Consolidating the record: A brief history of environmentalism in Florida


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Consolidating the record: A brief history of environmentalism in Florida

  1. 1. Consolidating the Record A Brief History of Environmentalism in Florida By Susan Stover, Gail Donovan, and Fred Lohrer w assistance from Erin Mahaney, Mote Archivist Wednesday, October 23, 2013 39th IAMSLIC Conference and SAIL Meeting Dania Beach, FL
  2. 2. Discovering and Promoting Collections From the Executive Summary: “The more than 500 FSMLs around the world and the long-term records they maintain, make it possible to study environmental processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales.”
  3. 3. Project Goals ▪ Consolidate the Florida Environmental Record. ▪ Help uncover hidden collections. ▪ Solicit input from repositories throughout the state. ▪ Target audience for guide: students doing environmental research, scientists, historians, and more. ▪ Produce an online Collection Guide to help facilitate or start environmental research thereby . . . ▪ Saving the planet! (or at least Florida).
  4. 4. CREATE the COLLECTION GUIDE or BIBLIOGRAPHY of Florida Environmental Resources INDEX Trends in Environmentalism Key Events in Florida’s Environmental History Collections: Archival or Special ….mainly print Digital Collections (non-government) …. Government Agencies (local, state, federal) …. Plants and Herbariums Facilities and Organizations… whose mission is to preserve and protect FL’s environment
  5. 5. Places for Students to Start • • • • • • Environmental Collection Guides (like this one!) Bibliographies and Acknowledgements of key works Florida State Archives Florida's universities and colleges, public and private Florida Memory Project PALMM (, which includes Reclaiming the Everglades Everglades Digital Library Florida Environments Online Linking Florida's Natural Heritage Big Cypress National Preserve Collection Southwest Florida Environmental Documents University of Florida Herbarium Collection Specimen from Herbarium, Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL.
  6. 6. Locate and Highlight Collections about Environmentalism Example: Mote Marine Laboratory’s Environmental Collections ▪ Bass Biological Laboratory ▪ Charles M. Breder Jr. ▪ Perry W. Gilbert ▪ Mina Walther ▪ Mote Technical Reports ▪ Herbarium Photo, c.1930s, Bass Biological Laboratory Collection, MML Dr. Charles M. Breder Jr. (L) with flying fish, AMNH photograph from Charles M. Breder Jr. Collection, MML.
  7. 7. Types of Records ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Individual Papers Marjory Stoneman Douglas Arthur R. Marshall Charles M. Breder Jr. Organizational Papers Florida Defenders of the Environment Friends of the Everglades Sierra Club National and Florida Audubon Societies Audubon Society members and roseatae spoonbills, photo courtesy of the State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory Project, Government Records National Park Service Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC, FWRI) Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  8. 8. Papers of Organizations • • • • • • • • • Florida Defenders of the Environment Friends of the Everglades Sierra Club Audubon Society Wilderness Society Florida Wildlife Federation 1000 Friends of Florida Arthur R. Marshall Foundation Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation John Nolen’s plan for Venice, FL. Image courtesy of Venice Archives and Area Historical Collection. (left)
  9. 9. Papers of Government Entities, Past and Present Who they are and Where they are located. Types of information they publish • Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC, FWRI) • United States Geological Survey • National Park Service • Civilian Conservation Corps • Florida Department of Natural Resources • Florida State Board of Conservation (right) Correspondence from R. L. Dowling to John F. Bass Jr., March 21, 1939 from the Bass Biological Laboratory Collection, MML.
