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Presentation for 7th grade science on Matter and Phases of matter.

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  1. 2. MATTER <ul><ul><li>Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four states of matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Atoms and Molecules <ul><ul><li>An atom is the smallest particle that makes up matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When two or more atoms combine they form a molecule. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Kinetic Theory of Matter ( Write on the back of your notes ) <ul><ul><li>Particles of matter are in constant, random motion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic means “heat” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the temperature, the faster the particles are moving. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules in a solid move slower than molecules in a liquid, which move slower than gas molecules. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. solids <ul><ul><li>A solid is an arrangement of shaking molecules that are close together and attracted to each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The shaking varies depending on the temperature of the particles. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Solids- Crystalline <ul><ul><li>Solids whose atoms are arranged in repeating patterns create crystals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table salt and diamonds are crystalline solids </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. solids - Noncrystalline <ul><ul><li>Noncrystalline solids are made of large molecules that don’t arrange into repeating patterns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass and plastic are examples </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Absolute Zero <ul><ul><li>The temperature at which particles of a solid would cease to move is called absolute zero. -273.15 0 C </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Liquid <ul><ul><li>As a solid is heated, the molecules begin to shake faster, but still attract to the molecules around it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the molecules shake so much, they begin to break free, collapsing the crystal structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The solid becomes free flowing molecules—a liquid. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Phases of Matter
  10. 12. Melting point <ul><ul><li>The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid is called the melting point or HEAT OF FUSION . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The temperature doesn’t change during the melting stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noncrystalline solids don’t turn to a liquid, they melt by softening. Example: GLASS </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Freezing Point <ul><ul><li>As a liquid cools, its molecules slow down and come closer together where attractive forces begin to form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When crystals begin to form, this is called the freezing point . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the same temperature as the melting point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This temperature stays the same until the liquid has become a solid, then the temperature begins to fall. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Viscosity <ul><ul><li>Viscosity is a material’s resistance to flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the temperature decreases (gets colder), the viscosity increases – the material gets thicker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some materials, such as glass will become so thick they will harden and become brittle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noncrystalline substances don’t have a definite melting or freezing point. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Plasma <ul><ul><li>The fourth State of Matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma is created when the electrons are pulled off an atom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens in a nuclear reaction like the sun, or high powered electrical discharges like lightening, neon light. </li></ul></ul>