Gavin Shiu  Senior Assistant Director of Public Prosecutions
<ul><li>“ The heart of an effective anti money laundering regime is the ability to : </li></ul><ul><li>seize </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Drug Trafficking (Recovery of Proceeds)  Ordinance Cap., 405 (DTROP) </li></ul><ul><li>Organised and Serious Crime...
<ul><li>Main Ordinances </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Trafficking (Recovery of Proceeds) Ordinance (Cap....
<ul><li>Restraint </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscation...
<ul><li>Tracing of defrauded or stolen or laundered money/assets – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Money / assets is it the proceed...
 
<ul><li>Only money or property that directly or indirectly are proceeds of crime? </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul><ul><li>S...
<ul><li>Property includes payments or other awards received at any time in connection with an offence (s2(6)(a)(i)) </li><...
<ul><li>Pecuniary advantage connected to an offence (s2(6(a)(iii)) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide and flexible meaning </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>A fraud facilitates a transaction and professional fees are generated relating to the ...
<ul><li>When property is identified as proceeds of crime what is to be done?  </li></ul><ul><li>Police may restrain and co...
<ul><li>Compulsory Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Scope : Everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Offence </li></ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>Section 25A(1) OSCO- the reporting offence  –  summary offence </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to report to an authorise...
<ul><li>in whole or in part directly or indirectly represents any person’s proceeds of an indictable offence </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Only Subjective </li></ul><ul><li>actual knowledge or suspicion concerning the nature of the property   </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Suspecting property has the quality defined in s.25A(1) falls a long way short of having demonstrable proof that t...
<ul><li>Failing to report  in a reasonable time </li></ul><ul><li>What is reasonable? </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on circums...
What should be the Reporting Approach? Risk Based Approach <ul><li>S creen for suspicious activity indicator(s)  </li></ul...
<ul><li>Authorised officer- police and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Financial Intelligence Unit (JFIU) </li></ul><ul><l...
1,583 in a month 395 in week 56 in  a day Several during this presentation.
 
 
<ul><li>Purpose :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To facilitate possible confiscation of realisable property of crime after convict...
<ul><li>Proceedings have been instituted against D for a specified offence (arrest warrant or charged)  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Prohibit dealing with any realisable property </li></ul><ul><li>Authorised officer may seize any realisable proper...
<ul><li>Any property held by D </li></ul><ul><li>Any property held by a person as gift (directly or indirectly) from D goi...
<ul><li>Affected  party may apply to vary for : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable Living expenses; but not to a luxurious s...
<ul><li>Application : Prosecutor/Respondent </li></ul><ul><li>Grounds : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mareva Injunction obtained b...
<ul><li>Confiscation Order is deemed to be a sentence passed on D in respect of convictions for appeal purpose </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Broad – any payments or other rewards received in connection with an offence </li></ul><ul><li>Any property derive...
<ul><li>Court will fix a term of imprisonment in default. (Time to pay) </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of receiver to reali...
<ul><li>Confiscation: the actual proceeds of crime?  No </li></ul><ul><li>Court shall determine whether the person has ben...
<ul><li>If court determines he has benefited to an amount of at least $100,000  </li></ul><ul><li>THEN in accordance with ...
<ul><li>The  amount  to be recovered by the confiscation order </li></ul><ul><li>Shall be what the court assesses to be th...
<ul><li>Therefore, the confiscation order is for the value of what the court assesses is the benefit (proceeds) derived by...
<ul><li>This is why for criminal asset recovery there is no difference in white or black </li></ul><ul><li>The confiscatio...
<ul><li>Property acquired through inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Property acquired through a legitimate business </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Confiscation Order is deemed to be a sentence passed on D in respect of convictions for appeal purpose </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Broad – any payments or other rewards received in connection with an offence </li></ul><ul><li>Any property derive...
<ul><li>Court will fix a term of imprisonment in default. (Time to pay) </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of receiver to reali...
<ul><li>In every case of specified offences is there a benefit?  Should we not deny him of it? </li></ul><ul><li>Tracing o...
<ul><li>If 2 or more benefited should the benefit be split? (divided between Ds) </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily, depend...
<ul><li>What is his benefit from the crime? (not what was stolen or defrauded or laundered, necessarily) </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Have other defendants benefited that may not be obvious at first glance? </li></ul><ul><li>Should restraint of ass...
<ul><li>Emphasise denying the fruits of crime </li></ul><ul><li>It is  not   a revenue raising exercise </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>OSCO and DTROP are powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Underused, but why? </li></ul><ul><li>Mind set, includes training to...
<ul><li>No provision to restrain some property for a victim and some for confiscation; and  </li></ul><ul><li>No provision...
<ul><li>Boiler rooms </li></ul><ul><li>419 Scams </li></ul><ul><li>No easy solution </li></ul><ul><li>Group actions </li><...
