Combustion chambers

14,702 views

Published on

Published in: Education
1 Comment
10 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • very good presentation
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
14,702
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
643
Comments
1
Likes
10
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Combustion chambers

  1. 1. COMBUSTION CHAMBER:JET ENGINE
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. <ul><li>THE AIR/ FUEL MIXTURE BURNS INSIDE THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER. </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER BURNING MUST TAKE PLACE DURING ENGINE OPERATION. </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER STABILIZATION AND PROPAGATION OF FLAME IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER ARE ESSENTIAL FOR OPTIMUM ENGINE POWER. </li></ul><ul><li>THE AMOUNT OF FUEL ADDED TO THE AIR WILL DEPEND UPON THE TEMPERATURE RISE REQUIRED. THE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE IS LIMITED TO 850 to 1700 deg. C BY THE MATERIALS FROM WHICH THE TURBINE BLADES AND EXHAUST NOZZLE GUIDE VANES ARE MADE. </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. COMBUSTION CHAMBERS JET ENGINES EMPLOY VARIOUS TYPES OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS FOR BURNING AIR/FUEL MIXTURE AND GENERATING LARGE AMOUNT OF HEAT DEPENDING UPON DESIGN / OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS.
  5. 5. COMBUSTION CHAMBERS TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT COMBUSTION OF AIR/FUEL MIXTURE AND MAINTAIN OPTIMUM TEMPERATURES OF THE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS DURING THE ENTIRE RANGE OF ENGINE OPERATION.
  6. 6. COMBUSTION CHAMBERS <ul><li>IN ORDER TO MEET VARIOUS OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE ENGINE, VARIOUS DESIGN FEATURES ARE INCORPORATED. HENCE, THEY VARY IN TERMS OF: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-SHAPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-SIZE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-MATERIAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-HEAT TREATMENT. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER HAS THE DIFFICULT TASK OF BURNING LARGE QUANTITIES OF FUEL, SUPPLIED THROUGH THE FUEL SPRAY NOZZLES, WITH EXTENSIVE VOLUMES OF AIR, SUPPLIED BY THE COMPRESSOR, AND RELEASING THE HEAT IN SUCH A MANNER THAT THE AIR IS EXPANDED AND ACCELERATED TO GIVE A SMOOTH STREAM OF UNIFORMLY HEATED GAS AT ALL CONDITIONS REQUIRED BY THE TURBINE. THIS TASK MUST BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH THE MINIMUM LOSS IN PRESSURE AND WITH THE MAXIMUM HEAT RELEASE FOR THE LIMITED SPACE AVAILABLE. HENCE, THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER HAVE CERTAIN </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN / OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS . </li></ul>REQUIREMENTS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER
  8. 8. <ul><li>1. The gas temperature required at the turbine varies with engine thrust, and in the case of the turbo-propeller engine upon the power required. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, combustion chamber must maintain a stable and efficient combustion over a wide range of engine operating conditions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>2. High combustion efficiency has become increasingly important because of the rapid rise in commercial aircraft traffic and the consequent increase in atmospheric pollution. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>3. Ability to operate efficiently over a wide range of conditions ( e.g. inlet pressure & temperature of air and air/fuel ratios ) . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>4. The flame tube and spray nozzle atomizer components must be mechanically reliable . </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>5. The gas turbine engine operates on a constant pressure cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, during the process of combustion pressure loss should be minimum . </li></ul><ul><li>In providing adequate turbulence and mixing, a total pressure loss varying from about 3 - 8 % of the air pressure at entry to the chamber is incurred. </li></ul>REQUIREMENTS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER
  13. 13. <ul><li>6. Combustion stability / satisfactory rich and weak mixture extinction limits). </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion stability means smooth burning and the ability of the flame to remain alight over a wide operating range. For any particular type of combustion chamber there is both a rich and weak limit to the air/fuel ratio, beyond which the flame is extinguished. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>7. Uniform temperature and velocity distribution at the entrance to the turbine and simplicity of control . </li></ul><ul><li>8. Heat & corrosion resistant . </li></ul><ul><li>The containing walls and internal parts of the combustion chamber are subjected to the products of the combustion, creep failure and fatigue due to thermal and vibrational stresses. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Ease and cheapness of manufacture . </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Although there are several types of combustion chamber designs, they all have an inner and an outer section. The inner section or liner (as it is known) will be perforated with many holes which allow cooling and stabilising air to enter the combustion chamber throughout its length. The outer section is not perforated and acts as a sealed vessel for the liner. The liner is usually concentric within the outer casing and the passage formed between the two is used to form an area of cool air to prevent the materials of the combustion chambers from melting in temperatures in the region of 2000 deg C. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS
