We have been teaching students how to learn for decades now and developing technology continually opens up new possibilities and areas in which to become literate. Digital literacy is the latest in a long chain of evolutionary literacies. (Hobbs, 2012)To be literate 3000 years ago was to be an effective public speaker using rhetoric and persuasion effectively and after that came reading and writing for all types of communication and the recording of history.After that, it was technology which drove the development of new literacies.visual literacyinformation literacymedia literacycomputer literacycritical literacynews literacyWe have seen each of these literacies develop and are aware of the educational programs that have been put in place to cater for each of them. The latest literacy in the evolutionary chain is digital literacy. It is an emerging concept, a contested idea. This presentation’s purpose is to define digital literacy as it is today and to discuss its implications for teaching and learning in our schools. Computers have become the catalyst of innovation processes in education. (Karpati, 2011)
One of the first to attempt to define digital literacy wrote, in 1997, that it is the ability to evaluate, integrate and interpret information in multiple formats on the computer. (Glister, 1997)Casey and Bruce (2010) said that it is:the awareness, attitude and ability of individuals to appropriately use digital tools and facilities to identify, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, analyse and synthesise digital resources the ability to construct new knowledge and create media. The most important is the critical ability of students to be able to make educated judgements about what is found online and about their engagement in online networks.Learners must practise evaluative techniques while navigating digital content in order to maintain accuracy and integrity. Without this skill of critical evaluation, the learner may discover that it is the technology driving the learner, rather than the learner directing the inquiry.This knowledge and these skills are a combination of technical-procedural, cognitive and emotional-social skills. We can order these cognitive and social processes into three categories: locating and consuming digital contentcreating digital content communicating digital content. (Spires, 2012)Being digitally literate is part of being a digital citizen.
Digital literacy has led to: increases in information that can be conveniently and quickly accessed and facilitates the collaboration and sharing of knowledge.an increasing reliance on digital modes of communication. Word processing is now the standard for writing and there has been a global uptake of email and usage of the World Wide Web. the potential for global access to knowledge and an interest in creating more multilingual and multi-literacy online environments. The computer has become part of the global business and the education culture. a process of life long learning. (Tallim, 2012)an opportunity to create conditions for students to become wise in their own way. (Poore, 2011)To this end digital literacy has a direct effect on a country’s economy because:Australians need to have the skills of digital literacy because the development of Australia’s digital economy will be limited if Australians cannot participate because of a lack of adequate skills.digitally illiterate people will be less likely to have the confidence or ability to participate in a safe and secure manner in communications environments they may use. (Australian Communications and Media Authority, 2012)The population’s attainment of twenty-first digital literacy skills is essential if we are to compete economically, educationally and intellectually in the global environment. (District Dispatch, 2013) However, there is a growing digital divide which can affect this. (Flor, 2008)
The digital divide refers to the inequality of internet access among a particular group of people. The inequality referred to is not defined by the access to the internet but by the access to information and communications technologies (ICT). (Internet World Stats, 2012)(Flor, 2008)So, what are the factors that contribute to the digital divide? agehealthliving conditionsemploymentculturebackgroundgenderincomeeducation Lack of education combined with low-income compounds the issue and increases the likelihood of lowered digitization. (Lee, 2011)Australia has one of the highest internet usage rates in the world, measured at 88.8% of the population in June last year. (Internet World Stats, 2012) The Australian Bureau of Statistics collected data, though on only one aspect of the digital divide – namely ‘use’. Other areas to be explored are: the amount of actual time a person is online once they log onthe economic savings or return attributed to ICTsa gap in the ability to use ICT which is measured by a person’s skill set, that is, their digital literacy. (Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, 2006)
Digital learners are both students and their teachers. The Australian Curriculum has been written to prepare students for life in the twenty-first century (Hill, 2010) with its inclusion of the seven general capabilities. In particular:information and communication technology (ICT)critical and creative thinkingpersonal and social and ethical behaviour When combined with curriculum content in each learning area, they will equip students with the digital literacy skills they need.Students need to be provided with tasks that develop capability in information access and management, information creation and presentation, communication and critical evaluation of all of these elements. (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2011)Stakeholders in the development of digital literacy skills are diverse. businesses government creative world librarians (Hobbs, 2012)The Australian Government has contributed to the acquisition of digital literacy in this country in two ways. National Broadband Network (NBN). Australian CurriculumIt is teachers who have the ability to deliver to these stakeholders the digitally literate citizens.
If students are demonstrating the possession of digital literacy skills they would:understand how to use web browsers, search engines, email, text, wiki, blogs, Photoshop, Powerpoint and video creation/editing software to showcase learning.evaluate online resources for accuracy/trustworthiness of information.choose appropriate media to showcase their learning, understand what platforms would best illustrate their message and learning to peers and educators.collaborate and share their learning in online communities If teachers are using digital literacy to teach their students, they would: use an interactive whiteboard in the classroom for lessons, allowing students to use the interactive whiteboard on a daily basis.use video conferencing to enhance learning in the classroom.encourage students to use technology to showcase their learning.use the web ( web sites video, music) to enhance the learning of their students. Students and teachers would be creating online content to be utilized both in and out of the classroom.
