By Gayatri PadegaonkarBUSINESS COMMUNICATION
MEANING OF COMMUNICATION The term ‘communication’ is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means common. Communic...
DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATION              • Communication is the process of                passing information & understan...
THREE ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATIONSubject Matter        (         Order( Sender    Element ofInformation, Id    &Receiver )   ...
OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION INFORMATION    EDUCATION ADVICE         WARNING ORDER          RAISING MORALE SUGGESTIO...
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION          PROPER          BETTER         PLANNING      ADMINISTRATION           BETTER      MUT...
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATIONContd…         Building     Binding         Morale        Force         Basis for         Decis...
Smooth Business    Functioning &        Maximum Productivity  Establishing Better     with minimum cost   labour Relations...
COMMUNICATION PROCESSFEEDBACK                SENDER RECEIVER-                              MESSAGE DECODING      CHANNEL  ...
MODELS      OF    COMMUNICATION         LINEAR MODEL• Aristotle’s Model, Mathematical  Model, David Berlo’s & Harold’s Mod...
AristotleMathematical               LINEAR       David               MODEL                Harold
ARISTOTLE MODEL OF             COMMUNICATION He developed the first communication  model. It was easy, simple & elementa...
MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF              COMMUNICATION It was developed by C.E. Shannon & W. Weaver in    1949.   They conside...
DAVID K. BERLO’s MODEL OF             COMMUNICATION His theory is one of the basic theories for all    communication theo...
HAROLD’s MODEL OF COMMUNICATION It gives rise to five basic & important  questions :--       WHY?               WHAT?    ...
INTERPERSONAL MODEL OF                    COMMUNICATION    Also known as “circular” or “cyclical” model. It introduces th...
COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL          ENCODING    CHANNEL        DECODING                                          IDEA   I...
EFFECTIVENESS, LIMITATIONS & MEDIACHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION A channel of communication is the path  through which information is transmitted  throughout th...
FORMAL COMMUNICATION It refers to official communication which takes place    following the chain of command.   Formal c...
Formal Communication                                          President                                                   ...
DOWNWARD COMMUNICATIONDOWNWARD      MD         DOWNWARD             DEPTT.             HEADS           OPERATIVE          ...
OBJECTIVES OF DOWNWARD         COMMUNICATION POLICIES &        JOB                              FEEDBACKPROCEDURES    INST...
UPWARD   COMMUNICATION              MANAGINGUPWARD        DIRECTOR             DEPTT. HEADS              OPERATIVE        ...
MODES OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION                        SUGGESTIONS     QUESTIONNAIRES                          GRIEVANCES   ...
DOWNWARD v/s UPWARD               COMMUNICATION        DOWNWARD      COMMUNICATION                UPWARD COMMUNICATION Re...
HORIZONTAL OR LATERAL            COMMUNICATION It refers to the transmission of information  among persons of the same le...
HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION                                    M.D.               Divisional                  Divisional     ...
DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION It takes place b/w people who work in different  departments & at different levels within an  orga...
PROS & CONS OF FORMAL              COMMUNICATION Communication is        It is a slow moving  systematic .             p...
INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication b/w individuals & groups  which are not officially recognized is known  as informal ...
GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION
CHARACTERSITICS OF GRAPEVINE     Transmits           It is unrestricted byinformation laterally      formal policies &    ...
TYPES OF GRAPEVINE NETWORKS SINGLE STRAND CHAIN ( Communication  through intervening persons in a strand ) GOSSIP CHAIN ...
DIFFERENCE b/w FORMAL *        INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONFORMAL COMMUNICATION              INFORMAL COMMUNICATION It follows ...
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONSEMANTIC        PERSONAL     PSYCHOLOGICAL                     TECHNOLOGICAL,          ORG.      ...
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION.
Types of Barriers         Physical Noise         Technical Noise         Psychological Noise         Poor Timing      ...
Physical Noise Physical noise occurs when  the sender and receiver try to  communicate in a situation  that is noisy For...
Technical Noise Technical noise occurs when the  sender and the receiver use a  tool to communicate for  example, a phone...
              Psychological Noise    Psychological noise occurs when the  receiver of the message is thinking of  somethi...
Poor Timing Poor timing usually happens  when the sender is not aware  of the mood of the receiver  when sending the mess...
Perceptual Bias Perceptual bias occurs when the sender is not aware  of the rules of first impression. For example, when...
Lack of Interest Sometimes,     there are some  things that we are just not  interested in. Of all the subjects  that stu...
Psychological Bias Ever heard of prejudices?  Someone doesn’t like you  because       you      are  male/female,old/young...
Information Overload Information overload occurs  when you try to absorb too  much information over a short  period of ti...
7 Cs of Effective              Communication CLARITY             COMPLETENESS CREDIBILITY         CHANNEL CONTENT    ...
PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE           COMMUNICATION SPEEDY           ECONOMY  TRANSMISSION CLARITY OF       SECRECY  MESSA...
Two-way channel           Mutual Trust             Overcoming              BarriersTimely Message      Clarity of Message
Consistency of                         Good Relations     Message                Overcoming                  barriersEmpat...
