World I; Module 4


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World I; Module 4

  1. 1. World  I   Module  IV   NEUROPOLITICS   Prof.  Francisco  De  Paula  
  2. 2. IV. NEUROPOLITICS Since, clearly, politics is the administration of symbols and practicesrelated to the form and composition of society’s value patterns, societycannot assume a static certainty in directing them. Instead, it looks for dynamic techniques to navigate the currents emanating from the insecurity present in human nature and its culture. HAROLD D. LASSWELL World Politics and Personal Insecurity
  3. 3. Political Science•  Political science is the study of the administration of privilege in society, and human inequality is, therefore, one of its primordial objects of investigation.•  Human inequality originated in the sequential development of man’s intelligence, his self-consciousness, his insecurity and theology.•  The study of inequality is reduced specifically to the historic evolution of man’s conduct, which can be distinguished by the asymmetrical relationship held among men since the concept of authority and its resulting subordination emerged.•  Authority and subordination are at the root of human inequality at all levels of man’s activities and his culture.
  4. 4. Primal Causes of Inequality•  In the recorded intellectual history of humanity we recurrently come across an endless debate on the primal causes of inequality inherent in the human condition. Two dominant and opposing thesis have emerged: –  The conservative vision has repeatedly stated that, in order for society to maintain stability, some form of stratification is necessary. Stratification has signified the peaceful acquiescence of a functional pact regarding authority and subordination.•  This constitutes the origin of the “unequal distribution” in the administration of society’s resources. –  The radical stance has viewed social inequality in the light of the philosophy of the Homo homini lupus : “man is a wolf to [his fellow] man” : reflects man’s permanent fight against man for the scarce material and spiritual resources necessary for his survival.
  5. 5. Social Stratification•  These two opposing views on human inequality have been the source of the different positions taken by the classic authors in political science (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Kant, Mill, Marx and Weber).•  They were classified in two great tendencies explaining social stratification, −  the functionalist (realist) and −  the conflictive (idealist) trends.
  6. 6. Inequality: Explanatory Currents•  The functionalist current establishes that human inequality stems from the stratification derived from natural differences such as genre, race or health and the general division of labor and benefits society in terms of the notion of the compartmentalized responsibility of each of the individuals that comprise it.•  The idealist and the conflictive theory have established as the primary cause for stratification and human inequality in man’s history is the “interest” of groups in power in dominating and exploiting society, together with the appropriation of privilege, prestige and organized human coercion.
  7. 7. Theories on Human Inequality•  In the XXth Century the idealist current is represented by Kingsley Davis in 1945; and the materialist, by the Hegelian and Marxist-Leninist thought of dialectic materialism, represented by many thinkers, among them Rosa de Luxemburg, Luckacs, Althusser, Polianyi, Trostsky, Mandel.•  The idealists establishes human inequality as a strictly functional tool, indispensable to achieve social stability while scientific materialism conceives it as a result of the struggle among the different classes.•  Scientific materialism set the utopian goal of eventually achieving a classless society. It attempted to establish a kind of “social engineering” which proposed, the expropriation of acquired privileges through the dictatorship of the proletarian, ignoring that all forms of power imply a form of human subordination and subsequent social inequality.•  These two theories constitute a living lesson on their respective failures.
  8. 8. Power, State and Insecurity•  Based on the notion of the raison d’Etat, Machiavelo proposed a realistic political exercise which explains and justifies the centralization of power in order to guarantee the supreme goals of the state.•  Hobbes, overwhelmed by the insecurity of his time and by his own, formulated the political philosophy of absolutism, which was also practiced by the State as a means to eradicate the anarchism natural to society.•  Rousseau, enthused by the idea of liberty, suggested that anarchy should be obligatory, thus nullifying the very spirit of liberty.•  Hegel, with his grandiloquent dialectic, took his view of the State to the limits of the sacred and, consequently, to totalitarianism.
  9. 9. Pacific co-habitation•  John Stuart Mill , in the late nineteenth century, showed an inclination to proposing centralism as a way of administrating human interests.•  With an uncompromising outlook, Marx set out the eradication of human inequality using the State as a supposedly infallible tool.•  In the general context of the thought underlying our political tradition, there has clearly been a recurrent tendency to suggest formulas based on the suppression of subordination and the concentration of power in the State, as a mean of achieving pacific co-habitation among men.
  10. 10. Social Darwinism•  Herbert Spencer, suggested that the world moved on a continuous path toward progressive perfection and established the need to avoid the authoritative interference of the State in the processes that society undergoes in order to ensure its survival.•  Spencer’s thesis was named “Social Darwinism”. Unfortunately, in its time, it was simply interpret as a general “apology” for capitalism’s laissez-faire philosophy.
  11. 11. Political Action•  Harold Lasswell influenced by the discoveries made by Freud and Jung regarding the mind’s symbolism and psychology, believed that the “political action” which emanates from the insecurity of human beings is none other than the action of administrating the distribution of society’s privileges and values. This is exercised by the elite, who, through its ability to manipulate the “symbols of identification”, political control and economic power, ultimately legitimizes them through the indiscriminate use of violence.
  12. 12. Biological Heterogeneity and DiversityBiological heterogeneity and diversity vs social inequality:• While inequality is scientifically understandable in thebiological light of heterogeneity and diversity, in its socialextension, it is ridiculously disproportionate to the nature ofthe biological inequality present in the original human scale.• Man’s insecurity is also directly responsible for theappearance of the irrational phenomenon of man’sdisproportionate power and, the appearance of the immenseinjustice and corruption practiced by its administrators.
  13. 13. Civilization and Codes of Social Conduct•  As expressions of man’s power and how it is manifested – injustice, war, irrational exploitation of natural resources, genocide, armament, indiscriminate financial growth, overpopulation and man’s discrimination toward man - today are indispensable to be understood to initiate a study on new alternatives to rearrange society’s traditional political organization as part of the evolutionist context of a new way of interpreting the human phenomenon.•  In the context of the human possibilities of this era, civilization must adopt a different code of social conduct –also a political one-, in terms of a “conscious selection” of the Homo sapiens sapiens, and discard the Darwinian code of the Homo homini lupus of natural selection from social co-habitation
  14. 14. The Creation of Language•  From the perspective of the evolution of man’s intelligence and his self-conscious discovery of his death, man has always tried to shelter his insecurity within theology.•  This insecurity has been a great influence in the creation of language in terms of man’s identification with sacred symbols, which have been fundamental in the constitution of his political culture.
  15. 15. The Need for Human Affiliation•  In the creation of the structural inequality in man’s life, not only the original feeling of metaphysical insecurity intervened, but also the need for human affiliation.•  The elite has always used this human need by manipulating identification symbols in the attribution of privileges concerning “security”, “integration” and “deference” in order to guarantee the continuation of a pyramidal class structured society.
  16. 16. Political Culture•  Given the natural human tendency to confrontation by affiliation and its subsequent relation to authority and subordination, paradoxically, this political culture has been a conflictive one.•  This political culture became rooted in man’s daily life, irrationally adopting the rules, forms and ideologies that society imposes in the procedures established for affiliation to take place.•  It has been interpreted by social anthropologist and social psychologists as the “social instinct of belonging” “In man’s life, identification symbols play a determining role in the construction of society in terms of the recognition and reference of its members”. (Lasswell).
  17. 17. The Need for Human Affiliation•  In the creation of the structural inequality in man’s life, not only the original feeling of metaphysical insecurity intervened, but also the need for human affiliation.•  The elite has always used this human need by manipulating identification symbols in the attribution of privileges concerning “security”, “integration” and “deference” in order to guarantee the continuation of a pyramidal class structured society.
  18. 18. Affiliation•  Affiliation is conflictive by nature not only because of the implications of taking up a membership, also due to the consequences this membership has within a community when there is a confrontation between patterns of behavior and ideologies.•  The internal perception that one group has of belonging and approved is juxtaposed to the external perception of group that is alien and disapproved (in group-out group) and is always subject to affiliation.•  In its daily exercise, this behavior is manifested in each category of human affiliation, in the spheres of religion, ethnicity, nationalism, economy, society and intellectualism.
  19. 19. Communal Pact•  Man’s social configuration, from time to time, established the need to make a communal pact comprised of rules, usually written ones, regarding the language used in the “instructions”, “direction” and “commitment” of each affiliates status.•  Following Lasswell’s line of thought, Nicholas Onuf determined that there are three parallel types of “language rules” used in the political process of human affiliation.•  These language rules correspond with the assignation of privileges in society, which, in the political order followed in administrating scarce resources, eventually determines the different forms of power exerted throughout the life of human society. Among the most outstanding are the attribution of influence, restrictive forces, economic property and social stratification.
  20. 20. Institutions Through Association•  Every organization that maintains its identity and retains its continuity begets a progeny of institutions. Though variously named, the latter are fundamentally alike in the role they perform.•  Education is institutionalized through school, colleges, and universities.•  Religion is organized by temples, mosques, synagogues, or churches.•  Business is carried on by the firm or corporation.•  The family clusters round the home.•  Likewise, the State acts through government and its specialized agencies –legislature, law court, administrative department, and civil service.•  Every institutions constructed through association (affiliation) produces rules that define the relations of its members, allot their rights and responsibilities, and prescribe its operating procedures. Prof.  Francisco  De  Paula  
  21. 21. Administrating Society s Privileges and Violence•  Culture has frequently assigned the elite the task of administrating society’s privileges, not only in the material and economic sense regarding its resources but also in terms of spiritual values.•  In this context, the bureaucratic elite and the military and police forces that worked for the “security” of the State’s political and economic establishment have guaranteed the preservation of this system through a type of persuasion that is based on the possibility of applying violence. Prof.  Francisco  De  Paula  
  22. 22. Universal Affiliation•  The theoretical explanation regarding the diversity and the conflict underlying the political conduct of the Homo sapiens can only be explained in the light of interpreting his psychological configuration•  If man eventually were to become aware of his insecurity, this would truly signify an initial gigantic step forward for humanity to transcend it.•  This would permit the gradual substitution of an affiliative culture, by nature a conflictive one, for a certainly possible and pacific universal affiliation.•  We can conclude that although man’s “primitive animal” condition is partly responsible for his present history; it is actually the emerging condition of his self-consciousness what actually brought forth the disproportionate phenomenon of the Homo homini lupus in our civilization.•  It must be emphasized that as we stand before the threshold of this new era in evolution, only the subsequent development of human consciousness and intelligence can guarantee its survival.
  23. 23. Democratic StateNEURODEMOCRACY  • Raul Manglapus, who was exiled in the United States during FerdinandMarcos’ dictatorship in the Philippines begins the introduction to hisextraordinary book Will of the People with the question: What is jazz?• He then continues to say that whoever asks such a question will neverknow what jazz is, and proceeds to establish an analog between jazz anddemocracy, which he also considers to be indefinable.• In the context of human life, its definition could, nevertheless, be narrated –due to the dynamic nature of narration- and still corresponding withManglapus’ observation• Manglapus’ thesis presented the democratic state in man as an attributecharacteristic to human organization, as opposed to an innovative ideologythat must be learned.
  24. 24. Neuropolitical Phenomenon•  Manglapus seeks to invalidate the arguments set forth by totalitarian regimes which consistently claim that a people’s political maturity is a pre-requisite to attain democracy.•  Democracy has to be conceived as a neuropolitical phenomenon, that allowed the human possibility, from the standpoint of our being self- conscious, of the feasibility of a new non-subordinate relationship between men
  25. 25. LEVIATHAN,  COMMON   WELFARE  AND  OTHER  STORIES    “…..a  human  and  individualis,c  society  free  of  arrogance  and  set  within  the  framework  of  a  state  of  legality  with  no  subordina,on”.     Alexis  de  Tocqueville,  Democracy  in  America      
  26. 26. The Concentration of Power•  In the universal tradition of political thought there is the idea, that the greater the power a centralized authority concentrates - representative or not-, the more stability and social justice there will be.•  However, history has taught us that the concentration of power in all its manifestations is precisely what par excellence promotes inequality, injustice and man’s conflicts.
  27. 27. Expropriation•  When the concentration of power stems from a “social pact” which grants subordinates and transfer man’s individual power to the abstract entity of the State (Leviathan), expropriation is the only alternative that can make historical revision possible.•  As more democratic systems slowly appear, and expropriation becomes more evident, the concentration of human privileges could come to an end, and, therefore, it could gradually stop inequality and the consequent stratification of our class-structured society.
  28. 28. Neurodemocracy•  To stop inequality, it would be indispensable to complete the millenary process regarding the self-conscious action in man that leads to the decentralization of authority and human affiliation (Neurodemocracy).•  Subordination and the authoritative centralization of power could be forever eliminated as the accepted principle indispensable in bringing about social peace and common welfare.
  29. 29. Conscious Selection•  The admirable neurological quality, developed in the Homo sapiens during the last twenty-five thousand years, will provide him with the intellectual tools necessary to intelligently elucidate the possibilities he has of living harmoniously in his milieu in order to ensure his survival.•  In this new stage for man, his survival could come to substitute the evolutionist Darwinian code of “natural selection” found in our political conduct for a “conscious selection” in our civilization.
  30. 30. Technological Advancement and Possibility of a Non-representational Democracy•  In its development and evolution, this intelligent civilization could eventually eliminate the sacred concepts and practices surrounding political culture, authority, power, affiliation, subordination, leadership, representatively and even in governments, making the technological advancement parallel to the mechanical possibility of a non-representational democracy with individual participation within the framework of a pluralistic co-habitation in society, which is always related to its heterogeneous condition.
  31. 31. Democracy•  The modern concept of representative democracy is slightly different from its original conception, especially in terms of the inseparable relationship it holds with a legal framework that is closely related to the figure of a constitutional government.•  Democracy has evolved through a great diversity of interpretations, and has served as a parapet to disguise dictatorial regimes: from the aristocratic democracy of absolutist monarchies to the despotism and oligarchy of authoritative regimes
  32. 32. Democracy and Socialization•  “Democracy is the highest expression of the “socialization” in modern man and, therefore, of his individual assessment. Democracy is part of that vast process of secularization, whereby man has slowly liberated himself of his former “corporate” entity (sometimes, of his “mystic body”), and of the dogmas and visions which explain his belonging to that original and undifferentiated entity. Modern democracy releases man from his “natural integration” to a hereditary body, transforming him into a proper individual, a member of a society of individuals”. Flores Olea, 1994.
  33. 33. Different Forms of Government•  Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Machiavelo and Kant agreed in various aspects as to how the regarded democracy defines different forms of government in relation to the diverse state of political representation that can be found within a community. FORMS of GOVERNMENT • They identified the monarchy as a social- economic unity (Commonwealth) administered by one sole person; an aristocracy as a representative assembly that is exclusive to an elite, and, a democracy as a government where an assembly is representing the whole of society.
  34. 34. Democracy: The Ideal Form of Government•  John Stuart Mill considered their version of democracy as the ideal form of government, whereby the State’s supreme power is voiced by the totality of the citizens in a community for it to exercise it freely, thus establishing the state of liberty and equality “for all citizens” as the community’s ideal.•  Antagonistic to this idea, Nietzsche arrogantly proclaimed the concept of the “minority’s aristocracy”. He established that the masses are not worthy of compassion, a noble man is solidary only to his “equals”.•  In a compassionate tone, Bertrand Russell simply interpreted Nietzsche’s ideology as the exacerbated product of “the weak man’s milieu”.•  It is noteworthy, however, that until the 18th century, Mill’s definition of “all citizens” did not include slaves or women, nor did it foresee the need to abolish constitutional discrimination, which established and legitimized differences in race, wealth, social condition and within the nobility.
  35. 35. Neurodemocracy: Alternative for a Different Democracy•  According to Mill, an alternative emerges: the representation responsible for the constituent’s initiative and a periodic need for referendums.•  The problem that follows with Mill´s proposal is that the questioning of the validity of the benefits of leadership always arises. By the nature of its function, leadership always finds itself caught between the fair administration of the majority’s interests and the minority’s, usually unjust, privileges.•  The advancement of democracy –neurodemocracy- will, therefore, always be subject to the average state of the evolution of society’s “conscience and self-consciousness”.