On 9-21-2009 – There are currently 16 applications submitted to the NRC for a potential 25 new nuclear power plants.
Fig. 1 Map of nuclear competencies in Italy (2009) Setting a map of expertises needed to tackle a nuclear program, in fig.1 we have organised the range of skills in two sets. The first comprises the competencies needed in handling nuclear and radioactive materials for non energy applications (lower part of fig 1), the second set includes the remaining competencies to be developed in case of expansion to energy nuclear applications. Of course the second set does not replace the first but it must be added to it and, actually, would imply a further strengthening of safety and security skills. Fig. 1 also provide a coloured guide to the capabilities in place in Italy, the green meaning that the present staff and knowledge is appropriate to the task while the yellow points out understaffed areas, the red indicates areas “on the critical path” with insufficient staff and knowledge while the grey colour stands for zero staff and knowledge in areas “out of the critical path”. Because t he construction phase , for example, is very much akin to normal civil construction associated with any major infrastructure projects, i n the list we are considering only “nuclear relevant” skills meaning that computer specialists or construction workers must be added to the list when considering the actual staffing of a nuclear power plant. From this point of view, “NPP engineering, procurement and construction” is something in between, finding there skills like manufacturing large and high pressure components which are essential but not exclusive to nuclear power applications. The picture is not in scale as size of the boxes does not reflect the amount of staffing and, for example, do not put in due evidence the present big hole of hundred of experienced people needed to commission and operate a nuclear power plant. Overall, at a glance, it appears that Italy has lost core competencies but, on the other side, is a State with already fully“ in place a national infrastructure for radiation, waste and transport safety in support of other nuclear technologies being used in the country such as nuclear medicine and radiography” .
Italy, nuclear energy 20 years later Giuliano Buceti ENEA Nuclear Education and Communication Officer Frascati Italy IAEA TM/Workshop Topical Issues on Infrastructure Development: Managing the Development of National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power Vienna 9-12 February 2010 Legacy and opportunities in relaunching a national nuclear program
100% Fonte: “Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2007”, Enea Reasons for nuclear, Italy vs EU
Reasons for nuclear... Not at all ...overwhelming evidence?
Consensus: Average values in the polls 2008 Pro 54% Con 39% but... 54% 39% Much better than in the past...but the picture changes significantly when asked about local plants! Institute Date Pro Con Demos & PI – Demetra 10.2008 47% 44% ISPO – Confesercenti 06.2008 62% 35% SWG – Confesercenti 07.2008 54% 36% Abacus – Eurobarometer 03.2008 43% 46% SWG – Sole 24 Ore 06.2008 60% 34% ISPO – Corriere della Sera 05.2008 54% 40% FN&G – Il Giornale 11.2008 56% 35%
Nuclear Legacy Reactors Model Net MWe Power Latina GCR 153 1963-87 Garigliano BWR 150 1964-78 Trino Vercellese PWR 260 1964-87 Caorso BWR 860 1978-86 Montalto di Castro 1 & 2 BWR 982 each nil Total operated (4) 1423
Infrastructure issues, milestone 1, Italy, February 2010 Actions needed National position Nuclear safety Management Funding and financing Legislative framework Safeguards Regulatory framework Radiation protection Electrical grid Human resources development Stakeholder involvement Site and supporting facilities Environmental protection Emergency planning Security and physical protection Nuclear fuel cycle Radioactive waste Industrial involvement Procurement No Minor Significant
National position 1.1. Safety, security and non proliferation needs recognized Official documentation clearly demonstrating the Government’s commitment to the safe, secure and peaceful implementation of nuclear power for the long term. 1.2. NEPIO established and staffed Charter showing that the NEPIO has been established by, and reports to, a senior government minister Evidence that the roles and responsibilities defined in the charter are known by other government ministries and key members of the NEPIO. The NEPIO charter clearly charges and authorizes the preparation of a comprehensive report to identify the commitments and conditions necessary to establish a nuclear power programme . It defines an adequate scope of investigations and clear definition of objectives and timescales. It identifies how its mandate and activities fit within the overall plan for implementing the nuclear power option. A clear description of how the NEPIO operates in terms of funding, office accommodation and equipment, and reference material. Evidence showing adequate interactions between and support from appropriate ministers such as those responsible for energy, environment, etc. A documented budget planning and reporting process showing that appropriate funding is being provided to and is being expended by the NEPIO to fulfill its charter in the scheduled time. Organization chart; job descriptions and curriculum vitae of members demonstrating appropriate skills, qualifications and experience to address all of the infrastructure issues, based on requirements in IAEA-TECDOC-1513 . This includes appropriate use of consultants and the demonstration that the organization is an ‘intelligent customer 1.3. National strategy defined (see also Issue 3) Comprehensive report produced by the NEPIO covering all areas identified in the Milestones publication  and recognizing the resources and timescales required for the activities required for phase 2. A demonstration that the Member State can provide the overall resources required integrated across all areas. (Detailed requirements for the contents of the comprehensive report are identified under each of the following issues.) Executive summary of comprehensive report based on detailed report, containing estimates of total resources and timescales, and evidence that it has been properly reviewed by senior government officials.
