Introduction                                       Care and Control
  Aim of this guide                          ...

The children’s homes’
Regulations and
Standards have been
established to clarify
and to set the
Standards to provide more detail.
The term “young people” is used to include children and
young people under 18 years.

The Standards

Planning for Care

                        The Statement of Purpose
                        This is an im...
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

● physical and emotional needs;                     ...
There are clear procedures for entering and leaving the       ● Pathway Plan;
home in both planned and unplanned ways.
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

    personal, health, social and sex education for a...
accurately record views, wishes and opinions,               healthy, nutritious food and drink which offer variety
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

Good Health and Well-Being                          ...
Where children refuse to take medication prescribed              of the young person;
for them, this must be recorded and ...
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

Homes should be able to provide a range of activitie...
● forbid reprisals against the complainant;                        are aware of the complaints procedure and
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

situated, and there are good links with other agenci...
● follow-up action to be taken when the young
  person returns;                                                  Care and ...
Young people should receive praise and positive                     proportionate, and taking into consideration the

Location, Design and Size                                       Young people should feel safe and protected a...
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

    Staffing                                        ...
All staff must have annual appraisals which cover the          Young people must not be given responsibility for other
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

  Management and                                    ...

                                                              management or its equivalent. If, between now an...
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

 Checklist 2                                        ...
Checklist 3                                                      As well as these notifications to organisations, the
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

    Checklist 4
    Prohibited Sanctions            ...
The first list is what should be covered in the guidance               Checklist 5
the home gives to its staff – so it con...
The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations

25 How to deal with children who have experienced   ...
Guide For Staff On Childrens Homes Regulations And Standards
Guide For Staff On Childrens Homes Regulations And Standards
Guide For Staff On Childrens Homes Regulations And Standards
Guide For Staff On Childrens Homes Regulations And Standards
Guide For Staff On Childrens Homes Regulations And Standards
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Guide For Staff On Childrens Homes Regulations And Standards


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Guide For Staff On Childrens Homes Regulations And Standards

