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The Toulmin Model


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extra credit assignment

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The Toulmin Model

  1. 1. The Toulmin Model <br />By<br />Gavin Markowitz<br />
  2. 2. The Toulmin Model<br />
  3. 3. Grounds<br />what you have observed either first hand or second hand. <br />
  4. 4. Warrant<br />A general rule which links the claim to the grounds.<br />
  5. 5. Claim <br />The conclusion of the argument. What the arguer is attempting to convince the audience to do or think.<br />
  6. 6. Backing <br />Specific support for the grounds or warrant. Where did it come from.<br />
  7. 7. Reservation<br />Reasons why the warrant not apply. Exceptions to the rule.<br />
  8. 8. Qualifier<br />A word or phrase which suggests the degree of validity of the claim. <br />
  9. 9. The Toulmin Model<br />Goal of Studying the Toulmin Model<br />My goal in introducing the Toulmin model to you is not to have you become experts on argumentative analysis, that would be nice, but I will be happy if you realize four things: <br />1. The conclusion of an argument, the claim, is based on specific support and reasoning. <br />2. We argue by attacking the foundation of the argument, the parts like the backing, warrant and reservations, not just directly disagreeing with the claim. This is more like bickering.<br />3. The more we understand the specific parts of an argument, the better we can determine the strengths and weaknesses of a particular argument and know how to challenge it. <br />4. The qualifier gives us the idea of the degree of validity of the claim. A claim that is "very highly" correct is more valid than a claim that is "most likely" correct. <br />
  10. 10. credits<br />All thanks to you professor Marteney!! <br />