The following are not examples of digital literacy inaction. Rather they are simply examples of technology use:learning just how to use multi-media to research and investigate a specific topic.using the interactive whiteboard as a white blackboard.having a computer lab in your school.technology as a special class separate from the daily classroom.typing papers (research, opinion or narrative stories) on a computer or using search engines only to find information.using online media without any knowledge or guidelines on how to judge whether the information is accurate or trustworthy.The greatest challenge is to move past the flashy technology to teach true digital literacy in this new century. (Jones-Kavalier, 2006)
New technology demands a new pedagogy. Digital literacy demands a new teaching practice:Changes in the structures of schools such as scheduling and organisational routines which otherwise can challenge the acquisition of digital literacies.Changes in assessment practices. To assess a student’s digital literacy, it is inappropriate to use a tool which was produced to assess traditional literacy.ICTs in school are an educational, not a technology issue. Digital pedagogy is promoted in two major ways: enhancing the teaching and learning processes through digital solutions, and facilitating access to educational resources. (Karpati, 2011) Essential to preparing students for the digital literacy demands of society, is having a teaching workforce that has the knowledge and skills to teach accordingly. The implementation of digital content and skills in the classroom is an effective method of enhancing teacher learning, enabling them to embrace the twenty-first century skills that their students are expected to master. (Spires, 2012)
Competency begins with understanding. Educators should be authentic ICT users and integrate digital literacy in their professional and personal lives. Young teachers born in the digital age may be prolific users of ICT, but not necessarily be literate in the educational use of ICTs. All teachers’ digital literacy must involve knowledge and skills about educational policy and ethical use of ICTs, and they must keep abreast of innovations in digital pedagogy. All teachers’ digital literacy must incorporate the ability to use ICTs effectively in teaching, learning, professional development and school organization. (Karpati, 2011) There has been identified a common void in the professional development for teachers which would merge the digital world with academia. (Jones-Kavalier, 2006) Central to digital pedagogy is the co-construction of knowledge. In order for teachers to embrace digital pedagogies they may find they are no longer the experts and that they need to change from being users of technology to becoming co-creators. (Poore, 2011) Teachers need to demonstrate how to identify, select, analyse and use ICT information so that students develop critical digital literacy. (Milton, 2013)Excellent educational leadership will get us there.
What is affecting its development in our schools?Educational policiesICT integration (Karpati, 2011) (Futurelab, 2010)Teacher quality (Hattie, 2012)Teacher professional development is vital in developing students’ digital literacy skills. (Nawaz, 2010) (JISC, 2012)Educational leadership embedded in school: leadership and vision, learning and teaching. (Karpati, 2011)
Digital literacy is the ability to locate, select and understand information; to create and communicate that knowledge using digital technology.Digital literacy and the way forward for teaching and learning can be seen as a multi-faceted issue. It is a shift from traditional teacher centred, time-based learning to an outcomes –based, student centred, technology-enabled learning landscape. (Queensland Department of Education and Training, 2011)(Kron, 2008)Its acquisition is important so that our country will possess a workforce capable of competing on the international stage.Teachers should view themselves as they do their students – as twenty-first century learners.The implications for teaching and learning are vast and critical: our country’s successful participation in a global digital economy depend on itteachers are required to undertake extensive and ongoing teacher professional development teachers need to adopt the understanding that this is still more important to the development of digital literacy than the amount of money spent on hardware and infrastructure.By demonstrating sound educational leadership schools can put into place the vision, training, policies and syllabus to implement and support the teaching and learning of digital literacy.