<ul><li>Share with other jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Share with other Government bodies domestically </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>What is meant? </li></ul><ul><li>Forfeiture of assets without having any conviction for a crime </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Why?  Thought easier to achieve to get the big fish  </li></ul><ul><li>senior figures in organised crime keep dist...
<ul><li>A civil forfeiture system therefore provides a method to effectively disgorge assets from such senior figures </li...
<ul><li>Both Criminal and Civil forfeiture </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all cases today are civil </li></ul><ul><li>Sue item o...
<ul><li>Political will required </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Executive and Exco </li></ul><ul><li>Legco </li></ul><ul><li>Is th...
<ul><li>Conviction based </li></ul><ul><li>Restraint preventative and facilitates confiscation </li></ul><ul><li>Realisabl...
<ul><li>Restraint and Confiscation </li></ul><ul><li>Basic premise conviction equals confiscation simple and easy to justi...
<ul><li>Welcome exchange of views  </li></ul><ul><li>Hope you have had benefit from the course </li></ul><ul><li>Rights of...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Asset Recovery Oct 2011 Author Gavin Shiu Kornerstone

520 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
520
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Asset Recovery Oct 2011 Author Gavin Shiu Kornerstone

  1. 1. Gavin Shiu Senior Assistant Director of Public Prosecutions
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ The heart of an effective anti money laundering regime is the ability to : </li></ul><ul><li>seize </li></ul><ul><li>restrain </li></ul><ul><li>confiscate </li></ul><ul><li>proceeds and instrumentalities of money laundering and other predicate offences </li></ul><ul><li>in order to remove them from the financial system ” . </li></ul><ul><li>APG-2005 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Drug Trafficking (Recovery of Proceeds) Ordinance Cap., 405 (DTROP) </li></ul><ul><li>Organised and Serious Crimes Ordinance Cap.,455 (OSCO) </li></ul><ul><li>International Conventions </li></ul><ul><li>FATF and APG </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Main Ordinances </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Trafficking (Recovery of Proceeds) Ordinance (Cap. 405) – since 1989 [DTROP] </li></ul><ul><li>Organized and Serious Crimes Ordinance (Cap. 455) – since 1994 [OSCO] </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations (Anti-Terrorism Measures) Ordinance (Cap. 575) – since 2002, some provisions not in force </li></ul><ul><li>High Court Rules, O. 115 - 117 </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Trafficking (Recovery of Proceeds) (Designated Countries and Territories) Order </li></ul><ul><li>(Cap. 405A) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Ordinance (Cap. 525) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of Bribery Ordinance (Cap. 201) </li></ul>12/07/11 GTS/ DOJ
  5. 5. <ul><li>Restraint </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscation </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Tracing of defrauded or stolen or laundered money/assets – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Money / assets is it the proceeds of a crime or the benefit (proceeds) gained by a defendant? </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Only money or property that directly or indirectly are proceeds of crime? </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul><ul><li>See s 2(6) OSCO </li></ul><ul><li>Proceeds is not the ordinary man’s understanding of the term </li></ul><ul><li>It has a special meaning under OSCO </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Property includes payments or other awards received at any time in connection with an offence (s2(6)(a)(i)) </li></ul><ul><li>a payment before the commission of the offence </li></ul><ul><li>Award has a broad meaning </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Pecuniary advantage connected to an offence (s2(6(a)(iii)) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide and flexible meaning </li></ul><ul><li>May include being able to use a position to make a gain, even if gain itself is not illegal if there is the connection to the offence </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>A fraud facilitates a transaction and professional fees are generated relating to the transaction not the fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Money is utilised to facilitate a fraud but comes from non crime sources </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>When property is identified as proceeds of crime what is to be done? </li></ul><ul><li>Police may restrain and confiscate but what about you? </li></ul><ul><li>MUST be aware of Section 25A of OSCO </li></ul><ul><li>What are your obligations? </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Compulsory Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Scope : Everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Offence </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Professional Privilege & Confidentiality </li></ul>12/07/11 GTS/ DOJ
  13. 14. <ul><li>Section 25A(1) OSCO- the reporting offence – summary offence </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to report to an authorised officer </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge or suspicion that any property is or is connected to the proceeds of an indictable offence </li></ul><ul><li>Within a reasonable time </li></ul>12/07/11 GTS/ DOJ
  14. 15. <ul><li>in whole or in part directly or indirectly represents any person’s proceeds of an indictable offence </li></ul><ul><li>was used in connection with; or </li></ul><ul><li>is intended to be used in connection with, </li></ul><ul><li>an indictable offence. </li></ul>12/07/11 GTS/ DOJ
  15. 16. <ul><li>Only Subjective </li></ul><ul><li>actual knowledge or suspicion concerning the nature of the property </li></ul><ul><li>no objective qualifier, such as “reasonable” for the alternative mental state of “suspicion” </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicion: “ there is a possibility, which is more than fanciful, that the relevant facts exist “ - and the suspicion is in some cases settled K Ltd v Natwest Bank (2006) EWCA Civ 1039, [2007] 1 WLR 311 </li></ul>12/07/11 DOJ
  16. 17. <ul><li>Suspecting property has the quality defined in s.25A(1) falls a long way short of having demonstrable proof that the property is of that quality </li></ul><ul><li>What matters is what the defendant thought, not what the reasonable person would have thought in the particular circums tances </li></ul>12/07/11 DOJ
  17. 18. <ul><li>Failing to report in a reasonable time </li></ul><ul><li>What is reasonable? </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>May allow for consultations or obtaining legal advice – Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Direction P </li></ul>12/07/11 DOJ
  18. 19. What should be the Reporting Approach? Risk Based Approach <ul><li>S creen for suspicious activity indicator(s) </li></ul><ul><li>A sk appropriate questions </li></ul><ul><li>F ind out records for review </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Authorised officer- police and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Financial Intelligence Unit (JFIU) </li></ul><ul><li>STREAMS </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations </li></ul>12/07/11 GTS/ DOJ
  20. 21. 1,583 in a month 395 in week 56 in a day Several during this presentation.
