Genealogical DNA test


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Genealogical DNA test

  1. 1. Prepared by:- Ankita Gupta
  2. 2.  What is Genealogy Need of Genealogy Genealogical research Genetic analysis Essential stuffs for genealogy Genogram Records needed for genealogy Start of making genealogy Genealogy software
  3. 3. Genealogy is the study of family history anddescent. Genealogies, or the recorded histories ofthe descent of a person or family from theirancestors, are also often referred to as familytrees or sometimes as lineages or pedigrees.“Genealogy truly is a journey of many lifetimeswoven together from the past, the present and(from our perspective) the future”
  4. 4. Genealogists use oraltraditions, historicalrecords, geneticanalysis, and otherrecords to obtaininformation about afamily and todemonstratepedigrees of itsmembers. The resultsare often displayed incharts or written asnarratives.
  5. 5.  At its root, genealogy satisfiesbasic human curiosity. Theseneeds can be summed up inthree fundamental questions:• The Past – Where do I comefrom?• The Present – Why am Ihere?• The Future – What is going tohappen to me?
  6. 6. • Validate Family Stories – To determine if familystories about their ancestors are true.• Famous People – To find out if they are relatedto someone famous.• Historical Event – To gain a better understandingof an ancestor’s involvement in a famoushistorical event.• Proof of Paternity – To determine the biologicalfather of a child.
  7. 7. • Trace Medical Conditions –To assess the riskof getting certain medical conditions that runin families.• Trace a Family Inheritance –To determinegenealogical proof of a family connection forpotential heirs.• Find Birth Parents – To determine the birthparents of an adopted child. Alternatively, tofind children given up for adoption.
  8. 8. Community History – To document a communityhistory by understanding the families that foundedand influenced the community.Historic Studies – To provide insight into historythrough the scholarly study of a famous family,such as a royal family.Heritage Societies –To provide proof of lineage toquality for a heritage society.Preserving Family Traditions – To preserveknowledge of ancestors who contributed to familytraditions, such as a family recipe book.
  9. 9. • Preserve FamilyCulture – To allowfamilies that havemigrated to anothercountry the opportunityto preserve some of theculture of their oldcountry.• Reconnect with Family– To find and reconnectwith living relatives.
  10. 10.  Genealogical research isa difficult procedure thatuses historical recordsand sometimes geneticanalysis to validaterelationship. Reliableconclusions are basedon the quality ofsources, ideally originalrecords and informationwithin those sources.
  11. 11.  Genealogical research starts withcollecting family documents andstories. Genealogical research beginswith the present and go backward intime, this creates a foundation fordocumentary research. Historical,social, and family context is essentialto achieving correct identification ofindividuals and relationships
  12. 12. DNA is passed fromone generation toother generation andcarried the unchangedinformation and withthe help of geneticanalysis we canidentify the kinshipties of the ancestors.
  13. 13. Three DNA types are ofparticular interest:.Mitochondrial DNA that we allpossess and that is passed downwith only minor mutationsthrough the matrilineal (directfemale) line; Y-chromosomepresent only in males, which ispassed down with only minormutations through the patrilineal(direct male) line.
  14. 14. Autosomal DNA which is found in the 22 non-gender specific chromosomes (autosomes)inherited from both parents, which can uncoverrelatives from any branch of the family.A genealogical DNA test allows two individuals tofind the probability that they are, or are not,related within an estimated number ofgenerations. Individual genetic test results arecollected in databases to match peopledescended from a relatively recent commonancestor
  15. 15.  Before you begin your research you will need twothings.Pedigree chart: a chart identifying your ancestry.This is what people think of when they hear thewords “Family Tree.” This chart only displays yourdirect ancestors. There is no room for siblings,multiple marriages, etc. The typical pedigree chartwill show between four and five generations,however you can easily purchase a chart with up to15 generations.
  16. 16. Family Group Sheet: a chart containing genealogicalinformation about a single family unit – husband, wife,and children. This is where you include the basicinformation about each family member, includingdates and places of birth, marriage and death. Thesesheets are essential! They serve as a simple meansof recording data, while making it easy to see at aglance what information is known and what ismissing, and they serve as a means of easilyexchanging information with other researchers.
  17. 17.  genogram to represent your family tree. Agenogram is a graphical representation of afamily with a set of simple rules and images.Genograms include basic information aboutthe number of marriages, number of childrenin each marriage, birth order, age and death.Some genograms also include relationshipsbetween individuals and information ondisorders running in a family such asalcoholism, depression and diseases.