  1. 1. Contents Introduction Care and Control Aim of this guide Relationship with young people Regulations Behaviour management Standards Environment Common principles and threads which Location, design and size of the home run through all the Standards and Accommodation Regulations Bathrooms and washing facilities Health, safety and security The Standards Staffing Planning for Care Vetting of staff and visitors The Statement of Purpose Staff support Placement plans Adequacy of staffing Reviews Management and administration Contact Monitoring of the operation of the home Moving in and leaving the home Business management Preparation for leaving care Young people’s individual case files Quality of Care Specific settings Consultation Privacy and confidentiality Checklists Provision and preparation of meals Checklist 1: Staff qualifications / experience Personal appearances, clothing, requisites Checklist 2: Monthly monitoring by the and pocket money registered person Good health and well-being Checklist 3: Statutory notifications Treatment and administration of Checklist 4: Prohibited sanctions medicines within the home Education Guidance and training Leisure and activities Checklist 5: Staff guidance Complaints and Protection Checklist 6: Staff training Complaints and representation Checklist 7: The Statement of Purpose Child protection procedures and training Countering bullying Glossary Absence of the young person without authority Contact organisations for children Notification of significant events and young people 3
  2. 2. Introduction The children’s homes’ Regulations and Standards have been established to clarify and to set the expectations concerning the standards of care provided to all children placed in children’s homes and also in schools where children are resident for more than 295 days per year. These schools must be registered as a children’s home. In the 1990s, attention was drawn to the variable This guide is for front line staff employed in: quality of care received by young people in residential ● children’s homes; care. Child protection investigations led to considerable concern. At the same time, there were homes that were ● residential special schools which accommodate at providing high quality services. least one child in any one year for more than 295 days; The Care Standards Act 2000 established the National Care Standards Commission (NCSC). One of its roles is ● most secure settings where young people are to register, approve and inspect all children’s homes. It accommodated (see page 00); will be inspecting your home against these Standards ● refuges where young people are accommodated and Regulations. (see page 00). (The term ‘home’ is used throughout the guide to Aim of this guide include these other settings. Where there are separate This is a guide for staff to the Department of Health Standards or differences, these are described.) (2002) Children’s Homes: National Minimum Standards The guide serves as an introduction to the Standards and Children’s Homes Regulations, available from The and helps to explain individual staff’s responsibilities to Stationery Office; Norwich or from the website provide services to the expected and regulated standards. The guide follows the structure and order of the Standards. Readers can look to the published 4
  3. 3. Standards to provide more detail. The term “young people” is used to include children and young people under 18 years. Regulations The Regulations replace all other children’s homes Regulations. Homes must follow them. Standards These are national minimum standards for you and the home to work to. It is recognised that some homes’ practice will exceed these standards but also that some standards for some homes will present a challenge. They are qualitative and measurable. The Standards form the basis for judgements made by the NCSC when it inspects and registers the home. They will be kept under review. The Standards and Regulations link together. Common principles and threads which run through all the Standards and Regulations The Standards particularly emphasise the importance of responding to the young people’s individual needs in relation to religious, racial, cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Gender, disability and sexual orientation also necessitate individualised assessment, planning and review and determination of how care and support services are delivered. Different methods of communication will need to be used to ensure all the relevant people can contribute to decision making. Consultation and the involvement of the young person in his or her individual care and plans as well as the running of the home is another theme which runs through many of the individual Standards. It will be important for staff and the systems in the home to demonstrate active involvement of the young people and to provide evidence of this in recordings of meetings, agendas and plans. This principle of involvement also extends to family, friends and significant people from the young person’s own community. 5
  4. 4. The Standards Planning for Care The Statement of Purpose This is an important document which should describe the home, what it sets out to do and how care is provided. Any changes made to it need to be sent to the NCSC immediately. Its content is detailed in Checklist 7 (page 00). The process of drawing it up and reviewing it is equally important and staff and young people should be involved. Staff, placing social workers and parents should have a copy. There must also be a young people’s guide to the home. Good practice will include: ● regular re-appraisal of the Statement of Purpose, within a process which includes staff and young people; ● a young person’s guide in a format or formats that they can use and understand easily; ● regular work with the young people to ensure that they do understand the guide and the ways in which staff should and should not be caring for them. Placement plans All young people must have a placement plan which identifies his or her needs and details how these are to be met and evaluated. The plan must cover: ● health and health promotion; ● care including safeguarding and promoting welfare; 6
  5. 5. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations ● physical and emotional needs; after a review, within what timescales; ● educational needs and attainment targets; ● staff preparing for reviews and being able to contribute to them, describing the young ● cultural, religious, language and racial needs; person’s achievements and difficulties; ● leisure; ● copies of the review being available to young ● contact arrangements. people, in a form that they can understand, and they are assisted in keeping these safely. Good practice will include: ● the young person knowing about his or her plan and how to contribute to it; Contact The work and practices of the home supports the ● the plan regularly being discussed with the young people to have constructive, safe contact with young person by his or her key worker or members of their family, friends and their community. equivalent; There is written guidance available for staff which ● the young person being supported in being helps them to: able to make his or her views known about the ● understand the importance of contact and the plan, and to influence decision making; rights of children and parents; ● all staff being aware of the plan for the young ● ensure that contact is safe for the child and others person; in the home; ● the plan fitting with other plans for the care, ● encourage parents, relatives and friends to take education and health of the young person and part in activities in and around the life of the parents able to contribute; home. ● young people being able to have a say in who is their key worker, or equivalent, and whether Good practice will include: he or she should be changed. ● demonstrating understanding of the importance of contact for the young person Reviews and enabling this (in accordance with his or her placement plan) through all the different forms Reviews are held within the statutory timescales, at of contact available to the home and the young least every six months. person; The young person is enabled to contribute and ● understanding when contact is not possible participate. and supporting the young person through this. Decisions and all agreed actions are followed through. Good practice will include: Moving in and ● preparation and follow-up work taking place leaving the home with the young person for his or her review; A home can only take young people in emergencies if ● young people’s progress and achievements this is part of their function and is specified in the recorded and noted; Statement of Purpose. ● the young person being provided with an Wherever possible, young people should be prepared advocate should they want one; for coming to live in the home and understand what to expect. ● staff requesting a review when one has not been arranged; There should be opportunities for these expectations to be repeated to them so that they are able to ● staff knowing what action they are to take understand them. 7