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Business communication

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Business communication

  1. 1. By Gayatri PadegaonkarBUSINESS COMMUNICATION
  2. 2. MEANING OF COMMUNICATION The term ‘communication’ is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means common. Communication stands for sharing of ideas in common. Communication of ideas establishes a common ground for understanding
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATION • Communication is the process of passing information & understanding THEO from one person to another. • It is the process of imparting ideas & HAIMANN making oneself understood by others. AMERICAN • Communication is any behaviour that MARKETING results in an exchange of meaning.ASSOCIATION
  4. 4. THREE ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATIONSubject Matter ( Order( Sender Element ofInformation, Id &Receiver ) Understanding eas & feeling)
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION INFORMATION  EDUCATION ADVICE  WARNING ORDER  RAISING MORALE SUGGESTION  MOTIVATION PERSUASION
  6. 6. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION PROPER BETTER PLANNING ADMINISTRATION BETTER MUTUAL TRUST & COORDINATION CONFIDENCE
  7. 7. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATIONContd… Building Binding Morale Force Basis for Decision Motivation Making
  8. 8. Smooth Business Functioning & Maximum Productivity Establishing Better with minimum cost labour Relations Imp. Of Buss.Comm. Need for Competitive Improving Business Information & System & MouldingDemocratic Functioning Attitudes
  9. 9. COMMUNICATION PROCESSFEEDBACK SENDER RECEIVER- MESSAGE DECODING CHANNEL ENCODING
  10. 10. MODELS OF COMMUNICATION LINEAR MODEL• Aristotle’s Model, Mathematical Model, David Berlo’s & Harold’s Model INTERPERSONAL MODEL• Two-way Communication or Interactional Model
  11. 11. AristotleMathematical LINEAR David MODEL Harold
  12. 12. ARISTOTLE MODEL OF COMMUNICATION He developed the first communication model. It was easy, simple & elementary model of the communication. SPEAKER As per him, there are 3 mainAUDIENCE in SPEECH ingredients any communication event :--
  13. 13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION It was developed by C.E. Shannon & W. Weaver in 1949. They considered the theory as strictly mathematical & identified the technical aspects of communication. According to them, there are 5 basic elements in any communication :-- Information Transmitter Channel Receiver Destination
  14. 14. DAVID K. BERLO’s MODEL OF COMMUNICATION His theory is one of the basic theories for all communication theorists. The following nine components are included in his model :- Source Encoder Message Channel Receiver Decoder Meaning Feedback Noise
  15. 15. HAROLD’s MODEL OF COMMUNICATION It gives rise to five basic & important questions :-- WHY? WHAT? HOW? WHO? WHEN?
  16. 16. INTERPERSONAL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Also known as “circular” or “cyclical” model. It introduces the element of feedback which was absent in the linear models. Following are the elements under the interpersonal model :-- Message or Idea Sender or transmitter or communicator Encoding Channel Medium Receiver Decoding Action or behaviour change Feedback
  17. 17. COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL ENCODING CHANNEL DECODING IDEA IDEA RECEIVED MESSAGE ( Receiver ( Sender ) MESSAGE ) FEEDBACK
  18. 18. EFFECTIVENESS, LIMITATIONS & MEDIACHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
  19. 19. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION A channel of communication is the path through which information is transmitted throughout the organization. Channels of communication are divided intoFORMAL two types :---INFORMAL
  20. 20. FORMAL COMMUNICATION It refers to official communication which takes place following the chain of command. Formal channels include the paths of communication which are institutionally determined by the organization Formal communication usually takes the form of written communication such as notes, memos, letters, reports & statements. Formal communication are of 4 types :- DOWNWARD UPWARD HORIZONTAL DIAGONAL
  21. 21. Formal Communication President Instructions and directivesInformation Vice Vice President President Manager Manager Manager Manager Efforts at coordination
  22. 22. DOWNWARD COMMUNICATIONDOWNWARD MD DOWNWARD DEPTT. HEADS OPERATIVE EMPLOYEES
  23. 23. OBJECTIVES OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION POLICIES & JOB FEEDBACKPROCEDURES INSTRUCTIONS JOB MOTIVATION & RATIONALE TRAINING
  24. 24. UPWARD COMMUNICATION MANAGINGUPWARD DIRECTOR DEPTT. HEADS OPERATIVE EMPLOYEES
  25. 25. MODES OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION SUGGESTIONS QUESTIONNAIRES GRIEVANCES OPEN DOOR OMBUDSPERSON POLICY
  26. 26. DOWNWARD v/s UPWARD COMMUNICATION DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION UPWARD COMMUNICATION Represents flow of  Represents flow from information from top level lower level to top level to lower levels. Its purpose is to  Its purpose is to keep the communicate policies, superiors informed about procedures & orders to the the progress of work. subordinates. It takes the form of written  It takes the form of activity & oral instructions, letters, reports, suggestions etc. co’s publications etc.
