MEANING OF COMMUNICATION The term ‘communication’ is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means common. Communication stands for sharing of ideas in common. Communication of ideas establishes a common ground for understanding
DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATION • Communication is the process of passing information & understanding THEO from one person to another. • It is the process of imparting ideas & HAIMANN making oneself understood by others. AMERICAN • Communication is any behaviour that MARKETING results in an exchange of meaning.ASSOCIATION
THREE ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATIONSubject Matter ( Order( Sender Element ofInformation, Id &Receiver ) Understanding eas & feeling)
OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION INFORMATION EDUCATION ADVICE WARNING ORDER RAISING MORALE SUGGESTION MOTIVATION PERSUASION
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION PROPER BETTER PLANNING ADMINISTRATION BETTER MUTUAL TRUST & COORDINATION CONFIDENCE
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATIONContd… Building Binding Morale Force Basis for Decision Motivation Making
Smooth Business Functioning & Maximum Productivity Establishing Better with minimum cost labour Relations Imp. Of Buss.Comm. Need for Competitive Improving Business Information & System & MouldingDemocratic Functioning Attitudes
COMMUNICATION PROCESSFEEDBACK SENDER RECEIVER- MESSAGE DECODING CHANNEL ENCODING
MODELS OF COMMUNICATION LINEAR MODEL• Aristotle’s Model, Mathematical Model, David Berlo’s & Harold’s Model INTERPERSONAL MODEL• Two-way Communication or Interactional Model
AristotleMathematical LINEAR David MODEL Harold
ARISTOTLE MODEL OF COMMUNICATION He developed the first communication model. It was easy, simple & elementary model of the communication. SPEAKER As per him, there are 3 mainAUDIENCE in SPEECH ingredients any communication event :--
MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION It was developed by C.E. Shannon & W. Weaver in 1949. They considered the theory as strictly mathematical & identified the technical aspects of communication. According to them, there are 5 basic elements in any communication :-- Information Transmitter Channel Receiver Destination
DAVID K. BERLO’s MODEL OF COMMUNICATION His theory is one of the basic theories for all communication theorists. The following nine components are included in his model :- Source Encoder Message Channel Receiver Decoder Meaning Feedback Noise
HAROLD’s MODEL OF COMMUNICATION It gives rise to five basic & important questions :-- WHY? WHAT? HOW? WHO? WHEN?
INTERPERSONAL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Also known as “circular” or “cyclical” model. It introduces the element of feedback which was absent in the linear models. Following are the elements under the interpersonal model :-- Message or Idea Sender or transmitter or communicator Encoding Channel Medium Receiver Decoding Action or behaviour change Feedback
COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL ENCODING CHANNEL DECODING IDEA IDEA RECEIVED MESSAGE ( Receiver ( Sender ) MESSAGE ) FEEDBACK
EFFECTIVENESS, LIMITATIONS & MEDIACHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION A channel of communication is the path through which information is transmitted throughout the organization. Channels of communication are divided intoFORMAL two types :---INFORMAL
FORMAL COMMUNICATION It refers to official communication which takes place following the chain of command. Formal channels include the paths of communication which are institutionally determined by the organization Formal communication usually takes the form of written communication such as notes, memos, letters, reports & statements. Formal communication are of 4 types :- DOWNWARD UPWARD HORIZONTAL DIAGONAL
Formal Communication President Instructions and directivesInformation Vice Vice President President Manager Manager Manager Manager Efforts at coordination
OBJECTIVES OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION POLICIES & JOB FEEDBACKPROCEDURES INSTRUCTIONS JOB MOTIVATION & RATIONALE TRAINING
UPWARD COMMUNICATION MANAGINGUPWARD DIRECTOR DEPTT. HEADS OPERATIVE EMPLOYEES
MODES OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION SUGGESTIONS QUESTIONNAIRES GRIEVANCES OPEN DOOR OMBUDSPERSON POLICY
DOWNWARD v/s UPWARD COMMUNICATION DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION UPWARD COMMUNICATION Represents flow of Represents flow from information from top level lower level to top level to lower levels. Its purpose is to Its purpose is to keep the communicate policies, superiors informed about procedures & orders to the the progress of work. subordinates. It takes the form of written It takes the form of activity & oral instructions, letters, reports, suggestions etc. co’s publications etc.