  6. 6. There are clear procedures for entering and leaving the ● Pathway Plan; home in both planned and unplanned ways. ● transition plan (for children with disabilities and Reviews are held within 72 hours after an emergency special educational needs). admission. The plan must specify their need for support and Staff contribute to a Pathway Plan for young people assistance and how they will receive this. leaving the home for independent or semi-independent The staff at the home must work with the young living. person’s personal adviser in implementing the plan. (A personal adviser is the young person’s adviser appointed Good practice will include: when he or she is 16 to carry out the responsibilities and ● enabling a young person to bring treasured duties of the Children (Leaving Care) Act 2000). possessions with them and helping them to keep Young people are helped to contribute to the these safely; assessment of their needs and the plan and have a copy. ● guides for young people about the home which Work with the young person must include all aspects of are clear, factual and easy to understand; his or her identity and development of self esteem, ● young people being helped to express their making and keeping relationships. emotions, and to cope with their feelings about living away from home; Good practice will include: ● staff carefully considering whether the home will ● ensuring a comprehensive assessment and the be able to meet the needs of the young person development of a plan which covers all of the as well as evaluating the impact of his or her young person’s needs including: admission on the existing group of residents. ◆ education, training and employment ◆ safe and affordable housing Preparation for leaving care ◆ support for disabled young people ◆ financial assistance ◆ claiming welfare benefits, where this is relevant ◆ access to health education and health care including specialist services, for example, counselling ◆ maintaining contact with important people for the young person, including the children’s home ◆ creating and accessing new forms of support and advice ◆ leisure The care young people receive while they are living in ◆ support to individual young people the home prepares them for leaving care and supports ● any specialist treatment programmes provided them into adulthood. within the home being approved by the The plan for the young person must be consistent with management of the home and the placing his or her: authority for the individual young person, and ● placement plan; being supervised by appropriately qualified and accredited staff; ● care plan; ● having individually directed programmes of 8
  7. 7. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations personal, health, social and sex education for all young people; Quality of Care ● specialist services being provided where appropriate, and young people supported in attending appointments; ● supporting young people who have been involved in abuse, or prostitution, and involving them in putting together their support and protection plans; ● supporting young people when English is not their first language and those who use other means of communication; ● each young person having someone outside the home they are able to talk to about their personal problems, or worries in the home; ● young people being helped to understand and develop their own sense of identity, their history and ensuring they have access to specialist services where necessary; Consultation ● having activities within the home which All young people, and their families or other significant promote inclusion and involvement, and help people, irrespective of their means of communication young people make friendships; are be encouraged and supported to take part in the ● young people being supported in taking life of the home and in decisions about their lives. controlled risks, which help them to develop However, where consultation with family or others is and achieve independence; not in the interests of the young person, this must be ● risk assessments being carried out and recorded; explained to him or her. Young people must be given ● agreed information being passed on to an opportunity to have an advocate or independent subsequent placements to ensure continuity of visitor in place of the family. care and support. Good practice will include: ● having transparent systems and opportunities for young people to contribute to decisions about the home, as well as individual sessions with young people to ensure that they are consulted about their individual plans; ● including parents and other people who are important for the young person, within these processes; ● parents being asked for their views about the care the young person is receiving and how the home is run, the staffing of the home, space and furnishings, including privacy and personal space and arrangements for contact; ● records being kept of all such meetings which 9
  8. 8. accurately record views, wishes and opinions, healthy, nutritious food and drink which offer variety and feedback to be given; and choice and /or guidance for providing these for themselves. The variety and choice must include food ● young people being helped to make individual which reflects the racial, religious and cultural diversity choices; of the residents. ● developments or changes to the home being Staff and children need to know about safe food discussed with all these people, including the handling and hygiene. placing authorities. Dining rooms and their furnishings must meet the needs of the home, staff and young people with Privacy and confidentiality reasonable, set meal times, but if young people miss The practices of the home must promote the young these, food is made available for them. person’s privacy insofar as this is consistent with their welfare. Good practice will include: Information should be shared on a need-to-know ● young people being able to plan menus, shop basis, and there must be procedures covering: for food and prepare their own and the home’s meals; ● confidentiality; ● young people being able to prepare their own ● access to records by staff and others; snacks and drinks, at reasonable times; ● the disclosure of illegal activities; ● seeking advice when young people have ● the circumstances and ways in which young problems with eating; people’s rooms are entered, for example, ● ensuring some communal meals and that these emergencies or when young people are deemed to are positive, orderly experiences. be at risk; ● personal and intimate care matters; Personal appearances, clothing, ● the circumstances under which searches of a young person’s possessions can occur and; requisites and pocket money Young people are able to ● the recording of these and; choose, buy, and keep their own ● the passing on of information relating to child clothes and other necessities, protection concerns. with guidance and support as appropriate to their development Placing authorities or, if none, the young person’s and wishes. parents must agree any restrictions on communication. Good practice will include: Good practice will include: ● opportunities for the young person to express ● the provision of an accessible, private and and develop their individual identity, so long as convenient telephone for young people; this is in accordance with their welfare, safety ● ensuring young people have choices and and protection; opportunities to consider consent concerning ● clarity concerning the young people’s personal provision of intimate care, invasive procedures allowances, and the arrangements for these; and levels of supervision. ● young people being helped to keep their money safely and assisted with budgeting; Provision and preparation of ● young people being able to keep their own meals stock of personal toiletries, and staff offering Young people must be provided with sufficient, advice and support. 10
