Chesapeake bay information

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  • 09/30/12
  • Chesapeake bay information

    1. 1. 1
    2. 2. Navigation General facts History Fauna Flora Recreation Industry Shipping The Military Environment09/30/12 2
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    4. 4. The Chesapeake Bay A small part of the Universe A Big part of our Lives09/30/12 4
    5. 5. How Big Is the Chesapeake Bay? • 180-200 miles North to South • Shoreline is 4,600 miles long • Average depth is 30 feet • The Chesapeake bay is the nations largest estuary • 80 % water from Susquehanna, Potomac, James rivers • The Chesapeake bay runs from Maryland to Virginia • Bordering states are VA and MD • Watershed is VA, MD, DE, PA, and WV • Western shore has the largest rivers • 498,000 acres of wetlands09/30/12 5
    6. 6. SALINITY • Salinity is measured in parts per thousand 0/00 • This means how much salt (particles) there are in a thousand parts of water • Varies from fresh in the North to salty in the South • Salinity is greater at bottom due to gravity • Euryhaline is an organism that is tolerant to salinity changes • Has tides twice a month called Semi-diurnal09/30/12 6
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    8. 8. WETLANDS • Has 2,700 species of plants and animals • 10 tons of organic matter is grown acre/year such as spartina , asters, hibiscus, and cordgrass • Oyster bar communities are the base for many other organisms such are crabs, whelk,& eels • Half of blue crabs in nation live here • Many juvenile marine organisms use wetlands as a nursery ground • Includes essential nutrients, detritus, and09/30/12 minerals 8
    9. 9. CHESAPEAKE BAY Largest estuary in One of the most the U.S. diverse estuaries Highly valued for its sea life, waterfowl, sport fishing & rec boating Stretches to the mouth of the Susquehanna Shipping artery for River Norfolk & Baltimore Threatened by environmental degradation caused by man induced pollution09/30/12 9
    10. 10. CHESAPEAKE BAY09/30/12 Average depth is 30 feet 10
    11. 11. Channel Depth Thimble Shoal Channel ~ 15-25m deep Chesapeake Channel ~ 15-25m deep09/30/12 11
    12. 12. SEA LEVEL RISE• At the end of the last glacial epoch, sea level roserelatively rapidly as continental glaciers melted.•10,000 years ago, the main channel of the ancientSusquehanna River valley was flooded and becamea narrow estuary.•Sea level at that time stood approx 9 meters lowerthan the present level.•Islands once populated in colonial time & duringthe past century have disappeared due tosubmergence and related shore erosion.09/30/12 12
    13. 13. • Submerged & eroded Sharps Island, formerly at the mouth of the Choptank estuary, is recalled only by a prominent lighthouse erected in 1882 and is now covered by 3- to 4-meter water depths.09/30/12 13
    14. 14. • Expanding wetlands are claiming low-lying communities on Smith Island & Tangier Island. • Settlements begun in the 18th & 19th centuries, together with their churches & cemeteries, are often surrounded by the rising water of the bay during periods of extreme high tides -- a prologue to the rising sea level. • Extreme high tide at Hoopers Island, Eastern Shore (1998)09/30/12 14
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    16. 16. INDIANS• IN 9000 B.C. THE NATIVE AMERICANS ARRIVE IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY• THE NATIVE AMERICANS FISH IN THE BAY WITH SPEARS, TRAPS AND HOOKS• THE SUSQUEHANNOCK OF THE IROQUOIS NATION LIVED NORTH OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY09/30/12 16
    17. 17. SETTLERS• IN 1607, JOHN SMITH BEGIN HIS EXPLORATION OF THE BAY.• ALSO IN 1607 THE FIRST PERMAENT NEW WORLD ENGLISH SETTLEMENT ESTABLISHED IN JAMESTOWN.• IN 1835, THE CHESAPEAKE REGION FORESTS IS CLEARED FOR AGRICULTURE, TIMBER AND FUEL FOR HOMES AND INDUSTRY.09/30/12 17
    18. 18. AFRICAN AMERICANSIN 1619, AFRICANS WERE BROUGHTOVER BY THE DUTCHFREDERICK DOUGLASS USED THECHESAPEAKE BAY TO ESCAPESLAVERY.BETWEEN 1700 AND 1770, SLAVE POPULATION GREW INTHE CHESAPEAKE BAY to 250,000.09/30/12 18
    19. 19. FAMOUS BATTLES • BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL IN JUNE 17, 1775 • DURING THE MID-1800’S THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION WAS AT THE CENTER OF THE CIVIL WAR09/30/12 19
    20. 20. 1862 - Battle of Hampton Roads • CSS Virginia • Confederate • (Ironclad warship) • USS Monitor • Union • (Ironclad warship)09/30/12 20
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    23. 23. Loggerhead Sea Turtle09/30/12 23
    24. 24. Invertebrates The blue crab goes through many transformations in its 3 years. It takes 12 to 18 months for a blue crab to mature. Males and females are easy to distinguish. Jellyfish, horseshoe crabs, hermit crabs, moon snails, and whelks are also common invertebrates in the bay.09/30/12 24
    25. 25. Moon Jelly09/30/12 25
    26. 26. •Blue Crab09/30/12 26
    27. 27. Amphibians09/30/12 27