  18. 18.  Vital records are records of life events kept undergovernmental authority, including birth certificates,marriage licenses, and death certificates. Adoption records are documents that are both publicand non-public in nature that provide informationabout an adoption, and include and original sealedbirth certificate, the court documents that relate tothe processing and finalization of the adoption.
  19. 19. • Census records is used mostly inconnection with national population andhousing censuses; other commoncensuses include agriculture, business,and traffic censuses.
  20. 20.  Criminal record is a record of a personscriminal history, generally used bypotential employers, lenders etc. toassess his or her trustworthiness
  21. 21. • Civil records is the system by which agovernment records the vital events of itscitizens and prepare the population registry• Emigration and immigration records is theact of permanently leaving ones country orregion to settle in another.• Naturalization is the acquisition of citizenshipand nationality by somebody who was not acitizen of that country at the time of birth.
  22. 22. • Land and property records is any subset ofland that has been legally defined and theimprovements to it made by human efforts: anybuildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines,canals, roads, etc.• Medical records are used to describe thesystematic documentation of a single patientsmedical history and care across time within oneparticular health care providers jurisdiction
  23. 23. It contain very precious genealogical information.They provide not only vital information on yourancestor but also physical information. Theserecords contain personal data that cannot be foundin any other source, such as:• Height, Size of the chest, Color and form of hair,face, nose, and chin, Eye color, Skin color,Condition of the teeth, Birthmarks
  24. 24. • In addition, you will be able to find the following vitalinformation:• Draftee’s full name• His parents’ names• His place of birth• His profession• His education (whether he was able to read andwrite or not)• Ability to perform military services• Date the service began
  25. 25. An individuals occupation may give insightinto their social status or to their place oforigin. Occupations can also be used todistinguish between two individuals of thesame name. Certain skilled occupations ortrades may have been passed down fromfather to son, providing indirect evidence ofa family relationship.
  26. 26. These official records can often be a valuablesource of information for genealogists. Ifnothing else, voter registration recordsprovide an address where your ancestor wasliving during the gaps between censusrecords, but you may also find naturalizationinformation, voting records, or yourancestors signature.
  27. 27. These documents are extremely valuable togenealogists and should not be neglected. In manyinstances, they are the only known source of relevantinformation such as the decedent’s date of death,names of his or her spouse, children, parents,siblings, in-laws, neighbors, associates, relatives, andtheir places of residence.
  28. 28.  The basic objectives of genealogical research are to identifyancestors and their family relationships. At a basic level youwill identify and record the following for each individual in your family tree: - Date and place of birth - Names of parents - Date and place of marriage - Names of children - Date and place of death
  29. 29.  Name of children is based on the parents names. Patronymics are names that identify an individualbased on the fathers name. Children may sometimes assume stepparent,foster parent, or adoptive parent names. Becauseofficial records may reflect many kinds ofsurname change, without explaining theunderlying reason for the change, the correctidentification of a person recorded identified withmore than one name is challenging.
  30. 30. The transmission of names across generations,marriages and other relationships, andimmigration may cause trouble in genealogicalresearch. For instance, women in many cultureshave routinely used their spouses surnames.When a woman remarried, she may havechanged her name and the names of herchildren; only her name; or changed no names.
  31. 31. Date and place of marriage is a very importantinformation for genealogical research.In many cases for green card people married with thecitizen of the other country and get divorce aftersome period of time.One other case to find the easy marriage certificatepeople do the marriage in different locality instead ofthere native place.
  32. 32.  While the places of ancestors residences andlifespan are core elements of the genealogistshunt, they can often be puzzling. Place names maybe subject to different spellings by partially literatetranscribers. Locations may have identical or verysimilar names.
  33. 33.  Dates are more problematic to recollection yearsafter events, and are more easily mistranscribedthan other types of genealogical records. People sometimes reduce their age on marriage,and those under "full age" may increase their agein order to marry or to join the armed forces.Census returns are notoriously untrustworthy forages or for assuming an estimated death date.
  34. 34.  genealogy software collects the date and place of anindividuals birth, marriage, and death, and storesthe relationships of individuals to their parents,spouses, and children.
  35. 35. Other tools available tothe genealogist include• Research managementtools,• mapping tools• charting programs• web-publishingprograms.