  9. 9. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations Good Health and Well-Being Good practice will include: ● the home offering individual and communal The home promotes good health through its practices opportunities for young people to learn about in general and also through the individual support for and discuss how to promote their own health each young person. which includes information, advice and support The home has policies and written guidance concerning: concerning: ◆ alcohol and illegal, or other, substance abuse; ● immunisation and screening; ◆ smoking; ● nutrition and diet; ◆ solvents; ● exercise and rest; ◆ sex and relationships; ● personal hygiene; ◆ HIV infection; ● sexual health; ◆ hepatitis and sexually transmitted diseases; ● the effects of alcohol, smoking and other ◆ protection from prejudice, bullying and substances; abuse, within and outside the home; ● HIV and AIDS and other blood borne diseases. ● choice of doctor being offered wherever Young people are encouraged to take responsibility for possible and the young person being able to their own health care as appropriate to their age and choose (subject to their age and understanding) development, and clear records are kept of illnesses, whether to be accompanied when seeing the accidents and injuries. doctor; Each young person has his or her own health plan ● the practices of the home emphasising the which also provides a history and record of his or her importance of preserving the young person’s health care. It must include: dignity and privacy. ● medical history; ● details of any specific medical or other health Treatment and administration interventions required; of medicines within the home ● any necessary preventive measures; First aid and minor treatment and administration of ● allergies or known adverse reactions to medication; medicines are only carried out by competent and ● dental health needs; designated staff while more complex and skilled health tasks are carried out by staff with written authorisation ● any hearing needs; of the doctor or nurse responsible for the young ● any optical needs; person. ● records of developmental checks; There are first aid boxes in the home. ● specific treatment therapies or remedial The person with parental responsibility must have given programmes needed in relation to physical, written prior permission for the administration of first emotional or mental health; aid and appropriate non-prescribed medication. ● health monitoring required of staff; Records are kept of all tasks, and these records are ● the involvement of a child’s parents or significant monitored by the manager of the home (see Checklist others in health issues. 2, page 00) Treatment which is prescribed or detailed in the The term “nurse” is only used for a staff member who placement plan or care plan must be implemented, is registered as a nurse and he or she must have access subject to taking the young person’s wishes into to a named senior nurse or doctor for professional account. guidance and consultation. 11
  10. 10. Where children refuse to take medication prescribed of the young person; for them, this must be recorded and referred to the ● dates of national examinations and any other prescribing practitioner. examinations the young person may be taking; Medicines are kept securely and there is a written ● details of the staff responsible for liaising with policy on the storage, disposal and administering of schools, connexions/careers service, job centre, medication including non-prescribed, “household” employment agencies and local employers as medication. appropriate; Good practice will include: ● arrangements for travelling to and from school. ● young people being assessed as responsible to Good practice will include: keep safely and administer their own medication, before they are allowed to do so; ● staff demonstrating their interest and concern for a young person and emphasising the ● qualified, medical practitioners contributing to importance of his or her education; and checking the policies concerning the administration of medication. ● giving support and assistance with homework and out of school interests and activities which promote learning; Education ● books, computer equipment and access to libraries being promoted in the home; ● staff attending parents’ meetings and other school events in consultation with parents; ● young people having access to an educational programme during normal school hours, if he or she is out of school; ● staff actively working with the placing authority to secure appropriate full-time education provision for young people not in school. Each home has an educational policy which details how they will promote and support each young person’s education. Leisure and activities Each young person has a Personal Education Plan (PEP) to which the staff of the home have contributed, and which they understand and support. The PEP and other educational records must include: ● the young person’s educational attainments and records of achievement; ● the young person’s educational history and any statement of special educational needs and how his or her needs will be met; Young people must be provided with opportunities to ● whether he or she should attend a particular pursue their interests and to develop new ones. establishment; Leisure activities provide an opportunity for young ● the level of monitoring of a young person’s school people to develop skills which can enhance their self- attendance; esteem and help them to develop a stronger sense of ● parental/social work involvement in the education their own identity. 12
  11. 11. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations Homes should be able to provide a range of activities so that individual, as well as group, interests and Complaints and activities can be promoted. Staff should support young people in their interests Protection and activities, and this should include cultural and religious festivals. Interests and activities should be part of the placement and care plan and be included in reviews. While the young person’s day should have structure to it, they should also be able to have some time when they are able to do nothing in particular. Staff supervising or leading activities must be suitably qualified. Risk assessments are carried out and recorded. Transport used should be suitable and safe for the purpose and minibuses should not be marked to distinguish them from an ordinary car or bus (but it may carry the name of a charity which has donated it, and a school, which is a home, can put the name of the school on the transport). Good practice will include: ● young people and staff planning activities, events and holidays together; ● young people’s views being taken into account when planning these; Complaints and representation ● support being provided for young people, Young people must know how they can make particularly disabled young people, to enable representations and complaints. them to participate; These must be responded to promptly (within 28 days) ● having access to a range of suitable resources and the young person must be kept informed of the within the home, to extend the young people’s progress of his or her complaint. interests, including music, toys, books, games, They or their family, significant other, or independent newspapers and magazines; visitor (where appropriate) should be supported ● careful consideration being given to the young through the process and given information concerning people’s access to computer games and the access to an advocate. Internet and watching videos so that they are The advocate must be able to communicate through suitable for the age group of the young people the complainant’s primary method of communication living in and visiting the home; or language. ● young people participating in activities and The home’s complaints policy and procedure must: events in the community, encouraged to have friends and for these friends to visit them and ● enable complaints to be pursued, whether they are for them to make reciprocal visits to friends’ major or minor; homes. ● be investigated independently of the subject of the complaint; 13
