <ul><li>Why Are There Seasons? </li></ul>
    12. 13. What One Teacher Said <ul><li>“ Having the questionnaires really opened my eyes to what my students know and don’t know. There are HUGE misconceptions about the seasons and I can’t wait to see my students figure out the ‘real’ reasons for the seasons.” </li></ul>
    13. 14. Post on Concept Wall: Scientists use models to demonstrate ideas, explain observations, and make predictions.
    14. 15. Make Key Concepts Explicit for Students <ul><li>Classroom “concept wall” builds over time. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Scale for football field model: 1 yard = 2 million miles 10 yards = 20 million miles 50 yards = 100 million miles Distance from the Earth to the Sun = 93 million miles If the Sun is roughly 1 million miles in diameter, how large should we make the Sun in this model? One half yard If the Earth is roughly 8,000 miles in diameter, how large should we make the Earth in this model? 1/200 of a yard The distance is about 5,000,000 out of 150,000,000 or 3%
    16. 17. Post on Concept Wall: Earth travels around the Sun in nearly a circular orbit. The Sun is very close to the center of the Earth’s orbit
    17. 22. Session 2.2 Does Variation in the Sun-Earth Distance Cause the Seasons?
    18. 23. Post on Concept Wall: Patterns of average-temperature change (and seasons) are opposite for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
    19. 24. <ul><li>Scale size of Earth: 1mm </li></ul><ul><li>Scale size of Sun: 10 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Scale size of model: 1cm = 140,000 km </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from the Earth to the Sun ≈ 150,000,000 km </li></ul><ul><li>Scale distance between Earth and Sun ≈10 meters </li></ul>
    20. 25. What One Teacher Said <ul><li>“ One student jumped up in the middle of the class and yelled, ‘I get it! I finally get it!!’ The rest of the class was startled by her display, but it opened up a great discussion about whether the students actually did get the concepts of the Earth’s size and distance to the sun .” </li></ul>
    21. 26. Post on Concept Wall: Earth’s tilt does not significantly change its distance from the Sun.
    22. 27. Session 2.3 Hours of Daylight and Seasons
    23. 28. Session 2.4 Observing Seasons
    24. 29. Session 2.5 Intensity of Sunlight
    25. 30. Session 2.6 The Reasons for Seasons
    26. 31. Evidence Circle procedure: <ul><li>1. One student says what he thinks, and the reasons why. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Other students who agree add their reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Then, each student who disagrees says why, and presents her reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The group members discuss with one another to see if they can come to agreement. If no one disagrees, they can talk about all the evidence that makes them all convinced of their view. </li></ul>
    27. 32. Statement #3: In summer, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun. This tilt makes sunlight more intense in summer. Do you agree or disagree? Why? What is the evidence for or against this statement? Evidence Circle question:
    28. 33. Common Student Misconceptions <ul><li>The Earth’s orbit is highly elliptical or oval </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth is closer to the Sun in the summer </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth’s tilt causes the seasons because the tilted part is closer to the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Direct rays of sunlight hit the Earth at 90º angles. Indirect rays of sunlight hit the Earth at angles less than 90º. </li></ul>
    29. 34. Unit 2 Results
    30. 35. Pre-Post Questionnaires for Each Unit Measure Conceptual Understanding of Key Space Science Concepts For grades 6-8, the primary key concepts focus on: Unit 1 — Energy from the Sun — Earth’s protective shields Unit 2 — Day length and temperatures around the world, over the seasons — Angle and intensity of sunlight, over the seasons Unit 3 — Categories of solar system objects — Diversity, scale, and motion of solar system objects Unit 4 — Scale of the Universe — Hierarchical organization of the Universe
    31. 36. The Sequence Incorporates Existing and New Curriculum <ul><li>For example : </li></ul><ul><li>The Solar System travel brochure activity from the existing GEMS unit Messages From Space familiarizes students with objects in the Solar System. </li></ul><ul><li>A new “human orrery” activity helps students understand the relative motions of the planets in the Solar System. </li></ul>
    32. 37. Multiple Measures of Conceptual Understanding of Key Space Science Concepts <ul><li>Pre-Test and Post Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Junctures </li></ul>
    33. 38. Structure of Units <ul><li>Take interactive questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather evidence that relates to questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in discourse (Evidence Circles). </li></ul><ul><li>Retake questionnaire </li></ul>
    34. 39. Embedded Assessment Tasks Measure Understanding of the NATURE OF SCIENCE/INQUIRY <ul><li>Scientists use models to demonstrate & explain </li></ul><ul><li> how nature works. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific explanations are based on </li></ul><ul><li>evidence from investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>Critiquing and querying other scientists’ investigations </li></ul><ul><li>are part of scientific inquiry. </li></ul>
    35. 40. Evidence Circles <ul><li>In small groups, students are given </li></ul><ul><li>scaffolded opportunities to engage in discourse and build evidence-based explanations; </li></ul><ul><li>alternative claims, and asked which they agree with and why; </li></ul><ul><li>evidence, and asked to develop a claim. </li></ul>
    36. 41. Student Readings <ul><li>Engaging accounts of historical and current scientific activities. </li></ul><ul><li>A second-hand source of evidence for making explanations and forming concepts. </li></ul>
    37. 42. <ul><li>“ They have really progressed through this curriculum from spectators in the beginning to active participants in their learning. Their curiosity has grown by leaps and bounds, and their questions are very deep and difficult to answer.” </li></ul>What One Teacher Said about the entire sequence

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