  10. 10. Collection Record Example ▪ Collection Title: Charles Marcus Breder, Jr. Collection, 1920-1974. ▪ Library/Archive: Arthur Vining Davis Library & Archive at Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL ▪ Volume/Storage Container: 18 linear feet ▪ Description of Material: 21 field journals, field notes, correspondence, illustrations. Finding Aid available. Some materials digitized. ▪ Abstract: Dr. Breder (1897-1983) was an experimental and behavioral ichthyologist whose work and achievements dominated the field. During his lifetime he wrote 160 papers and books. Covering thousands of pages he recorded an unparalleled array of field and laboratory investigations, and systematic and distributional studies. Many of his field trips and expeditions for the New York Zoological Society, the American Museum of Natural History and the New York Aquarium involved research in Florida and the Caribbean. The contents of his field journals include notes, itineraries, illustrations, and observations from specific scientific expeditions and laboratory research. They also provide an insight into the early meticulous scientific thoughts of this biologist, and how he examined and developed ideas. ▪ Notes: An ichthyologist is a zoologist who studies fishes. ▪ URL:
  11. 11. Begins with descriptions of Trends in the History of Environmentalism ▪ Naturalists/Early Conservationists ▪ William Bartram (1739-1823) ▪ John Kunkel Small (1869-1938) ▪ Charles Torrey Simpson (1846-1932) ▪ Utilitarian Conservationists/Preservationists ▪ Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946)/John Muir(1838-1914) ▪ Theodore Roosevelt (1859-1919) ▪ May Mann Jennings (1872-1963) ▪ Environmentalists ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Marjory Stoneman Douglas (1890-1998) Marjorie Harris Carr (1915-1998) Ernest F. Coe (1866-1951) John D. Pennekamp (1897-1978) Marjorie Harris Carr (left). Photo courtesy of State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory Project, /144623 Charles Torrey Simpson, John Soar and Paul Matthaus (below, L-R), collecting saw cabbage palm. Photo by John Kunkel Small, courtesy of State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory Project, /24203
  12. 12. Naturalists Naturalists and early conservationists provided descriptions of Florida's environment and helped shape how later generations viewed and used Florida. ▪ William Bartram’s Travels ▪ Charles Torrey Simpson (1846-1932) ▪ David Fairchild (1869-1954) ▪ Thomas Barbour (1884-1946), That Vanishing Eden ▪ Foundation for future views, policies, and changes made to Florida’s environment ▪ Prevailing view at the time held that nature existed to benefit humans (man) ▪ Collecting and documenting the environment for work or pleasure William Bartram (17391823) Travels Through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws; Containing An Account of the Soil and Natural Productions of Those Regions, Together with Observations on the Manners of the Indians. Embellished with Copper-Plates. Philadelphia: Printed by James & Johnson, 1791.
  13. 13. Conservationists Conservationists (utilitarian) emphasized the right to utilize nature's resources, but in a sustainable way. ▪ Use the interest, not the principal Cover from Wilson, R. L. Theodore Roosevelt, Hunter-Conservationist. Missoula, MT : Boone and Crockett Club, 2009. ▪ “Rational Exploitation” ▪ Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) ▪ Theodore Roosevelt (1859-1919) ▪ May Mann Jennings (1872-1963) ▪ Sportsmen/women ▪ Forestry Boards ▪ Civilian Conservation Corps The Civilian Conservation Corps in front of supply house - Sebring, Florida, 1938. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory Project,
  14. 14. Preservationists Preservationists differed from the utilitarian conservationists - emphasized preserving nature for its own sake. Nature is worth preserving for its own sake ▪ John Muir (1838-1914) ▪ Mary Barr Munroe (d.1922) ▪ Frank Chapman (1864-1945) ▪ George Perkins Marsh (1801-1882), Man and Nature, 1864 ▪ Royal Palm State Park (1916) ▪ Nascent environmentalists, as we think of them today Postcard courtesy of State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory Project,
  15. 15. Environmentalists Environmentalists responded to environmental destruction, and aimed to prevent or halt future destruction. ▪ Modern environmental movement ▪ Marjory Stoneman Douglas (1890-1998) ▪ Arthur Marshall (1919-1985) ▪ Ruth Bryan Owen (1885-1954) ▪ Marjorie Harris Carr (1915-1998) ▪ Broad coalition of sometimes disparate groups ▪ Essential to preserve and restore the environment for its own sake but also for humanity ▪ Necessity vs Option Marjory Stoneman Douglas, State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory,
  16. 16. Sportsmen and Environmentalism ▪William R. Mote (1906-1991) ▪Johnny Jones (1932-2010) ▪Theodore Roosevelt (1859-1919) ▪Everglades coalition ▪Role of lobbying ▪Catch and Release, Tag and Release ▪1873 shift to conservation among sportsmen William R. Mote, businessman, avid sportsman, conservationist.