    28. 28. Reptiles Turtles are the only reptiles with hard carapaces that do not have teeth. The two most common turtles found in the Chesapeake bay are the diamondback terrapin and the snapping turtle. The loggerhead turtle is found in the lower part of the Chesapeake bay. Both the Green Sea Turtle and the Kemp’s Ridley Turtle are found off of our coast.09/30/12 28
    29. 29. Green Turtle09/30/12 29
    30. 30. 09/30/12 30
    31. 31. • Skink • Snapping Turtle09/30/12 31
    32. 32. Fish Mummichog Killifish S Breeding waters for many fish species. Parent fish spawn in the bay to protect their offspring from larger predators09/30/12 32
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    34. 34. RESIDENT BIRDS • Resident birds are mainly found on the Western shore of the Chesapeake Bay in urban and suburban areas. • Canada geese is one type of Resident bird. • Resident bird originated from the release of live decoys during the 1930’s. • Their migration route takes them along the eastern shore of Hudson bay& James bay across central New York. • Many of the geese wintering on the Chesapeake bay breed in northern Quebec.09/30/12 34
    35. 35. MIGRATORY BIRDS OSPREY • Great Blue Heron09/30/12 35
    36. 36. BIRD REFUGES• Refuge provides habitat for migrating and wintering waterfowl.• During the fall and winter months, large flocks of waterfowl use the Bay and freshwater impoundments.• Snow and Canada geese, tundra swans, and many duck species are abundant.• Migrating songbirds and shorebirds arrive at the Refuge each spring.• The refuge provides habitat for a wide assortment of other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species fall migration.09/30/12 36
    37. 37. GEESE09/30/12 37
    38. 38. 09/30/12 38
    39. 39. Mammals •Deer ,raccoons, fox, squirrels, rabbits, and opossum are the most plentiful mammal residents of the Chesapeake Bay area. •Noted aquatic mammals living here are otters, dolphins, porpoises, and whales.09/30/12 39
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    44. 44. Algae Phytoplankton grow in the photic zone or the depth to which sunlight penetrates the water. They undergo algae blooms or rapid population growth caused by excess nutrients. Major groups of phytoplankton are Diatoms, Green algae, Dinoflagellates. They are used as indicators for environmental conditions within the bay.09/30/12 44
    45. 45. Algae09/30/12 45
    46. 46. Bald Cypress Grow to be 100 to 120 feet tall and 6 feet in diameter. Usually abundant in muck, clay or fine sand where its very high amount of water. Has horizontal roots which extend out 20 to 50 feet before extending down, and knees which tower over the water. Major groups are southern cypress, white cypress, gulf cypress09/30/12 46
    47. 47. Bald Cypress09/30/12 47
    48. 48. Loblolly Pine This rapidly-growing tree thrives in the maritime forest, at the bay’s edge. It prefers the Bays relatively long, hot and humid summers. The trees provide important nesting habitat for bald eagles and osprey. Loblolly pines are frequently used for soil stabilization in areas that are subject to severe erosion .09/30/12 48
    49. 49. Loblolly Pine09/30/12 49
    50. 50. American Holly The American Holly, Ilex opaca, is used a popular holiday decoration. Bluebirds, songbirds, and thrashers use holly for shelter, and raising their young. Native Americans used the wood for many purposes, and the berries were used for bartering and decorating.09/30/12 50
    51. 51. American Holly09/30/12 51
    52. 52. Bay Grasses In the shallow waters of the bay, many underwater grasses thrive. These grasses—also known as submerged aquatic vegetation, or SAV—are vascular plants that grow completely underwater. SAV contain several adaptations that give them additional support and allow for easier exchange of gasses.09/30/12 52
    53. 53. Bay Grasses SAV play an important role in bay ecology by performing many functions. Some of these include providing food and habitat, filtering sediment, producing oxygen, and protecting the shoreline from erosion. They also remove excess nutrients from the water which prevents overgrowth of algae.09/30/12 53
    54. 54. Bay Grasses09/30/12 54
    55. 55. Bay Grasses09/30/12 55
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    57. 57. Fishing on the Bay The Chesapeake bay is home to 295 species of fish which only comprises 10 % of bay life. Only 32 fish are yearly residents. The favorite Chesapeake bay fish species include rockfish, bluefish, drum, speckled trout, flounder, spot, and croaker.09/30/12 57
    58. 58. Sailing on the Bay The recreational use of the Bay bring millions of dollars to the local economy annually09/30/12 58
    59. 59. Surfing Don’t you wish we had waves like this locally. Average wave height at Virginia Beach, VA is about 3 feet.09/30/12 59
    60. 60. HUNTING The Chesapeake bay is the famous hunting ground. Market and waterfowl hunting is a thing of the past.09/30/12 60
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    62. 62. • Most biologically productive estuary in N. America.09/30/12 62
    63. 63. • More seafood is harvested from Chesapeake Bay than any of the other 840 U.S. estuaries.• Blue crab harvest is > 1/2 of U.S. total harvest.09/30/12 63