On going process : ==> NEPIO not yet established (expected mid February 2010) ==> NEPIO appropriate funding under scrutiny ==> Report on national energy policy to be published (expected June 2010) ==> 17 Regional Councils over 20 against nuclear installations ==> Lack of cross-party political support National position
Non energy applications Energy applications LLA/MLA Waste Characterisation and Management Security Safety Radioprotection Grid Decommissioning HLA Waste Characterisation / Management Legal framework Operation EPC (Engineering Procurement & Construction) Siting Fuel reprocessing and recycling Mining, Conversion, Enrichment, Fabrication Environment NPP Project Economic Education & Training SARNET2 (energy appl.) IRIS, ELSY, AP600, VHTR Autonomy High Intermediate Very low Not planned EUROPART, EUROTRANS; ACSEPT R & D Nurisp, Vella,... Skill and competencies
Master Master on energy with nuclear education Bologna (12) (Number of graduated students per year is indicative) PhD POLIMI UNIPI, POLITO, UNIPA, UNIROMA POLIMI, UNIPI, POLITO, UNIPA, UNIBO UNIBO, UNIGE Post-grad Milan (30) Pisa (15) Turin (12) Genoa (starting) Rome (15) Palermo (10) Nuclear Education
Trend in graduated students In recent years university courses have been providing about 100 graduates (nuclear engineers, radioprotection experts,...) per year.
Nuclear workforce <ul><li>First steps in labour market research </li></ul><ul><li>150 industrial players </li></ul><ul><li>3500 people </li></ul><ul><li>26 Italian companies working in Okiluoto (turnover to be known) </li></ul><ul><li>32 Italian companies working in Flamandville (turnover to be known) </li></ul>Figures not very high compared with, for example, the 44000 people in UK but surprisingly high after 20 years of zero nuclear activity and definitely a relevant resource to be nurtured
Italy, the nuclear renaissance: Pro Asset Area Added value Utility Industry Research Institute Decommissioning Operator University Environment Agency … completi ng Cernavoda Unit 2 in Romania , Westinghouse partner of in the design and procurement of systems and components for the AP1000 Sanmen NPP in China major shareholder of Slovakian utility Slovenske Elektrarne (SE) , 92.06% of the share capital of spanish Endesa (operating 7 NPPs). while in France owns a 12.5% stake in the new generation European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), international R&D projects, mainly of the Euratom FPs , in the area of safety, development of innovative systems , waste management (conditioning, disposal, partitioning and transmutation), radioprotection,.. Consortium coordinating the Universities, collaboration with national and international Research Institutions, recognised European standard of education Joint stock company responsible for dismantling the dismissed Italian nuclear power plants, to the back end of the fuel cycle, to the sites restoration,… The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, ISPRA
Italy, the nuclear renaissance: con Social and political boundary conditions Shared commitment between central government and local authorities Cross-party political support on energy policy Independent, entitled and funded NEPIO Safety culture Skills & Human resources
Italy,Energy Policy -- IEA 2009 Review <ul><li>The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003 . The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the country's nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013 . To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector . </li></ul>
IAEA self evaluation guidelines, comments <ul><li>In the process of self evaluation, several players are involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional councils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>............ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The capability to put all players around a unique table is an infrastructure per se and should not be given for granted </li></ul>
IAEA self evaluation guidelines (2) A long term commitment ask for a widespread cross-party political support that pertains to Parliament not only to Government ...A policy designed to enable the construction of new nuclear power stations would be credible only if it was based on four key elements: • A broad national consensus on the role of nuclear power, that has both cross-party political support and wider public backing; • A carbon-pricing framework that provides long-term incentives for investment in all low carbon technologies; • A long-term storage solution in place for the UK’s existing radioactive waste legacy; • A review of the planning and licensing system to reduce the lead time for construction. (House of Commons, Trade and Industry Committee, New nuclear? Examining the issues, Fourth Report of Session 2005–06, Volume I)
IAEA self evaluation guidelines (3) The IAEA guide for self evaluation is a very helpful tool but ...somehow too detailed and too generic Examples ==> (Safety)Evidence that international safety standards and nuclear safety good practices are known by NEPIO members A more specific checklist , for each milestone and infrastructure, would be more effective. Examples: ==> National Energy Plan published? (YES/NO) ==> Independent and funded NEPIO established? (YES/NO) ==> ....