  21. 24. <ul><li>Purpose : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To facilitate possible confiscation of realisable property of crime after conviction of the Defendant. (19(2)) Legislative steer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nature : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Akin to Mareva Injunction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court of First Instance (15(1)) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Proceedings have been instituted against D for a specified offence (arrest warrant or charged) </li></ul><ul><li>Proceedings have not been concluded </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable cause to believe D has benefited from the specified offence </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of dissipation of assets </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Prohibit dealing with any realisable property </li></ul><ul><li>Authorised officer may seize any realisable property </li></ul><ul><li>Court may appoint a Receiver to manage the restrained assets </li></ul><ul><li>Affected party may vary/discharge the order </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Any property held by D </li></ul><ul><li>Any property held by a person as gift (directly or indirectly) from D going back 6 years from charge </li></ul><ul><li>Any property subject to effective control of D regard to family, domestic and business relationships </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Affected party may apply to vary for : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable Living expenses; but not to a luxurious standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable legal expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O.115, r 4 (Cheng Wai-keung & Ors [2003] HKCFI 329) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non disclosure ( SJ v CKS & Anor (No.2) HKC [2001] 611) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>Application : Prosecutor/Respondent </li></ul><ul><li>Grounds : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mareva Injunction obtained by victim.* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confiscation order made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insufficient evidence against D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent has no money/run out of money. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Confiscation Order is deemed to be a sentence passed on D in respect of convictions for appeal purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Submit s.10 statement to the trial judge which states : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D convicted of a specified offence. (Reasons for Verdict) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether D benefited from that offence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of his benefit (proceeds) from that offence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court determine the amount to be realised. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix a period of imprisonment in default </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Broad – any payments or other rewards received in connection with an offence </li></ul><ul><li>Any property derived or realised directly or indirectly from above </li></ul><ul><li>Any pecuniary advantage in connection with the offence </li></ul><ul><li>Shing Siu-ming (No.2) [2000] 3 HKC 83 </li></ul><ul><li>Osei [1988] Crim LR 775 </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Court will fix a term of imprisonment in default. (Time to pay) </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of receiver to realise assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation of confiscation order : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realisable assets inadequate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual value of realisable assets greater than that at the time of assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Property jointly owned. </li></ul><ul><li>*Victim. </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Confiscation: the actual proceeds of crime? No </li></ul><ul><li>Court shall determine whether the person has benefited from the specified offence </li></ul><ul><li>And if he has whether his proceeds of that offence total at least $100,000 </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>If court determines he has benefited to an amount of at least $100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>THEN in accordance with Section 11, the court shall determine the amount to be recovered and </li></ul><ul><li>A confiscation order shall then be made for that amount </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>The amount to be recovered by the confiscation order </li></ul><ul><li>Shall be what the court assesses to be the value of the defendant’s proceeds of the specified offence(s) of which he was convicted </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Therefore, the confiscation order is for the value of what the court assesses is the benefit (proceeds) derived by a convicted person from his specified offence </li></ul><ul><li>The order is not asset based and not based on actual stolen or defrauded monies </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>This is why for criminal asset recovery there is no difference in white or black </li></ul><ul><li>The confiscation order should be looked on as a determination by the court of what a criminal owes Hong Kong – he is obliged to pay us from whatever sources </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Property acquired through inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Property acquired through a legitimate business </li></ul><ul><li>Property acquired through savings from earlier legitimate employment </li></ul><ul><li>Property acquired through share trading or other market investments </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Confiscation Order is deemed to be a sentence passed on D in respect of convictions for appeal purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Submit s.10 statement to the trial judge which states : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D convicted of a specified offence. (Reasons for Verdict) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether D benefited from that offence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of his benefit (proceeds) from that offence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court determine the amount to be realised. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix a period of imprisonment in default </li></ul></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Broad – any payments or other rewards received in connection with an offence </li></ul><ul><li>Any property derived or realised directly or indirectly from above </li></ul><ul><li>Any pecuniary advantage in connection with the offence </li></ul><ul><li>Shing Siu-ming (No.2) [2000] 3 HKC 83 </li></ul><ul><li>Osei [1988] Crim LR 775 </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Court will fix a term of imprisonment in default. (Time to pay) </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of receiver to realise assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation of confiscation order : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realisable assets inadequate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual value of realisable assets greater than that at the time of assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Property jointly owned. </li></ul><ul><li>*Victim. </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>In every case of specified offences is there a benefit? Should we not deny him of it? </li></ul><ul><li>Tracing of Black money some value </li></ul><ul><li>Prove offence and if easily confiscated should be a target of restraint and confiscation </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>If 2 or more benefited should the benefit be split? (divided between Ds) </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily, depends on evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Can be joint and several (ie one accused owes all of a joint benefit) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be split if reasonable evidence of a division </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>What is his benefit from the crime? (not what was stolen or defrauded or laundered, necessarily) </li></ul><ul><li>How large is it? That is, what would be the value? </li></ul><ul><li>What assets does he have? </li></ul><ul><li>Which are the easiest to restrain and confiscate? </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Have other defendants benefited that may not be obvious at first glance? </li></ul><ul><li>Should restraint of assets be done before the case goes overt or simultaneously? Risk of dissipation. </li></ul><ul><li>Are there assets overseas? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there victims? </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>Emphasise denying the fruits of crime </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a revenue raising exercise </li></ul><ul><li>It is part of the penalty (purpose of appeal deemed to be part of a sentence, Section 8(8A)) </li></ul><ul><li>It is punishment, deterrence and prevention of serious crime </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>OSCO and DTROP are powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Underused, but why? </li></ul><ul><li>Mind set, includes training to prosecute core offences </li></ul><ul><li>Troublesome- bank docs, account records </li></ul><ul><li>Hard work </li></ul><ul><li>Need to increase awareness and use </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>No provision to restrain some property for a victim and some for confiscation; and </li></ul><ul><li>No provision to allow victims to be allocated a share of a confiscation </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>Boiler rooms </li></ul><ul><li>419 Scams </li></ul><ul><li>No easy solution </li></ul><ul><li>Group actions </li></ul><ul><li>Recourse to the Executive </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>Share with other jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Share with other Government bodies domestically </li></ul><ul><li>Asset sharing agreements </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>What is meant? </li></ul><ul><li>Forfeiture of assets without having any conviction for a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Civil proceedings are used based on civil procedure </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases no evidence called all based on affidavits </li></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><li>Why? Thought easier to achieve to get the big fish </li></ul><ul><li>senior figures in organised crime keep distant from the crimes committed but controlled by them </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to prove their guilt so assets remain not confiscated </li></ul>
  50. 53. <ul><li>A civil forfeiture system therefore provides a method to effectively disgorge assets from such senior figures </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages : </li></ul><ul><li>Seen akin to convictions based on evidence that would be inadequate for a criminal case </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively reverse onus provisions are used </li></ul><ul><li>Often not used for big fish but indiscriminately </li></ul>
  51. 54. <ul><li>Both Criminal and Civil forfeiture </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all cases today are civil </li></ul><ul><li>Sue item of property not the person </li></ul><ul><li>Probable cause established </li></ul><ul><li>Owner must prove on a ‘preponderance of evidence“ that it is not </li></ul><ul><li>Cost high and can take years </li></ul>
  52. 55. <ul><li>Political will required </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Executive and Exco </li></ul><ul><li>Legco </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a real need? </li></ul><ul><li>Will resources be put in that justify the effort to change? </li></ul><ul><li>Can more resources be put in to the present system? </li></ul>
  53. 56. <ul><li>Conviction based </li></ul><ul><li>Restraint preventative and facilitates confiscation </li></ul><ul><li>Realisable property and benefit from proceeds broadly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscation follows conviction and part of sentencing </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscation may be appealed </li></ul>
  54. 57. <ul><li>Restraint and Confiscation </li></ul><ul><li>Basic premise conviction equals confiscation simple and easy to justify but </li></ul><ul><li>conviction based therefore cumbersome/slow </li></ul><ul><li>subject to too many qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>In personam worldwide </li></ul>
  55. 58. <ul><li>Welcome exchange of views </li></ul><ul><li>Hope you have had benefit from the course </li></ul><ul><li>Rights of the author are asserted </li></ul>

×