HORIZONTAL OR LATERAL COMMUNICATION It refers to the transmission of information among persons of the same level & status. It generally takes place among dept. heads for achieving coordination in the enterprise. Objectives of lateral communication are :-- COORDINATION SOLVING PROBLEMS RESOLVING CONFLICT EXCHANGING INFORMATION PROMOTING SOCIAL RELATIONS
HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION M.D. Divisional Divisional Manager Manager ( Steel ) ( Cement ) Production Marketing Finance Head Head Head
DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION It takes place b/w people who work in different departments & at different levels within an organization. It involves committees, teams or task forces that are created to solve problems or complete special projects
PROS & CONS OF FORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication is It is a slow moving systematic . process Source of communication can be Personal warmth & easily located. involvement may be Facilitate control lacking Easy fixation of Accurate information responsibilities. may not be transmitted.
INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication b/w individuals & groups which are not officially recognized is known as informal communication. It consists of exchange of ideas & information resulting from social interaction among members of an organization. Also known as Grapevine Communication.
CHARACTERSITICS OF GRAPEVINE Transmits It is unrestricted byinformation laterally formal policies & & diagonally procedures. GRAPEVINE It extends beyond the It is selective formal hierarchy.
TYPES OF GRAPEVINE NETWORKS SINGLE STRAND CHAIN ( Communication through intervening persons in a strand ) GOSSIP CHAIN ( One person non-selectively communicates with everyone. ) PROBABILITY ( Random communication with others as per the probability law. ) CLUSTER CHAIN ( Selective communication with those trusted ones )
DIFFERENCE b/w FORMAL * INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONFORMAL COMMUNICATION INFORMAL COMMUNICATION It follows the official chain It is independent of the of command. authority relations in the organization. Carries messages at a fast Slow moving process speed. Easy to pinpoint the May not be easy to fix responsibility. responsibility. It is orderly & systematic. It is unsystematic & erratic. Serves org. needs Serves both org. & social needs.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONSEMANTIC PERSONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGICAL, ORG. CULTURAL & STRUCTURAL MECHANICAL BARRIERS
Types of Barriers Physical Noise Technical Noise Psychological Noise Poor Timing Perceptual Bias Lack of Interest Psychological Bias Information Overload
Physical Noise Physical noise occurs when the sender and receiver try to communicate in a situation that is noisy For example, the bus stop. The noise produced by the passing buses create what is known as ‘physical noise’.
Technical Noise Technical noise occurs when the sender and the receiver use a tool to communicate for example, a phone. When 2 people are communicating using the phone, and one person steps into an elevator, the signal will be lost and the communication will fail. The break down with the tool used to communicate is known as ‘technical noise’.
Psychological Noise Psychological noise occurs when the receiver of the message is thinking of something and not concentrating on the message itself, for example, having class in a park. While this may sound like a nice and comfortable situation to be in the message may be lost if the receiver of the message is thinking about if the grass is wet or if there are any harmful bees around. As the receiver loses concentration on what is being transmitted by the sender, so we have ‘psychological noise’.
Poor Timing Poor timing usually happens when the sender is not aware of the mood of the receiver when sending the message. For example, approaching your employer for a raise when he/she has just made an announcement that the company is almost bankrupt.
Perceptual Bias Perceptual bias occurs when the sender is not aware of the rules of first impression. For example, when you attend an interview there is an appropriate dress code. Failure to follow that dress code may result in you being prejudiced against. If you go for an interview for an accounting position dressed in jeans and a t- shirt, don’t be surprised if you don’t get the job.
Lack of Interest Sometimes, there are some things that we are just not interested in. Of all the subjects that students learn to complete their degree, they cannot love all. There will be the ONE or TWO subject that we have to suffer to stay awake for. A lack of interest in what someone has to say will definitely lead to a breakdown in communication.
Psychological Bias Ever heard of prejudices? Someone doesn’t like you because you are male/female,old/young, ric h/poor. There are biases. A bias is something that the sender cannot fix. There is no solution to this problem. Just be prepared.
Information Overload Information overload occurs when you try to absorb too much information over a short period of time. If you try to study continuously for hours without a break, or introduce too many new concepts to your learning in one period of time, your mind will become confused and this can lead to a break down in communication.