  12. 12. ● forbid reprisals against the complainant; are aware of the complaints procedure and know how to use it; ● allow for informal attempts to resolve the complaint, but that the complainant can choose to ● managers and staff being alert to patterns of proceed to formal stages if he or she remains complaints and taking appropriate action; dissatisfied; ● having a regular programme of training and ● allow for complaints against the manager and support for staff in operating the procedure; registered person of the home to be investigated; ● having a separate procedure for addressing ● provide for the complaint and its progress to be complaints from outside the home, from the accurately recorded; community, shopkeepers, neighbours, etc. ● not restrict the issues that can be complained about; Child protection procedures ● provide for relevant complaints to be referred to and training other procedures, for example child protection, The safety and welfare of the young people are and provide a link between the complaints and promoted through the practices of the home. child protection procedures of the home; Staff are aware of and understand their responsibilities ● be accessible for disabled children; under child protection policies, practices and ● contain details concerning how to get in touch procedures and these are available in the home. with the NCSC; Staff know how to respond to allegations or suspicions ● also be in a summary format for young people and of abuse however these are presented or referred and their parents and placing authorities, and staff and whoever they may involve. others working in the home (they can also have Staff report to the police any evidence of young people the full policy and procedure). becoming involved in prostitution or of unauthorised Complaints are monitored and reviewed by the people making contact with the young people or registered person. picking them up. Good practice will include: Child protection policies and procedures are consistent with Area Child Protection Committee (ACPC) policy ● staff ensuring at regular intervals, and not only and procedures for the area in which the home is when they have a complaint, that young people 14
  13. 13. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations situated, and there are good links with other agencies. There is guidance concerning access to support and information when allegations of abuse are made against staff. Guidance must be available to staff covering: ● the importance of an initial full assessment of young people’s histories and any experiences of abuse so that children are not repeatedly asked; ● observing contacts between young people; ● supervision of young people; ● supervision and support of staff; ● recognition of possible involvement of young people in prostitution; ● confidentiality; ● physical contact between staff and young people; ● one-to-one time alone by staff with young people; Good practice will include: ● intimate care and invasive procedures; ● support for young people being bullied and ● administering medication. guidance for those who may be bullying others; ● risk assessments being undertaken to reduce the Good practice will include: incidents and opportunities for bullying. ● staff being aware that they must not give inappropriate guarantees of confidentiality nor ask leading questions; Absence of the young person ● staff discussing with young people protection without authority and safety issues and their response when there There are adequate safeguards in place for reporting are allegations or suspicions of abuse; and responding to a young person’s unauthorised ● advice being available to the registered manager absence from the home. and the staff concerning child protection Policy, guidance and procedures are available to staff, practice within the home, from the local Child and cover: Protection Co-ordinator or equivalent. ● the measures staff can and cannot take to prevent a young person running away; Countering bullying ● searching for the young person; Young people are protected from bullying and the ● reporting the young person as missing to police, home promotes an atmosphere where bullying is placing authority and others including parents known to be unacceptable. where appropriate and agreed with the placing There is a clear and understood definition of bullying authority; with measures to respond to and prevent it. ● carrying out a risk assessment concerning the likely The policy is known to all working and living in the risks to the young person; home, and it is monitored to ensure it is effective, and ● seeking information of his or her whereabouts; measures taken to revise the policy and practice where necessary. ● collection and return; 15
  14. 14. ● follow-up action to be taken when the young person returns; Care and Control ● implications for the placement plan and care plan; ● recording incidents of unauthorised absence. Good practice will include: Relationship with young people ● ensuring the young person is seen by his or her Staff know how to set safe, consistent and social worker or an independent person to understandable boundaries for the young people. ascertain his or her reason for running away; Expectations of behaviour for staff and young people ● ensuring that appropriate action is taken, for are understood and negotiated with staff and young example referring any child protection people. suspicions, allegations or concerns through the The acceptable measures of control used in the home child protection procedures; are understood as relating to the welfare of the young ● monitoring the attendance of vulnerable young person and the protection of others. people at school. Staff are able to balance the individual needs of the young person, and his or her wishes and preferences Notification of significant events with the needs of the group of young people and the protection of others from harm. All staff know about, understand and carry out their responsibilities for referring significant events to the Young people are treated fairly, without preference. relevant authorities (see Checklist 3, page 00). Staff provide continuity and stability for individual There are also systems in place to inform parents young people. where it is appropriate to do so of any other incidents Good practice will include: or welfare concerns. ● staff setting clear personal and professional Written records are kept. boundaries which work for the individual and Placing authorities need to be notified of any the group; emotional and mental health concerns for a young ● relationships and work with the young people person. This could involve a mental health assessment based on honesty and respect; being requested. ● staff being consistent in the care and control The home must request a meeting to review the care they provide for the young people; and placement plans following the notification of any ● young people able to exercise choices over significant events, unless the placing authority has which staff help them with their personal care. agreed it is not necessary to hold a meeting. Good practice will include: Behaviour Management ● staff being aware of the home’s responsibilities In Checklist 4 (page 00), there is a list of sanctions to report serious incidents and requesting which cannot be used under any circumstances. managers to do so; Control, disciplinary and restraint measures used within ● staff working with parents to ensure they are the home must be agreed with the manager or provider. They must be understood by staff and young aware, where appropriate and agreed with the people and consistently used. placing agency, of concerns about their child and the actions taken to address the concern. There is a clear written code of conduct/behaviour management policy setting these out. 16
