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Skeleton Frameworks for geography


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Skeleton Frameworks for geography

  1. 1. Skeleton Frameworks for Writing
  2. 2. Discussion Text
  3. 3. Discussion text * presents arguments and information from different viewpoints * “for and against” * * * * * *
  4. 4. Discussion organisation 1 Introduction Statement of issue to be discussed Conclusion Summary + (perhaps) recommendation for against * point + elaboration * “ * “ * point + elaboration * “ * “
  5. 5. Discussion organisation 2 Introduction Arguments for: * * * etc Arguments against: * * * etc Conclusion When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction. Then write one paragraph ‘for’ (or one paragraph per point ‘for’) and one paragraph ‘against’ (or one paragraph per point ‘against’). Then write the conclusion
  6. 6. Introduction Point 1: for against Conclusion Discussion organisation 3 Point 2: for against Point 3: for against (including outline of points to be discussed) etc., etc When you have made your grid skeleton, write the introduction. Then write a paragraph about point one, a paragraph about point two, etc. Then write your conclusion
  7. 7. Discussion language features * present tense * abstract nouns * third person * logical connectives * discussion conventions (see page 9) * complex sentences Things that you cannot see or touch e.g truth answer possibility trust welfare belief justice concern hope reason despair
  8. 8. Discussion conventions * Don’t take sides – say what “people” think * Keep it balanced, e.g On the one hand… On the other hand… * Don’t be too definite – use conditionals Some people say… Others argue… Smokers would claim that… Non-smokers reply… It could be claimed… This might mean… possibly perhaps
  9. 9. Discussion text * * * * * * * *
  10. 10. For/against speech bubbles
  11. 11. Text Against zoos For zoos * * * * * Don’t need anymore originally for people to see animals now have TV, video Cruel catch, transport, cage zoochosis just for entertainment TV not as good as real life Conservation Not cruel zoos educational increase people’s interest in animals endangered species breed in zoos scientists can research in zoos well planned enclosures
  12. 12. Explanation Text
  13. 13. Explanation text * explains how or why something happens * cause and effect * often in time order (sequential)
  14. 14. Explanation organisation 1 Simple explanation: a series of logical steps Probably… labelled diagram(s) This happens leading to this leading to leading to this this possibly---other causes or effects at each stage When you have made your flow-chart skeleton, each section of the flow chart can become one paragraph or section of writing.
  15. 15. Explanation language features * present tense (except historical explanations) * cau s al language * sequential connectives * impersonal language (see page 8) * technical vocabulary when because The reason that so If…then… This results in… This causes… Therefore
  16. 16. impersonal language * third person * passive voice * usually formal vocabulary * formal connectives The motor is operated by… This is known as… The stick was placed in… The sides are covered in… (e.g “placed” as opp “put”, “known as” as opp. “called”) (e.g Furthermore, However, Therefore, Consequently)
  17. 17. Explanation text
  18. 18. Cycle Back to original
  19. 19. Newborn 3 months 6 months 1 year 3½ kg 6 kg 53 cm 60 cm 8 kg 68 cm 72 cm 9½ kg All different sizes suck milk no teeth can’t chew tummy stronger milk + mushy food sits up, plays some teeth some hard food + mush + milk stands teeth cut up food
  20. 20. Text Breathe in air Breathe out CO ² O ² capillaries Air sacs LUNGS capillaries Air sacs ² CO HEART capillaries capillaries cells cells BODY ² ² ² O CO Vein Vein Artery Artery Contains oxygen (O ) AIR
  21. 21. Instruction Text
  22. 22. Instruction text tells how to do or make something in time order (sequential/chronological)
  23. 23. Instruction organisation Title: what’s to be achieved Maybe…… labelled diagrams <ul><li>What you need </li></ul><ul><li>------------------ </li></ul><ul><li>------------------ </li></ul><ul><li>------------------ </li></ul><ul><li>------------------ </li></ul>What to do, one step at a time
  24. 24. Instruction language features Mix the flour.. Press button A.. Cut along the line.. Always use the correct equipment Feed and exercise your dog.. <ul><li>Simple clear language </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative verbs </li></ul><ul><li>See also third person instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Second person (usually) </li></ul><ul><li>See also third person instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary detail only </li></ul><ul><li>Number and/or time connectives </li></ul>Firstly mix the flour…… Next press button A….. 7 . Cut along the line ….. Before you start choose the correct equipment Finally, feed and exercise your dog……
  25. 25. Third person instructions When more than one person involved, e.g. a game third person present tense provide names or labels Player A takes a card… Team 1 tries to score points… Team 2 tries to stop them… The batting side… The fielding side… * * *
  26. 26. Writing Instructions * Do the activity ( or act it out). Make brief notes as you go *Make * list of “What you need” * flow chart of what to do * diagrams if necessary *Turn flow chart into written instructions .
