Battle Of The Brands


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Battle Of The Brands

  1. 1. Gavin D. J. Harper
  2. 2. <ul><li>Miller (1998) identify three stages in the development of consumption research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1 60’s – 70’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption as an emerging field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2 70’s – 90’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study of consumption as it’s own sub-field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3 90’s – Today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development and refinement of the field </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Brands are the sum of a consumers experiences and perceptions of a group of products of services. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, in the pursuit of market share, large companies use unethical / unsustainable practises to pursue consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Anti-Brand’ sentiment can reach the point where a niche is created in the market for a product with ideals that are diametrically opposed to that of the brand. </li></ul><ul><li>Small companies are well placed to enter the market by exploiting this niche, created by the big firms, challenging the dominant discourse within that market sector and building a business based on consumer feedback. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Kumar (2006) cites five reasons for the growth of the anti-brand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Communication (Internet, Forums, e.t.c) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing Lack of Trust in ‘Big Business’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Individualistic’ Consumer Materialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical / Human Rights Consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. “ When people go shopping, economists tell us that they will usually buy the best quality products that they can afford … Sometimes, however, people might boycott a particular brand or company … They might also chose a fair trade coffee label due to a concern for ‘developing countries … Ethical purchasers may, therefore, have political, religious, spiritual, environmental, social or other motives for choosing one product over another” (Harrison et al 2005, p2)
  6. 6. “ The act of buying is a vote for an economic and social model, for a particular way of producing goods” (Ellwod 1984, p8) Ethical Consumerism
  7. 7. <ul><li>Sustainable Food – Innocent Smoothies </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Transport – Tesla Roadster </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Electronics – VIA Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Cleaning Products - EcoVer </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Full of Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>High ‘e-number’ content </li></ul><ul><li>Not particularly nutritious </li></ul><ul><li>Not particularly high content of ‘natural’ ingredients. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability not given a second thought in the production process. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Natyrox - Heard in the news today that the makers of Ribena admitted today that their drink has absolutely no vitamin C when some scientists at a university in New Zealand tested the drink. They have been fined £100,000 pounds for misleading the public. They said they changed the formula to increase shelf- life, but reduced the amount of Vitamin C. </li></ul><ul><li>DEV1L - Harsh I think they got off easy they should have been fined millions. When I'm hungover I get Ribena for the vitamin C in it the b$%£&*s no wonder I don't feel any better I'm going back to sunny delight :mad: but I will probably find out that has no vitamins next :( </li></ul><ul><li>PyroZania - Sunny D used to/may still have carcinogens in it. </li></ul><ul><li>ALEXnkF1 - Why would you want Ribena when you can get Innocent fruit smoothies. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[Corrected for spelling / grammar] </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>‘ Innocent Smoothies’ challenged the dominant brands by producing a product that is all natural fruit, pasteurised and bottled. </li></ul><ul><li>The product contains no additives of ‘nasties’. </li></ul><ul><li>The product aligns itself with values of sustainability and health and the production processes employed and business processes aim to be sustainable. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Thought has been given to making the packaging from 100% recycled material. </li></ul><ul><li>The business embraces themes of resource efficiency and sustainability within the core of their business model. </li></ul><ul><li>The company engage with social enterprise sharing some of their profit with good causes and projects. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Performance at any cost </li></ul><ul><li>High fuel consumption </li></ul><ul><li>High Carbon Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury at any price </li></ul><ul><li>No thought about sustainability </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>An electric vehicle produces ‘zero emissions’ at the point of use. </li></ul><ul><li>Electric motors generate high-torque, this makes them suited to performance applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The limitation with competitors electric vehicles has been the battery storage technology. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>The conventional automotive industry are wary of electric vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>EV prototypes and low-production vehicles tended to use Lead Acid and NiCd / NiMh batteries – giving poor performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional automotive clusters are centred around Detroit in the U.S. motor industry. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Tesla developed a radically different concept using Lithium Ion batteries, technology used in cell phones and consumer electronics. </li></ul><ul><li>The company developed this vehicle ‘off the radar’ of the conventional automotive industry, by basing themselves in ‘Silicon Valley’ home of the high tech. </li></ul><ul><li>No compromise was made on performance, positioning this vehicle in a radically different segment to it’s EV predecessors. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Market leaders Intel & AMD focused on a policy of competing on performance at any cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing chip speeds exponentially leads to high costs for Research and Development. </li></ul><ul><li>As speed increases so does power consumption – no thought given to energy use / sustainability. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>VIA pursue an alternative strategy of ‘Performance per Watt’ – getting the most performance from each unit of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>This is in tandem with removing lead from their products. </li></ul><ul><li>This strategy has resulted in processors which do not generate a lot of heat – this means they have found more applications . </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>The following chart compares the number of trees that would be required to sequester the carbon generated from the energy consumption of three different processors over their lifetime. </li></ul>
  19. 22.
  20. 25. <ul><li>Cleaning products typically use lots of ‘nasty’ chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning products are generally synthetic. </li></ul><ul><li>Little thought is given to the sustainability of the processes used to produce them. </li></ul><ul><li>The packaging of products is given little thought. </li></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>ECOVER look at how to use ideas from nature to inspire cleaning products. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a focus on the sustainability of the processes used to produce their product. </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging is recyclable wherever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural ingredients are used in the manufacture of their products. </li></ul><ul><li>Their business embraces concepts of energy efficiency in the manufacture of their products. </li></ul>
  22. 28. <ul><li>Small companies can often challenge the orthodoxy of large brands successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>The agile nature of the small-firm makes them well positioned to respond to the demands of the market with an innovative solution that defies ‘big brand’ logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Existing brands may have an unsustainable/unethical connotation which makes it hard to change consumer perception, but new startups have a ‘clean sheet’ on which to build their brand. </li></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>Do we view Anti-Brand sentiment as ‘consumer misbehaviour’ or do we accept that with increased flows of information, brands must respond to consumer feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours are labelled ‘deviant’ (Denegri-Knott 2003), but should they instead be labelled ‘innovative’. </li></ul>
  24. 30. <ul><li>Denegri-Knott, J. (2003) ‘Consumers Behaving Badly: Deviation / Innovation’. </li></ul><ul><li>Kumar, A., (2006) ‘Brand Attack – Anti Branding’, ‘Business Cogniscence’, Jan. 2006. Vol. 2 Issue 8. </li></ul>