  15. 15. Young people should receive praise and positive proportionate, and taking into consideration the responses for acceptable behaviour. young person’s circumstances; Unacceptable behaviour is responded to constructively ● staff discussing with young people their rights and consistently. and responsibilities in relation to sanctions and the rules within the home, and with an Reparation and restitution can be used. emphasis on everyone’s responsibilities to those Restraint is only used to prevent injury to the young who live and work in the home and to the person or others, or likely serious damage to property, community; never to enforce compliance to an instruction or as a ● holding forums or house meetings as well as punishment. individual meetings where young people are The home has a policy on the use of restraint and encouraged to discuss the rules and sanctions, other forms of physical intervention, and how, and and express their views; under what circumstances these can be carried out. ● staff being able to raise in their own meetings This is available and explained to the young person, his concerns about behaviour and methods of or her parent/carer and the placing authority at the responding to behaviour, and agree actions as a time of admission to the home. staff group which; support the young person, Staff must have signed a copy of the policy, to are included within his or her placement plan, demonstrate that they have seen and understood it. and are consistently applied across the staff Detailed records are kept concerning the use of all group. sanctions and restraint and these are available in a separate “log book” and these records are monitored by the registered person/manager (see definition in Checklist 1, page 00). Young people are encouraged to sign this record and to record their views about the intervention. The young person understands that following a physical intervention they have the right to be examined by a nurse or doctor within 24 hours. There should be clear procedures agreed with the police concerning their involvement with the home. Staff need to know about these. Good practice will include: ● having measures of control for each young person set within: ◆ the development of a positive relationship ◆ responding positively to acceptable behaviour ◆ each young person’s placement plan as well as ◆ the general rules which apply within the home ● sanctions and other responses to unacceptable behaviour following, as quickly as possible, the incident, these being reasonable and 17
  16. 16. Environment Location, Design and Size Young people should feel safe and protected and staff should carefully consider the characteristics and of the home experiences of young people who share rooms to The home must be designed so that it meets the guard against the potential for abusive behaviour. individual needs of the young people and its Disabled young people should be able to call for help statement of purpose. and must be provided with all necessary equipment The home must be safe for the young people it and space to maximise their independence and enable accommodates and all health and safety and assistance. protective measures taken to ensure this. Young people must have access to a quiet space for It should be accessible for all those who live there and study and homework and pursuit of their own enable them to participate in and have access to individual interests, as well as safe storage of their essential services, as well as those people they have personal items. contact with. There are also rooms for young people to meet with The young people’s privacy should be protected, and their friends, family or significant people in private if the premises are used for other functions, young without disruption to the other young people. people’s welfare is not compromised. Positive links with the local community are promoted. Bathrooms and Good practice will include: Washing Facilities These are designed to ensure maximum privacy and ● staff working with young people to ensure that where young people require assistance, this can be they understand the need to protect the given in a way that preserves the young person’s privacy of the home and guard against dignity. unwelcome visitors; Staff, but not young people, should be able to open ● staff and young people working together: the doors to bathrooms, showers and toilets from the looking after the fabric of the building, outside, in an emergency. preventing and making good damage, deciding about décor and furnishings. Where homes accommodate more than five children, staff must use separate shower, bathroom and toilet facilities to those used by young people. Accommodation Young people should have their own bedroom or own personal space within a shared room, with Health, Safety and Security sufficient room to accommodate them. Young people must be looked after within a home which meets all the health and safety requirements. In a school which is a home, as far as possible, young people should be given the option of a single room. Careful consideration is given to the risks each young Young people’s views should be ascertained before person may pose, and risk assessments and plans decisions are made about sharing a room. From April followed through. These plans should be monitored 2003 there must be no more than four young people and reviewed by the registered person. in a room, nor an odd number of young people sharing. 18
  17. 17. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations Staffing Staff Support All staff must receive regular supervision. In children’s homes: ● new staff should have one-to-one supervision at least fortnightly during the first six months of their employment; ● agency staff or those employed infrequently should have one-to-one supervision at least every eight shifts worked in the home; ● all other staff should have at least one and a half hours of one-to-one supervision each month. In schools which are also homes: ● new staff should have one-to-one supervision at least fortnightly during the first two terms of their employment; ● agency staff or those employed infrequently should have one-to-one supervision at least every half term when they work ten shifts or days at the school; Vetting of Staff and Visitors ● all other staff should have at least one and a half All staff must be carefully recruited following approved hours of one to one supervision every half-term. procedures, ensuring that all the necessary checks are Supervision must be recorded. carried out. This must include agency staff. Supervision must address: If in agreed circumstances, all the checks have not been carried out, staff must be closely supervised and ● responses to and methods of working with young not left alone with young people. people; Visitors to the home should also be subject to the ● work with any young person for whom the staff necessary checks, or not allowed unsupervised access member is key worker; to the home. ● the staff member’s role, including his or her There must be systems in place to monitor and record accountability, in fulfilling the home’s Statement of visits to the home. Purpose; Where young people are carried in taxis they are either ● the staff member’s work in fulfilling the placement accompanied or their welfare is safeguarded. plan for individual children; ● degree of personal involvement, feelings, concern Good practice will include: and stress; ● staff and young people meeting shortlisted ● staff development and training; applicants prior to the decision about the appointment, and their views taken into ● feedback on performance; account. ● guidance on current and new tasks, including the ● all staff, including contract and agency, should setting and maintenance of standards; have a Criminal Records Bureau check on ● personal issues which may impinge on the member appointment, or gain one immediately after. of staff’s ability to carry out his or her duties effectively. 19
  18. 18. All staff must have annual appraisals which cover the Young people must not be given responsibility for other level of performance achieved, targets for the coming young people and where they are asked to carry out year and the agreed training needs to be met within the specific tasks, this does not place them in a position following year as part of the individual’s Personal from which they can bully other young people. Development Plan. Staff disciplinary procedures are clear and separate from All staff should have written job descriptions. child protection and criminal proceedings. Staff have access to sources of advice and counselling. Staff do not smoke with or in the presence of young people in the home, nor use or take into the home any Staff meetings occur at least monthly and include: illegal drug or other substance. ● discussion of the home’s work in caring for Staff may only have a small alcoholic drink with the individual young people; permission of the registered person, in exceptional ● management of the current child group; circumstances, for example, with Christmas lunch. ● review of the home’s practices. Meetings have an agenda and are minuted. Adequacy of Staffing The numbers, experience and competency of the staff as a group and on individual shifts must be sufficient to meet the needs of the young people in the home and fulfil the expectations of the Statement of Purpose. (See Checklists 1 and 6, pages 00 and 00). The home must be able to increase the numbers of staff on duty where the needs of the young people or other circumstances indicate this is necessary in order to safeguard and promote the welfare of any individual young person. Risk assessments must be carried out if a member of staff is on duty on his or her own and adequate arrangements should be in place to ensure that extra support can be called on. Young people must know at all times who is responsible for them and the arrangements for calling them. Staff should understand the arrangements for deputising. Staff rotas have time scheduled for: ● handovers; ● work with individual young people; ● completion of records; ● planning and carrying out of care programmes; and these can be carried out without compromising the overall care of the young people. Records of rotas are kept. 20