  17. 17. TYPES OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER MULTIPLE OR CAN TYPE
  18. 18. TYPES OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS ANNULAR TYPE
  19. 19. TYPES OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER CAN-ANNULAR TYPE
  20. 20. <ul><li>1. (a) AIR FROM THE ENGINE COMPRESSOR ENTERS THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER AT A VELOCITY UP TO 500 ft/sec , BUT BECAUSE AT THIS VELOCITY THE AIR SPEED IS FAR TOO HIGH FOR COMBUSTION, THE FIRST THING THAT THE CHAMBER MUST DO IS TO DIFFUSE IT, I.E. DECELERATE IT AND RAISE ITS STATIC PRESSURE. THE BURNING SPEED OF ATF AT NORMAL MIXTURE RATIOS IS VERY LESS. ANY FUEL LIT EVEN IN THE DIFFUSED AIR-STREAM, WHICH NOW HAS A VELOCITY OF ABOUT 80 ft/sec , WOULD BE BLOWN AWAY. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) THEREFORE, A REGION OF LOW AXIAL-VELOCITY HAS TO BE CREATED IN THE CHAMBER, SO THAT THE FLAME WILL REMAIN ALIGHT THROUGHOUT THE RANGE OF ENGINE OPERATING CONDITIONS. </li></ul>COMBUSTION PROCESS AIR ENTRY
  21. 21. <ul><li>2. (a) IN NORMAL OPERATION, THE OVERALL AIR/FUEL RATIO OF A COMBUSTION CHAMBER CAN VARY BETWEEN 45:1 AND 130:1 . </li></ul><ul><li>(b) ATF BURNS EFFICIENTLY AT A RATIO OF 15:1 approx . </li></ul><ul><li>(c) THE FUEL MUST BE BURNED WITH ONLY PART OF THE AIR ENTERING THE CHAMBER, IN WHAT IS CALLED A PRIMARY COMBUSTION ZONE . </li></ul><ul><li>(d) THIS IS ACHIEVED BY MEANS OF A FLAME TUBE (COMBUSTION LINER) THAT HAS VARIOUS DEVICES FOR METERING THE AIR-FLOW DISTRIBUTION ALONG THE CHAMBER. </li></ul><ul><li>a </li></ul>PRIMARY ZONE
  22. 22. <ul><li>3. (a) Approx. 20% OF THE AIR MASS FLOW IS TAKEN IN BY THE SNOUT OR ENTRY SECTION. IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF THE SNOUT ARE SWIRL VANES AND A PERFORATED FLARE, THROUGH WHICH AIR PASSES INTO THE PRIMARY COMBUSTION ZONE . THE SWIRLING AIR INDUCES A FLOW UPSTREAM OF THE CENTRE OF THE FLAME TUBE AND PROMOTES THE DESIRED RECIRCULATION . THE AIR NOT PICKED UP BY THE SNOUT FLOWS INTO THE ANNULAR SPACE BETWEEN THE FLAME TUBE AND THE AIR CASING. </li></ul>PRIMARY ZONE
  23. 23. <ul><li>3. (b) IT IS ARRANGED THAT THE CONICAL FUEL SPRAY FROM THE NOZZLE INTERSECTS THE RECIRCULATION VORTEX AT ITS CENTRE. THIS ACTION, TOGETHER WITH THE GENERAL TURBULENCE IN THE PRIMARY ZONE , GREATLY ASSISTS IN BREAKING UP THE FUEL AND MIXING IT WITH THE INCOMING AIR (i.e. ATOMISATION ). </li></ul>PRIMARY ZONE
  24. 24. <ul><li>4. THROUGH THE WALL OF THE FLAME TUBE BODY, ADJACENT TO THE COMBUSTION ZONE, ARE A SELECTED NUMBER OF SECONDARY HOLES THROUGH WHICH A FURTHER 20 % OF THE MAIN FLOW OF AIR PASSES INTO THE PRIMARY ZONE . </li></ul><ul><li>THE AIR FROM THE SWIRL VANES AND THAT FROM THE SECONDARY AIR HOLES INTERACTS AND CREATES A REGION OF LOW VELOCITY RECIRCULATION. THIS TAKES THE FORM OF A TOROIDAL VORTEX, SIMILAR TO A SMOKE RING, WHICH HAS THE EFFECT OF STABILIZING AND ANCHORING THE FLAME. </li></ul><ul><li>THE RECIRCULATING GASES HASTEN THE BURNING OF FRESHLY INJECTED FUEL DROPLETS BY RAPIDLY BRINGING THEM TO IGNITION TEMPERATURE. </li></ul>COMBUSTION PROCESS SECONDARY ZONE
  25. 25. <ul><li>UP TO 80% OF THE AIR ENTERING THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER IS USED TO COOL THE SIDES OF THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER AND TO STABILIZE THE FLAME. THIS FLAME STABILISATION IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE WITHOUT THIS, THE FLAME WOULD SIMPLY BLOW OUT. </li></ul>FLAME STABILISATION
  26. 26. <ul><li>5. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE GASES RELEASED BY COMBUSTION IS ABOUT 1,800 to 2,000 deg. C ., WHICH IS FAR TOO HOT FOR ENTRY TO THE NOZZLE GUIDE VANES OF THE TURBINE. THE AIR NOT USED FOR COMBUSTION, WHICH AMOUNTS TO ABOUT 60 % OF THE TOTAL AIR-FLOW, IS THEREFORE INTRODUCED PROGRESSIVELY INTO THE FLAME TUBE. </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 1/3 PART OF THIS IS USED TO LOWER THE GAS TEMPERATURE IN THE DILUTION ZONE BEFORE IT ENTERS THE TURBINE AND THE REMAINDER IS USED FOR COOLING THE WALLS OF THE FLAME TUBE. </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS ACHIEVED BY A FILM OF COOLING AIR FLOWING ALONG THE INSIDE SURFACE OF THE FLAME TUBE WALL, INSULATING IT FROM THE HOT COMBUSTION GASES. </li></ul>DILUTION IN TERTIARY ZONE
  27. 27. <ul><li>6. An electric spark from an igniter plug initiates combustion and the flame is then self-sustained. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>A RECENT DEVELOPMENT ALLOWS COOLING AIR TO ENTER A NETWORK OF PASSAGES WITHIN THE FLAME TUBE WALL BEFORE EXITING TO FORM AN INSULATING FILM OF AIR, THIS CAN REDUCE THE REQUIRED WALL COOLING AIRFLOW BY UP TO 50% . </li></ul><ul><li>COMBUSTION SHOULD BE COMPLETED BEFORE THE DILUTION AIR ENTERS THE FLAME TUBE, OTHERWISE THE INCOMING AIR WILL COOL THE FLAME AND INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION WILL RESULT. </li></ul>
  29. 29. ANY QUESTION

×