    64. 64. Businesses• Tourism is a major factor in the businesses around the Chesapeake Bay.• Restaurants, hotels, bait shops, water sport rentals, and marinas are most commonly found on the Bay.09/30/12 64
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    66. 66. Businesses Cont… • Businesses for the Bay (B4B) is a voluntary team of forward-looking businesses, industries, government facilities, and other organizations within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. • More and more businesses are forming in order to prevent pollution . • Pollution Prevention is sweeping the nation, sweeping up pollution by avoiding producing it in the first place.09/30/12 66
    67. 67. Bay-side Businesses09/30/12 67
    68. 68. Factories• Smithfield Factories is one of the largest industries responsible for the pollution of the Chesapeake Bay• In August 1997, a federal judge in Virginia fined the Smithfield pig processing plant $12.6 million for the plants chronic dumping of slaughterhouse wastes into the Pagan River, a tributary of the James River and Chesapeake Bay.09/30/12 68
    69. 69. F a c t o r i e s…09/30/12 69
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    71. 71. Early Chesapeake Bay Shipping • Steamboat (1813) • Colonial American fighting ships09/30/12 71
    72. 72. Commercial Shipping• Container ships leave and enter ports in Hampton, Portsmouth, Newport News and Norfolk daily.• Hampton Roads ranks 2nd in U.S. for metric tons09/30/12 72
    73. 73. Fishing Boats Fishing and the harvesting of marine crustaceans is a major source of food and revenue for the local economy.09/30/12 73
    74. 74. Oysters • The Chesapeake Bay harvests an annual production of millions of bushels of oysters, crabs, clams, eels,09/30/12 striped bass, and flounder. 74
    75. 75. Blue Crab • Growing commercial, industrial, recreational, and urban activities continue to threaten the Chesapeake09/30/12 Bay and its living resources. 75
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    77. 77. • CONSTANT WEATHER SURVEILLANCE09/30/12 77
    78. 78. Home Port for the US Navy •The headquarters for the US Atlantic fleet is at Naval Station Norfolk, VA09/30/12 78
    79. 79. Home Port for the US Navy • Thousands of military personnel call Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay their “Home Port.” • The military increases the economy of Hampton Roads by billions of dollars each year.09/30/12 79
    80. 80. Hover Craft • Hover Craft are extensively used in Europe, but are not widely used by the US military.09/30/12 80
    81. 81. US Coast Guard • The US Coast Guard protects our coastal and inland waters from smugglers and drug dealers.09/30/12 81
    82. 82. AVIATION FORECASTING 115,698 Aviation Weather Briefs (Annually)09/30/12 82
    83. 83. Military Bases • Naval Amphibious Base (Little Creek) is the major operating base for the US Atlantic Fleet, and the largest of it’s kind in the world. • Fort Story is where the Cape Henry lighthouse is and where settlers first landed. • Langley Air Force Base is the oldest Air force base that has remained continuously active. • Oceana Naval Air Station was carved out of swampland and has grown 16 times larger. • Dam Neck Base is directly on the beach and has the most military beach access.09/30/12 83
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    85. 85. Keep the beaches clean!09/30/12 85
    86. 86. Waste From Factories09/30/12 86
    87. 87. POLLUTION • The biggest problem is nutrient pollution. • Nutrient pollution is caused by excess nutrients, nitrogen, and phosphorus within the plants and bay. SAV’s are destroyed. • Other causes consist of toxic chemicals, air pollution, landscape changes, sedimentation, and the over-harvesting of living resources. • As the use of the land has changed and the watersheds population has grown, the amount of nutrients entering the Bays water has increased tremendously.09/30/12 87
    88. 88. Massive Fish Kills • Toxic chemicals are the chemical poisons that harm plants, animals, fish and humans.09/30/12 88
    89. 89. RESTORATION • The Chesapeake Bay Program is a partnership that is working to restore as well as protect the Bay and resources. • Sound Land Use is enhancing, or even maintaining, the quality of the Bay while helping growth. • Different group efforts are working to restore water quality and habitats. • Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Chesapeake Alliance, and the Virginia Aquarium.09/30/12 89
    90. 90. WATER QUALITY ACTS• IN THE MID-20TH CENTURY, THE CHESAPEAKE BAY’S WATER QUALITY STARTED DECLINING• ALSO, DISEASES WERE KILLING OYSTERS IN THE BAY• IN THE 1970’S, CONGRESS PASSED THE CLEAN AIR ACT AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT• CITIZENS FORMED WATERSHED GROUPS AND OFFICIALS BANNED PESTICIDES AND TOXIC CHEMICALS• IN 1983, THE BAY RESTORATION ACT REPLACED THE CHESAPEAKE BAY AGREEMENT .09/30/12 90
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    92. 92. Click on the globe to see this presentation again Click on the Whale to return to the CD Master Menu09/30/12 92

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