  19. 19. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations Management and Monitoring of the operation of administration the home The registered person monitors the home in relation to those areas specified within Checklist 2 (page 00). He or she is looking in particular for patterns of behaviour, concerns which require action and ensuring that incidents and concerns have been reported to the appropriate authority. He or she is also responsible for ensuring that the home continues to meet the Statement of Purpose. He or she is responsible for ensuring there is a written development plan, reviewed annually. Copies of inspection reports should be available and accessible to all those entitled to see them. Business Management The home must be run on a sound financial basis to ensure that services for the young people are reliable and provide continuity. Monitoring by the Person The registered manager must have a job description stating their responsibilities and duties and their line of Carrying on the Home accountability. There must be monthly monitoring visits to the home carried out by the registered person where they do not manage the home on a day-to-day basis. Children’s Individual Case Files Each young person has a private, secure case file to These visits must be recorded and action taken which he or she, and their parents, as appropriate, addressing the issues raised in his or her report. have access, in compliance with legal requirements. They are normally unannounced but announced visits can be made in order to ensure that the people the Good practice will include: visitor wishes to meet are present. ● staff sharing records and reports with young They must cover: people at the time of recording. ● checks on the daily log; ● records of complaints; Specific settings Young people in secure settings should also receive ● disciplinary measures and the use of restraint; care which meets these Standards, excepting those ● assessment of the physical condition of the which relate to their need for security. building, furniture and equipment of the home; This also applies to young people in refuges, and the and provide an opportunity for the visitor to meet with Standards should only be adapted to fit with the status a young person and/or member of staff should any of and ethos of a refuge. them wish to do so. These meetings can occur in private. 21
  20. 20. Checklists management or its equivalent. If, between now and January 2005 a manager is appointed without the required qualification he or she must begin a relevant course of study within 3 months of his or her appointment. Experience He or she must have at least 2 years’ experience working with children during the past 5 years and at least a further 1 year’s experience at a senior level in a residential establishment. Care Staff By January 2004, all care staff must be aged over 18, Both the Regulations and the Standards contain a and within this they must be at least 4 years older than number of very useful checklists Some of them the oldest child. set out things you must or must not do by law. They cannot be in a management role nor in sole They are summarised below, with explanations where charge of children unless they are over 21. necessary. They must have induction training within six weeks of arriving at the home, and foundation training within Checklist 1 six months. (These are to the Training Organisation for Staff Qualifications / Social Services [TOPSS] specification - Experience By January 2005, at least 8 out of 10 care staff in any home must have a relevant NVQ Level 3 qualification, The Standards set out the required qualifications and for example, Caring for children and young People or experience for different categories of staff. other qualification with similar competencies. The Manager of a Home In addition, the Deputy Manager This is the registered person who directly manages the (or similar post) home and its staff. It may or may not be same person as the provider or proprietor. must have at least 1 year’s relevant supervisory experience For a school registered as a children’s home this must be the Head of Care although the registered person will be the Head of the School – they cannot be the same person. Qualifications He or she must (by January 2005) have a relevant qualification – DipSW or NVQ Level 4 in a relevant area. Again by January 2005 he or she must have Level 4 in 22
  21. 21. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations Checklist 2 11 Unauthorised absences of children (that is, absconding) Monthly monitoring by the 12 Use of punishments and disciplinary measures registered person 13 Use of restraint The Regulations require those registered by the 14 Risk assessments that have been carried out, National Care Standards Commission as the provider and the action taken to reduce risks and manager of the home to ensure that the 15 Giving of medication, first aid and treatments following aspects of the running of the home are for children monitored every month. Because this is in the 16 Staff rotas - as planned, and as actually Regulations, this monitoring must be done, by law. worked In practice, this requires the Manager of the home to: 17 What is recorded in the home’s Daily Log ● check the records of each of the items on the list 18 Fire drills and alarm tests carried out, any following; problems and any action taken ● carry out any appropriate further checks on each 19 Staff appraisals of these (for example, discussing them with staff or children concerned); 20 Minutes of staff meetings ● take any action this shows is needed to improve … and for homes that are also schools, how the home is looking after children; 21 The school’s standards of educational ● keep a record that they have made these checks provision. and are taking this action. 1 How well the home is complying with each child’s: ● care plan ● placement plan 2 The safe-keeping, depositing and withdrawal of any children’s money or valuables looked after by the home 3 Menus (as actually served) 4 Accidents or injuries at the home 5 Illnesses of children 6 Complaints and their outcomes 7 Any allegations or suspicions of abuse and their outcomes 8 Staff recruitment - and whether all necessary records and checks have been carried out 9 Visitors to the home and to individual children 10 Whether notifications of major events have been made to the right people as required in the Regulations (what these are, and where they go, are listed below) 23
  22. 22. Checklist 3 As well as these notifications to organisations, the Regulations require you, by law, to tell a child’s Statutory Notifications parent(s) of anything significant that happens that affects their child’s welfare – unless it is not The Regulations require that the following events must “reasonably practicable” to notify them (for example be notified to the organisations. neither you nor the child’s placing authority has any means of contacting them), OR to tell them would put These notifications have to be made “without delay”. the child’s welfare at risk. If any of these notifications are given verbally (e.g. on The legally required events, and who must be told the telephone), they must then be confirmed in about them, are as follows: writing. Event To be notified to Commission Placing Secretary Local Police Health authority of State authority authority Death of a child Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes accommodated in the home Referral to the Secretary of Yes Yes State pursuant to section 2(1)(a) of the Protection of Children Act 1999(a) of an individual working at the home Serious illness or serious Yes Yes accident sustained by a child accommodated in the home Outbreak of any infectious Yes Yes Yes disease which in the opinion of a registered medical practitioner attending children at the home is sufficiently serious to be so notified Allegation that a child Yes Yes accommodated at the home has committed a serious offence Involvement or suspected Yes Yes Yes Yes involvement of a child accommodated at the home in prostitution Serious incident necessitating Yes Yes calling the police to the home Absconding by a child Yes accommodated at the home Any serious complaint about Yes Yes the home or persons working there Instigation and outcome of Yes Yes any child protection enquiry involving a child accommodated at the home 24