  17. 17. Women and Environmentalism ▪ Feminization of Nature ▪ ‘Civic motherhood’ Rachel Carson (center), then chief editor of publications for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Marie Rodell become the first women to spend more than a few hours aboard a U.S. fisheries research vessel. ▪ Ruth Bryan Owen, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Marjorie Harris Carr, May Mann Jennings, Mary Barr Munroe, Edith Gifford, Mary Kenan Flagler ▪ Rise of women’s clubs in Florida, progressive movement ▪ Differing views of conservation, preservation, and environmentalism ▪Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring (1962) ▪Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. River of Grass (1947) May Mann Jennings, 1901. Courtesy of State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory Project, Ruth Bryan Owen, Courtesy of State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory Project,
  18. 18. Next: Key Events in Florida’s Environmental History ▪ The Swamp and Overflowed Lands Act of 1850 ▪ The Great Giveaway, Reclamation Act of 1902, and Railroads ▪ The Plume Craze (i.e. the great slaughter) ▪ The Everglades: jetports, draining, national and state parks, poaching, invasive exotics, water conservation and flooding . . . ▪ Air Pollution: paper mills and phosphate plants/mines in Jacksonville, environmental justice issues ▪ The Cross Florida Barge Canal FPG/Hulton Archive, Getty Images (L) illustrating fashions fueling plume craze. ▪ Boca Ciega Bay: dredge and fill Image (above) taken from “Digging ourselves into a hole” by Craig Pittman in the St. Petersburg Times, published October 31, 1999. ▪ The Gulf of Mexico oil spills
  19. 19. John Kunkel Small Records ▪ New York Botanical Garden, Mertz Library, Archives and Manuscripts Records of the Herbarium JOHN KUNKEL SMALL RECORDS (1892-1938) 18.3 linear feet; (28 boxes) ▪ Series 12 : Florida ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Family of John Kunkel Small in the Florida Everglades near Lake Okeechobee aboard the boat "Lida", 1913. Publications: Over 450 books and articles: o Manual of the Southeastern Flora, 1903, 1913, 1933 o From Eden to Sahara: Florida's Tragedy, 1929 o Ferns of Florida, 1933 John K. Small John Kunkel Small Records, Archives, New York Botanical Garden
  20. 20. The Thomas A. Edison Papers New York Botanical Garden, Mertz Library, Archives and Manuscript Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931. The Thomas A. Edison Papers, 1880-1964 Bulk, 1927-1930, .4 linear feet Series 2. Rubber Experiments. Folder 1.20 Rubber Content Analyses by J. K. Small Edison Botanical Research Lab Edison Botanical Laboratory, Archives, Edison & Ford Winter Estates. The Edison Ford Winter Estates Archives includes holdings related to the Edison Botanic Research Corporation. Parts of this collection may not be available. Researchers must be preapproved to access the Edison Ford Winter Estates Archives. (Fort Myers, Florida)
  21. 21. Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden Archive Collections COLLECTION: George B. Cellon Collection CREATOR: George B. Cellon EXTENT: Approximately 5 cubic feet in 10 boxes REPOSITORY: The Bertram Zuckerman Garden Archive, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, 11935 Old Cutler Road, Miami FL 33156 Robert H. Montgomery and David Fairchild founders of Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, at the dedication ceremony, March 23, 1938, Miami, Florida George B. Cellon Collection, Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden Archive
  22. 22. Marie Selby Botanical Gardens Collections ▪ ▪ ▪ The Rare Book Collection The Botanical Print Collection Gardens Drawings and Blueprints Sarasota, Florida
  23. 23. University of South Florida - Herbarium • 210,000 specimens of vascular plants • 17,000 algae • 2,000 bryophytes and lichens • Plants from Florida (40%), • with strong holdings from North America north of Mexico (37%) and Latin America (13%) Largest collection in the world of materials from central and southern Florida
  24. 24. Florida Native Plant Society
  25. 25. Environmental Studies Program Collection New College of Florida Archive Jane Bancroft Cook Library New College of Florida, Sarasota
  26. 26. Environmental Studies Program Collection Jane Bancroft Cook Library, New College of Florida
  27. 27. Biscayne Bay Bibliographies and Materials ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ The 2000 edition contains over 2412 entries. The 1993 and 2000 updates incorporate the 3 major prior bibliographies as well as previously unidentified citations and later studies and documents issued until July 2000. The documents listed are available from the University of Miami’s RSMAS or Richter libraries. The RSMAS Library has an area dedicated to Biscayne Bay.
  28. 28. Florida Keys Ecosystem Bibliography This Bibliography was originally prepared for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary in Key Largo. For use by scientists and educators. Covers: invertebrates, flora, oceanography, geology, meteorology, marine mammals, fishes and terrestrial flora and fauna (1964-1992). Materials are not housed in any one location.