  27. 27. HORIZONTAL OR LATERAL COMMUNICATION It refers to the transmission of information among persons of the same level & status. It generally takes place among dept. heads for achieving coordination in the enterprise. Objectives of lateral communication are :-- COORDINATION SOLVING PROBLEMS RESOLVING CONFLICT EXCHANGING INFORMATION PROMOTING SOCIAL RELATIONS
  28. 28. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION M.D. Divisional Divisional Manager Manager ( Steel ) ( Cement ) Production Marketing Finance Head Head Head
  29. 29. DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION It takes place b/w people who work in different departments & at different levels within an organization. It involves committees, teams or task forces that are created to solve problems or complete special projects
  30. 30. PROS & CONS OF FORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication is  It is a slow moving systematic . process Source of communication can be  Personal warmth & easily located. involvement may be Facilitate control lacking Easy fixation of  Accurate information responsibilities. may not be transmitted.
  31. 31. INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication b/w individuals & groups which are not officially recognized is known as informal communication. It consists of exchange of ideas & information resulting from social interaction among members of an organization. Also known as Grapevine Communication.
  32. 32. GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION
  33. 33. CHARACTERSITICS OF GRAPEVINE Transmits It is unrestricted byinformation laterally formal policies & & diagonally procedures. GRAPEVINE It extends beyond the It is selective formal hierarchy.
  34. 34. TYPES OF GRAPEVINE NETWORKS SINGLE STRAND CHAIN ( Communication through intervening persons in a strand ) GOSSIP CHAIN ( One person non-selectively communicates with everyone. ) PROBABILITY ( Random communication with others as per the probability law. ) CLUSTER CHAIN ( Selective communication with those trusted ones )
  35. 35. DIFFERENCE b/w FORMAL * INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONFORMAL COMMUNICATION INFORMAL COMMUNICATION It follows the official chain  It is independent of the of command. authority relations in the organization.  Carries messages at a fast Slow moving process speed. Easy to pinpoint the  May not be easy to fix responsibility. responsibility. It is orderly & systematic.  It is unsystematic & erratic. Serves org. needs  Serves both org. & social needs.
  36. 36. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONSEMANTIC PERSONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGICAL, ORG. CULTURAL & STRUCTURAL MECHANICAL BARRIERS
  37. 37. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION.
  38. 38. Types of Barriers  Physical Noise  Technical Noise  Psychological Noise  Poor Timing  Perceptual Bias  Lack of Interest  Psychological Bias  Information Overload
  39. 39. Physical Noise Physical noise occurs when the sender and receiver try to communicate in a situation that is noisy For example, the bus stop. The noise produced by the passing buses create what is known as ‘physical noise’.
  40. 40. Technical Noise Technical noise occurs when the sender and the receiver use a tool to communicate for example, a phone. When 2 people are communicating using the phone, and one person steps into an elevator, the signal will be lost and the communication will fail. The break down with the tool used to communicate is known as ‘technical noise’.
  41. 41.  Psychological Noise Psychological noise occurs when the receiver of the message is thinking of something and not concentrating on the message itself, for example, having class in a park. While this may sound like a nice and comfortable situation to be in the message may be lost if the receiver of the message is thinking about if the grass is wet or if there are any harmful bees around. As the receiver loses concentration on what is being transmitted by the sender, so we have ‘psychological noise’.
  42. 42. Poor Timing Poor timing usually happens when the sender is not aware of the mood of the receiver when sending the message. For example, approaching your employer for a raise when he/she has just made an announcement that the company is almost bankrupt.
  43. 43. Perceptual Bias Perceptual bias occurs when the sender is not aware of the rules of first impression. For example, when you attend an interview there is an appropriate dress code. Failure to follow that dress code may result in you being prejudiced against. If you go for an interview for an accounting position dressed in jeans and a t- shirt, don’t be surprised if you don’t get the job.
  44. 44. Lack of Interest Sometimes, there are some things that we are just not interested in. Of all the subjects that students learn to complete their degree, they cannot love all. There will be the ONE or TWO subject that we have to suffer to stay awake for. A lack of interest in what someone has to say will definitely lead to a breakdown in communication.
  45. 45. Psychological Bias Ever heard of prejudices? Someone doesn’t like you because you are male/female,old/young, ric h/poor. There are biases. A bias is something that the sender cannot fix. There is no solution to this problem. Just be prepared.
  46. 46. Information Overload Information overload occurs when you try to absorb too much information over a short period of time. If you try to study continuously for hours without a break, or introduce too many new concepts to your learning in one period of time, your mind will become confused and this can lead to a break down in communication.
  47. 47. 7 Cs of Effective Communication CLARITY  COMPLETENESS CREDIBILITY  CHANNEL CONTENT  CAPABILITY CONTEXT
  48. 48. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SPEEDY  ECONOMY TRANSMISSION CLARITY OF  SECRECY MESSAGE CREATION OF  SAFETY IMPRESSION CREATION OF FEEDBACK  TWO-WAY TRAFFIC ACCURACY
  49. 49. Two-way channel Mutual Trust Overcoming BarriersTimely Message Clarity of Message
  50. 50. Consistency of Good Relations Message Overcoming barriersEmpathetic Listening Feedback

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