Etl523 ass1 issue May 2013
DIGITAL LITERACY -FINDING A WAY FORWARDWITH NEW TEACHING ANDLEARNING PRACTICESGillian BrittonETL523 Assignment 1: Issues-Oral/SlideshowPresentation
Digital literacy is . . .Locating andConsumingDigitalContentCreatingDigitalContentCommunicating DigitalContentCritical Evaluation
Why is digital literacy so important?DigitalLiteracDigitallyCapableDigitalCitizenCybersafety SklllsValues and KeyCompetencies
Discussion Questions & RecommendedReading 1.What are you already doing to teach digital literacy? 2. What implications does this have for the implementation of thenew curricula? 3. Is there a better way we can distribute/use the digital resourcesin the school to facilitate the uptake of the teaching and learning ofdigital literacy?Recommended Reading: Futurelab. (2010). Digital Literacy Across the Curriculum Handbook. Retrieved April20, 2013, from Futurelab at NFER: http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/digital-literacy-across-curriculum-handbook Karpati, A. (2011, May). Digital Literacy in Education. Retrieved April 19, 2013, fromUNESCO: http://unescodoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002144/214485e.pdf Spires, H. a. (2012, June). Digital Literacies and Learning: Designing a PathForward. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from Friday Institute:https://www.fi.ncsu.edu/assets/podcast_episodes/white-paper-series/digital-literacies-and-learning.pdf
Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2011). General capabilities. RetrievedSeptember 14, 2012, from Australian curriculum assessment and reporting authority:http://www.acara.edu.au/curriculum/generalcapabilities.htmlAustralian Communications and Media Authority. (2012, August 20). What is digital media literacy and why isit important? Retrieved April 7, 2013, from ACMA:http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311470Blackall, L. (2005). Digital literacy and how it affects teaching practices and networked learning futures - aproposal for action research. Retrieved April 6, 2013, from Networked learning: http://networkedlearning.wikispaces.com/digital+literacy+and+how+it+affects+teaching+and+learning+practicesCentre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research. (2006). Australias Digital Divide. Retrieved April 15, 2013,from epress: http://epress.anu.au/caepr_series/no_26/mobile_devices/ch16s03.htmlDigital Inclusion Initiative. (n.d.). What do we hope to achieve? Retrieved April 17, 2013, from Digital InclusionInitiative: http://www.digitalinclusion.net.au/what_do_we_hope_to_achieveDistrict Dispatch. (2013, January). Digital Literacy, Libraries, and Public Policy Report of the Office forInformation Technology Policys Digital Literacy Task Force. Retrieved April 17, 2013, fromhttp://www.districtdispatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/2012_OITP_digilitreport_1_22_13.pdfList of References
Futurelab. (2010). Digital Literacy Across the Curriculum Handbook. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from Futurelab at NFER:http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/digital-literacy-across-curriculum-handbookFlor, A. (2008). A policy and planning framework on information and communication technology for basic education in the Philippines.Retrieved April 15, 2013, from International Journal of Education and Development Using ICT:http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu//viewarticle.php?id=491&layout=htmlGlister, P. (1997). A primer on digital literacy. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: John Wiley & Sons.Internet World Stats. (2012, October 27). The digital divide, ICT and the 50 x 15 initiative. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from Internet WorldStats: http://www.internetworldstats.com/links10.htmHetemeel. (2005, June 1). Dynamic Einstein Picture. Retrieved April 13, 2013, from Hetemeel.Com:http://www.hetemeel.com/einsteinform.phpHill, P. (2010, Summer). An Australian curriculum to promote 21st century learning. Retrieved August 27, 2012, from Education quarterlyAustralia: http://www.eqa.edu.au/site/anaustraliancurriculumtopromote21stcentury.htmlHobbs, R. (2012, June 23). Defining Digital Literacy. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from Youtube:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dn6f0hJSMUE&feature=youtu.beISC. (2012, 6). Developing Digital Literacies. Retrieved April 5, 2013, from JISC: www.jisc.ac.ukJones-Kavalier, B. (2006, November 2). Connecting the dots: literacy of the 21st century. Educause Quarterly , 8 - 10.Karpati, A. (2011, May). Digital Literacy in Education. Retrieved April 19, 2013, from UNESCO:http://unescodoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002144/214485e.pdfKron, J. (2008). A vision for 21st century schools. Retrieved September 9, 2012, from North Carolina Teaching Academy:http://ncteacheracademy.pbwiki.comList of References continued
Lee, D. (2011, May). The digital divide: the Australian Governments role in addressing ability. Retrieved April15, 2013, from Telecommunication Journal of Australia:http://www.tja.org.au/index.php/tja/article/view/211/370Nawaz, A. (2010). Digital Literacy: An analysis of the contemporary paradigms. Journal of Science andTechnology Education Research , 1 (2), 19 - 29.Mayer, A. (2012, April 6). Fried Resumes: because everything is better fried. Retrieved April 18, 2013, fromFriedtechnology: http://www.friedtechnology.com/2012/04/fried-resumes-because-everything-is.htmlMilton, M. (2013). Digital literacy and digital pedagogies for teaching literacy: pre-service teachersexperience on teaching rounds. Journal of Literacy and Technology , 14 (1), 72 - ??Muniz, R. (2010, December 20). Retrieved April 25, 2013, from Challenging the new technologies:http://challengingthenewtechnologies.blogspot.com.au/2010/11/tips-for-encouraging-teacher-technology.htmlQueensland Department of Education and Training. (2011, February 18). Leadership A vision for learning.Retrieved September 8, 2012, from Learning Place:http://www.learningplace.com.au/deliver/content.asp?pid=49696-Presentations-PedagogicalActivities-TAFPoore, M. (2011). Digital literacy: human flourishing and collective intelligence in a knowledge society.Australian Journal of Language and Literacy , 19 (2), 20 - 26.Spires, H. (2012, June). Digital Literacies and Learning: Designing a Path Forward. Retrieved April 18, 2013,from Friday Institute: https://www.fi.ncsu.edu/assets/podcast_episodes/white-paper-series/digital-literacies-and-learning.pdfList of References continued