  23. 23. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations Checklist 4 Prohibited Sanctions 13 Keeping any usual aids or equipment from a disabled child. The Regulations prohibit certain forms of punishment 14 Letting or asking another child to punish a child in in children’s homes. Those listed below are therefore, any way. (You have therefore to be very careful quite literally, outlawed, and must not be used inside that punishments are only given or carried out by or outside any home. staff, and that if older children are given some 1 Physical restraint of a child must not be used: responsibilities towards younger children, this does not involve any giving of punishments of any sort. ● as punishment; If your home is also a school, and there is a prefect ● simply to make the child do what he or she is system, this means that prefects cannot be allowed told; to give punishments.) ● if there is no likely injury to someone, or likely 15 Punishing a group of children for something not all SERIOUS damage to property. of them did. (You cannot therefore use punishments on the lines of “unless the person 2 Any form of corporal punishment (e.g. hitting, who did this owns up, none of you will watch TV slapping, pushing, throwing something at a child). tonight”.) 3 Making a child eat or drink something as a It is important that these actions cannot be used as punishment. punishments – but some of them may happen without 4 Depriving a child of usual access to food and drink being punishments. For example, a child may end up as a punishment. deprived of sleep because of the night time behaviour of others. That does not mean that he or she has been 5 Stopping a child having contact, visits or illegally punished. communicating with people he or she would otherwise be allowed. The fact that the Regulations include this list does not mean that any form of punishment not on the 6 Stopping a child from phoning a welfare helpline, prohibited list is OK. There is a general Regulation as his or her solicitor, adviser, advocate, social worker, well, that any punishment used must not be excessive or other personnel from the Commission or local or unreasonable. authority. As well as this, the Regulations only let you use 7 Making a child wear distinctive or inappropriate punishments that are listed in the home’s “Behaviour clothes as a punishment (note this means as a Management Policy”. punishment, not that a young person can claim it lets them off wearing their usual school uniform To keep inside the law, you therefore need to know what punishments are allowed at the home, and stick for school!). to those, as well as avoiding anything on the 8 Giving a child medicine as a punishment. prohibited list above. 9 Stopping a child from having medication, medical and a final word on physical restraint … treatment or dental treatment they would Remember that physical restraint is not to be otherwise have, as a punishment. used as a punishment, but only to prevent 10 Deliberately depriving a child of sleep as a someone getting injured or property being punishment. seriously damaged. Restraint itself must never cause undue pain or injury. 11 Making a child pay a fine, unless this is a reasonable amount and is towards putting right something they have done or damaged. Guidance and Training 12 Making a child undergo any sort of intimate The Standards include two important lists of the physical examination as a punishment. (Children information you should be given by the home you are have the right to refuse any physical examination.) working in. 25
  24. 24. The first list is what should be covered in the guidance Checklist 5 the home gives to its staff – so it contains all the things on which the home must tell you its policies and Staff Guidance practices. This may be in the form of a Staff Handbook or something similar, a staff reference file, or a set of You should be given staff guidance about: separate policies and practice documents. 1 Admitting and receiving children to the home The second list is what the home should make sure is 2 Care and control methods approved for use in the covered in the staff training it gives you over the time home you are working in the home. 3 The health and education policies of the home 4 The approved punishments or sanctions you are able to use with children 5 The home’s policy and practice on the use of restraint 6 What records you are expected to keep or make entries in – and how 7 Who has access to what records 8 Children’s care plans 9 Children’s placement plans 10 How staff should implement individual children’s placement plans 11 Preventing and responding to bullying between children 12 Making entries in and using, the home’s Log Book 13 Keeping confidentiality 14 Administering money in the home, and its security 15 How repairs and maintenance happen 16 Fire precautions and emergency procedures 17 Doing and using risk assessments 18 Locking doors, windows, filing and medication cabinets, garden gates etc 19 Health and safety policy – this includes food hygiene 20 How, and under what circumstances room searches can occur 21 Child protection 22 Checking and supervising visitors to the home and to individual children 23 Dealing with HIV/AIDS 24 Responding to allegations or your own suspicions of abuse of any child 26
  25. 25. The Staff guide to the Children’s Homes Standards and Regulations 25 How to deal with children who have experienced Checklist 6 abuse 26 The home’s staffing policy detailing who /how Staff Training many people are on duty at any one point in time Your staff training should cover: 27 Staff rotas 1 Child development – both normal and abnormal 28 Shift handovers 2 Basic residential skills 29 Sleeping-in duties 3 Teamworking 30 Supervising children at bedtimes and at night 4 Any special child care techniques at the home, and 31 Issues to do with physical contact with children the skills you need for these 32 Issues to do with one-to-one time with individual 5 Keeping control children 6 Recording skills* 33 Care practice with children of the opposite sex to 7 Permitted and prohibited punishments and other yourself disciplinary measures 34 The needs of children from minority ethnic groups 8 Using restraint 35 How to combat racism in the home and for 9 Child protection procedures and practice* children from the home 10 Issues about race, ethnic background, religion and 36 The staff disciplinary and grievance procedures cultural background 37 What authority is delegated to who to make 11 Dealing with sexuality decisions 12 Health education, including diet and nutrition 38 Who you are required to notify of any particular decisions or events 13 Dealing with HIV and AIDS 39 Reviews of children’s care plans and placement 14 Communicating with young people plans, and your own input 15 Ways of communicating with disabled young 40 Dealing with aggression and violence people 41 Dealing with sexuality and personal relationships in 16 Lifting and handling techniques where the home is the home accommodating disabled young people who need to be lifted and handled 42 Working with parents and carers 17 Health and safety at work** 43 First aid 18 Food hygiene skills 44 Giving, recording and storing medicines 19 Safety with medicines 45 The children’s complaints (or “representations”) procedure 20 Fire precautions* 46 Smoking policy 21 First aid and medical procedures* 47 Alcohol policy 22 The Children Act 1989, the Human rights Act 1998, and other relevant legislation 48 Drugs and misuse of substances policy 23 Encouraging young people’s hobbies and activities 49 Policy on giving and receiving gifts 24 Supervising other staff (if you are expected to do 50 Whistleblowing if you have concerns about this) children’s welfare. 25 Interviewing skills (if you are expected to help in recruiting new staff) 27