Barts & the london year 2 med student's lecture notes 10th jan 2014


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Barts & the london year 2 med student's lecture notes 10th jan 2014

  1. 1. Lecture Notes on Multiple Sclerosis - Professor Gavin Giovannoni (BB2 – 10th Jan 2014) 1. Definition Pathological Definition: Inflammatory disease of the CNS characterised by demyelination and variable degrees of axonal loss and gliosis. Clinical Definition: Objective CNS dysfunction, i.e. involvement of two or more white matter structures separated by time (1 months), with no other aetiology. 2. Pathology Gross Pathology - plaques (periventricular white matter, optic nerves, brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord) Histopathology - perivascular inflammation (venules) extending into the white matter parenchyma (cell mediated (lymphocytes and macrophages, rare plasma cells), demyelination, axonal loss and gliosis. 3. Aetiology Unknown; complex disease involving genes and environment Possible viral aetiology (disease clusters / migration studies) and/or autoimmune (definitive evidence of it being autoimmune is lacking; but is the current dogma accepted by most people) Genetic risk (concordance monozygotic twins 30% / dizygotic twins 5%, increased risk in family members) 4. Epidemiology Age of onset - 3rd / 4th decade (10 - 50 years) Prevalence - ~125/100,000 (UK); varies with latitude (probably due to vD; i.e. vD is protective) Life Span - slightly reduced (~10 year) Sex - F > M (2:1) ; incidence appears to be increasing in females (not known why) Race - Caucasians (uncommon in Chinese / ? Viking ancestral genes) Risk factors – Genes (HLA and others), EBV infection and infectious mononucleosis, smoking and vitamin D deficiency 5. Diagnosis Clinical - typical clinical course / exclusion of other diseases MRI - abnormal white matter Evoked Potentials - delayed conduction CSF - immunological abnormalities (intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal IgG bands) 6. Clinical (Symptoms and Signs – positive and negative phenomena) Motor - spasticity, weakness, gait abnormalities, spasms (clonic, tonic and flexor) Sensory - positive (pins & needles, pain, etc) and negative sensory phenomena (loss of sensation). Cerebellum - inco-ordination, ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, etc. Brain Stem - diplopia, vertigo, nystagmus, dysarthria Optic Nerves - optic neuritis (blurred vision, reduced colour vision, central or paracentral scotomas, reduced visual acuity, afferent pupillary defect, optic disc pallor) Bladder and Bowel – incontinence, frequency, urgency, hesitancy Higher Functions - depression, poor concentration, forgetfulness, cognitive impairment Fatigue – complex (exercise induced, temperature-related) 7. Course Relapsing Remitting Progressive (secondary or primary) 8. Prognosis Highly variable - 30% benign disease / 10 yrs 30% wheel chair / 15 yrs 50% Good prognosis - young, female, relapsing course, optic neuritis or sensory onset, long gap between first and second relapses, good recovery from initial attack and low baseline lesion load on MRI. Survival slightly reduced 9. Treatment Disease Modifying Acute Relapse - high dose corticosteroids Relapsing cases - interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, natalizumab, fingolimod, alemtuzumab and mitoxantrone Drugs in development: Laquinimod, Ocrelizumab, Daclizumab, etc. Progressive cases - immunosuppression (poor evidence base) there is a need for neuroprotection. Symptomatic Spastcity (Baclofen, tizanidine, gabapentin, diazepam, etc.) Bladder and bowel care, fatigue, depression, pain, infections, skin and foot care Physiotherapy Occupational Care 10. Reading List:  Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 2008 Oct 25;372(9648):1502-17.  Ramagopalan et al. Multiple sclerosis: risk factors, prodromes, and potential causal pathways. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 727–39.  TeachNeurology Blog :