  29. 29. FEDERAL COLLECTIONS NOAA AOML Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Lab Library and the Hurricane Research Division (HRD) Library: Miami AOML Regional Library: Focus on published and unplublished scientific literature in the fields of oceanography, atmospheric science, aquaculture, and fisheries.
  30. 30. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Research Information Center The Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) was founded in 1955 The Divisions of Freshwater Fisheries & Wildlife’s researchoriented programs date from the 1940s
  31. 31. The Library at FFWCC/FWRI houses the institutional papers of the facility. Almost every other Florida government agency sends these materials to the state archives for housing.
  32. 32. STATE/ACADEMIC COLLECTIONS Randell Research Center (RRC) ▪ State-owned, it is a program of the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville. ▪ Dedicated to the study of the archaeology, history, and ecology of Southwest Florida. The Calusa Heritage Trail - a 3,700 foot interpretive walkway provides detailed information regarding the Calusa Indians who inhabited the Pineland site, their culture & environment, and the history of SW FL after the Calusa left. Map of Selected Archaeological Sites in Southwest Florida
  33. 33. INDEPENDENT NON-PROFIT FOUNDATION COLLECTION Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation ▪ The Sanibel Report, prepared in 1974-75, reports on every facet of the island’s natural systems, such as beach, mangroves, interior wetlands, hydrology and wildlife information. Section of an illustration in The Sanibel Report showing the different ecological zones on the island.
  34. 34. Its Marine Laboratory conducts research in areas including seagrasses, mangroves, harmful algal blooms, fish populations and shellfish restoration. SCCF’s RECON (River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network) network of seven in-water sensors provides real-time, hourly readings of key water quality parameters – spanning a 90-mile area – which are available on their web site. Located on J.N. “Ding” Darling National Wildlife Refuge property in the Tarpon Bay Recreation Area, Sanibel, Florida.
  35. 35. The Bass Biological Laboratory Collection, 1931-2011 ▪ ▪ ▪ First year-round, co-educational research and field station in Southwest Florida. Hosted researchers who would later form the basis of the scientific community in America. Provides baseline studies as well as a look at rural Florida during the Great Depression. Photos from the Bass Biological Laboratory Collection, Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL
  36. 36. ORGANIZATION COLLECTION Environmental Organization Sierra Club Record from University of Florida Descriptive Summary ▪ Creator: Sierra Club. Florida Chapter. ▪ Title: Sierra Club Florida Chapter Records ▪ Dates: 1964-1987 ▪ Abstract: Correspondence, minutes, newsletters, and miscellaneous materials of an environmentalist organization. ▪ Extent: 8.3 Linear feet. 20 Boxes. ▪ Identification: Ms 89 Where are the records for 1990 – ▪ Language(s): English e.g. The conflict against the Homestead Jet Port
  37. 37. Historical Legacy of the Roebling and Archbold Families The Red Hill Estate (1929-1941) and the Archbold Biological Station founded 1941 By Fred E. Lohrer, Librarian, Archbold Biological Station, April 2005
  38. 38. Archbold Research Early research was dominated by botanical and entomological explorations, and many scientists developed long-term projects that became milestones in their fields. The longest-running continuous bird study in North America focuses on the threatened species, the Florida Scrub-jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens. The study was begun in 1969 at Archbold and now encompasses approaches from behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology to endocrinology and functional genomics. This body of knowledge helped Archbold scientists spearhead conservation planning for scrub-jays that serves as a model for bird conservation worldwide.
  39. 39. Archbold, Blair, and Red Hill Papers 2 file drawers of correspondence, drawings, invoices, etc. and 500 large-format photos and negatives, all concerning the construction of John Roebling's Red Hill Estate (1930-1941), which became the Archbold Biological Station in July 1941. All of this was generated, stored, and eventually donated, by Alexander Blair, the resident construction engineer of the estate. All material is still in its original organizational scheme, but it has been transferred to archival file folders. Colorful aviator-explorer, founded the Station in 1941. After more than a decade of exploration in Madagascar and New Guinea, Archbold obtained the original 1,000acre "Red Hill" Estate as a gift from John A. Roebling, II, grandson of the Brooklyn Bridge designer. “His papers were transferred to archival file folders when, and as found, and stored in 4 archival shelf boxes…. but more curatorial work is needed.”