  27. 27. What to do, one step at a time
  28. 28. Persuasion Text
  29. 29. Persuasion text <ul><li>makes a case for a particular point of view </li></ul><ul><li>one or more points, perhaps with elaboration </li></ul>* * *
  30. 30. Persuasion organisation 1 point point point elaboration elaboration elaboration … and so on………. * * *
  31. 31. Persuasion organisation 2 What? Who? Where? When? Introduction Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Conclusion Summing up When you have planned your points, you can choose whether to write one paragraph per point or group them together * * *
  32. 32. Persuasion language features Present tense Persuasive devices Logical connectives Connectives showing the move from one point to another because consequently As a result.. however If…then nevertheless First of all secondly next finally then * * * *
  33. 33. Elaborating a point Make your point clearly, in a sentence. e laboration would it help to: point g ive your reasons for thinking that? g ive examples e.g F or example,… F or instance,…? a dd further detail to make it clear? *
  34. 34. Persuasive devices e motive language deliberate ambiguity e.g ‘strong’ adjectives e.g “ probably the best” perhaps , maybe “ d are you to disagree!” e.g Clearly ,.. Surely ,.. Obviously ,.. Everyone knows that.. * * * Rhetorical question “ Are we expected to..? ” “ How will..? ” Turning opinion into truth “ The fact is.. ” “ The real truth is.. ” * * FACT or OPINION? Always ask yourself – is it …
  35. 35. Persuasion organisation * * *
  36. 36. Point + evidence chart point evidence
  37. 37. * * * Mary is trouble she has betrayed us if plots succeed Spain takes over thrown out of Scotland religious probs, war forced to abdicate, imprisoned given home, paid for not paid back constantly plotting claims the crown. Supported by Phillip II would be P’s puppet England falls to Spain
  38. 38. Persuasion Text
  39. 39. Recount text * retells events * in time order (chronological)
  40. 40. Recount organisation events in time order when? where? who? what? why was it significant? introduction conclusion what happened in the end? neat last line When you have made your time-line skeleton, use another colour to chop it into paragraphs.
  41. 41. Recount language features * past tense * named people, places, things * first or third person * time connectives Next… Meanwhile… Soon afterwards… Within hours… Several weeks later… Then… After a while… Finally… Look out also for conjunctions like when, while, as, after.
  42. 42. Impersonal recounts * newspaper report * magazine article * non-fiction book * biography Audience general reader with some interest in the subject Purpose to inform and entertain
  43. 43. * letter * diary or journal * write-up of a trip or activity Audience known reader or self (or posterity) Purpose to record, reflect, entertain Personal recounts
  44. 44. Lively recount writing Try using: * powerful verbs * quotations Watch out for these and other recounts in the texts you read * vary your - sentence length - sentence openings - sentence type (use occasional questions or exclamations) * try to link your last line back to the introduction.
  45. 45. Recount text
  46. 46. Recount organisation
  47. 47. Flow chart
  48. 48. Cards on a washing line
  49. 49. Recount organisation age where she was family introduction name born St Mary’s Hospital 1 2 3 4 5 6 Baz born started playgroup – met Hannah chicken pox started school – Mrs Robinson Y1 – Mrs Bennett Y2 – Mr Long Text
  50. 50. who when where intro what 8.00am School arrive breakfast on journey Exhibition centre lunch trip round cooler biome Video ‘Making of Eden’ Talk - cocoa, chocolate car park see biomes trip round tropical biome return journey shop £2 3.30 home rubber, bamboo, spices, coconuts, pineapple oranges, lemons, grapes, olives (personal)
  51. 51. ( i mpersonal) Intro Cornwall Y5 Last Friday Eden Project long bus journey arrive at Eden Project tropical biome warm temperate and outside afternoon activities journey home lunch Text
  52. 52. Report Text
  53. 53. Report text * describes what things are like (or were like) * not in time order (non-chronological)
  54. 54. Report organisation 1 When? What? Who? Where? More detail if necessary information organised in categories Main points in category Topic simple report
  55. 55. Report organisation 1 Introduction Who-What-Where-When etc. Paragraph Section }1 }2 Paragraph Section When you have made your “spidergram” skeleton, each spider leg gives you one paragraph (or subheaded section) in your writing
  56. 56. Report language features * present tense (except historical reports) * ‘general’ nouns (not particular people, animals, things) * third person * factual description * technical words and phrases * often formal, impersonal language
  57. 57. Planning report text * BRAINSTORM what you know (and find out more if necessary). * ORGANISE it into categories. * Make the SPIDERGRAM. Write the topic in the middle, and one category on each leg.
  58. 58. Report text
  59. 59. Our School Intro field playground hall Lee Park Longton, near York 198 pupils 7 classes built 1967 hopscotch map games infants quiet area juniors netball football summer - play winter usually no play snow - play assembly, lessons lunch drama gym packed lunch back school lunch front-tables (cupboard)
  60. 60. Spidergram Butterflies definition reproduction characteristics feeding insect Lepidoptera insect features wings scales/veins don’t need much for short life span proboscis nectar over-ripe fruit lifecycle 3,000 max eggs leaves male/female differences 1/100 survive coiled proboscis scaly body/wings