  40. 40. Archbold Biological Station Library Fred Lohrer Fred and Gail Donovan in the Archives
  41. 41. Brass Correspondence This correspondence is well-organized, by the author, into folders by person or place, but needs archival curation. More Archives
  42. 42. Student Interns & Various Staff (1967-1985) Field notes, on archival field-note paper, are stored in original notebooks. Not cataloged, stored by author. Kay Hale and Erin Mahaney Kay Hale, Fred Lohrer, Gail Donovan, Erin Mahaney
  43. 43. Metadata Ecological datebases are in a rapid cycle of increasing electronic control. Archbold has data-storage and data-sharing procedures manuals, and a metadata system is being actively populated. Metadata for current databases are manditory (staff and visiting scientists) and are created as projects are initiated. Many / most historical ecological databases are under active capture for the metadata files. The Station's climatological and hydrological records (some since ~1931) are just about 100% accessible electronically.
  44. 44. A Flash of Green ▪ A Flash of Green by the late John D. McDonald is occasionally credited as the first “ecological” novel. ▪ Although he was a fiction writer he was writing about the actual facts of development vs preservation in Florida. ▪ His book was published in 1962, the same year as Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring. ▪ Because of its pro-eco stance, A Flash of Green was financed by and telecast as an edition of PBS' American Playhouse: Season 5, Episode 11, September 15, 1984.
  45. 45. About the Movie ▪ Ed Harris plays Jimmy, a reporter for a Florida resort-town newspaper. Jimmy is symbolically waiting for that "flash of green," a Gulf mirage said to occur during sunset. ▪ His friend is shady county-commissioner, Elmo Bliss, played by Richard Jordan. When Harris shows signs of sympathizing with a local ecology group that is dead set against a new bay-side (land-fill) development project, Jordan tries to keep the editor quiet with a bribe. At first, Harris goes along, but rapidly develops a conscience when Jordan enlists a local strong-armed, right-wing group to keep the ecologists in line. ▪ (Of course there’s an attractive conservationist, played by Blair Brown, and a few tough guys thrown in.) Part 3 – The Flash
  46. 46. REFERENCES Billick, I. et al. 2013. Field Stations and Marine Labs of the Future: A Strategic Vision. NAML and OBFS. Davis, J.E. 2009. An Everglades Providence: Marjory Stoneman Douglas and the American Environmental Century. Environmental History and the American South, ed. by P.S. Sutter. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. Davis, J.E. and R. Arsenault, eds. 2005. Paradise Lost? The Environmental History of Florida. The Florida History and Culture Series. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. Davis, J.E. and K. Frederickson, eds. 2003. Making Waves: Female Activists in Twentieth-Century Florida. The Florida History and Culture Series. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. Derr, M. 1998. Some Kind of Paradise: A Chronicle of Man and the Land in Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. Gottlieb, R. 1993. Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement. Washington, DC: Island Press. Grunwald, M. 2006. The Swamp: The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. McIver, S.B. 2003. Death in the Everglades: The Murder of Guy Bradley, America's First Martyr to Environmentalism. The FL History and Culture Series. Gainesville, FL: University Press of FL. Miller, Char. 2001. Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism. Washington, DC: Island Press. Miller, James J. 1998. An Environmental History of Northeast Florida. The Ripley P. Bullen Series, Florida Museum of Natural History, ed. by Milanich, J.T. Gainesville, FL: University Press of FL. Mongillo, J. and B. Booth, eds. 2001. Environmental Activists. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Morse, R.A. 2000. Richard Archbold and the Archbold Biological Station. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Noll, S. and D. Tegeder. 2009. Ditch of Dreams: The Cross Florida Barge Canal and the Struggle for Florida's Future. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. Shirley, T. 2012. Everglades Patrol. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2012. Woolfenden, G.E. and J.W. Fitzpatrick. 1984. The Florida Scrub Jay: Demography of a Cooperative- Breeding Bird. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  47. 47. Enjoy Florida !! Mangrove tunnel, photo by Bonefish and Tarpon Trust
  48. 48. Gail Donovan, Reference Librarian Jane Bancroft Cook Library New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL Susan Stover, Director Arthur Vining Davis Library & Archives Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL Fred Lohrer, Librarian Archbold Biological Station, Venus, Florida Funding provided by the H.E. and P.S. Becker Foundation and The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations