Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Software Developers
   View of Hardware
        Electronic Circuits
What are circuits?
   Computers are electrical devices, so
    therefore all functions performed by a
    computer need t...
Logic Gates
   Are a hardware circuit that produces a 0 or 1,
    which is normally an electronic impulse.
   There are ...
BASIC GATES
1.       NOT Gate
         This is the simplest of all gates, it involves a
          single input and a sing...
NOT Gate



        A   X
    0           1
NOT Gate
NOT Gate
NOT Gate – Truth Table


                 IF A = 0 THEN
   A       X
                      X=1
   0       1     ELSE
     ...
BASIC GATES
1.       AND Gate
         This is involves two inputs to produce one
          output.
         Both inputs...
AND Gate



    A
           X
    B
AND Gate
AND Gate
AND Gate
AND Gate – Truth Table

 A    B     X    IF A=1 AND B=1THEN

 0    0     0        X=1

 0    1     0
                 ELSE...
BASIC GATES
1.       OR Gate
         This is involves two inputs to produce one
          output.
         If either in...
OR Gate



    A
          X
    B
OR Gate
OR Gate
OR Gate
OR Gate
OR Gate – Truth Table

 A    B     X    IF A=1 OR B=1THEN

 0    0     0           X=1

 0    1     1
                 ELS...
Activity 1
Complete the truth table for the following circuit.



     A
                          X
                     ...
Truth Table

       A      B   X   Y

       0      0

       0      1

       1      0

       1      1
EXTENDED GATES
1.       NAND Gate
         This is involves two inputs to produce one
          output.
         The out...
NAND Gate



    A
            X
    B
NAND Gate – Truth Table

 A    B     X   IF A=1 AND B=1THEN

 0    0     1       X=0

 0    1     1
                ELSE
 ...
EXTENDED GATES
1.       NOR Gate
         This is involves two inputs to produce one
          output.
         The outp...
NOR Gate



    A
           X
    B
NOR Gate – Truth Table

 A    B     X    IF A=1 AND B=1THEN

 0    0     1        X=0

 0    1     0
                 ELSE...
EXTENDED GATES
1.       XOR Gate
         This stands for exclusive OR.
         This gate is true if only one input is ...
XOR Gate



    A
           X
    B
XOR Gate – Truth Table

        A    B     X

        0    0     0

        0    1     1

        1    0     1

        1 ...
SPECIALITY CIRCUITS
       Designed to make use of our binary
        knowledge and our circuitry knowledge
       Examp...
DESIGNING SPECIALITY
CIRCUITS
   These circuits are written to provide a specific
    function:
       Adder (Binary Add...
DESIGNING SPECIALITY
CIRCUITS
       Follow these steps:
        Identify inputs and outputs
        Identify the compo...
Binary Half Adder
   This device is basically a calculator.
   Lets look at the half adder truth table first.
Binary Half Adders
                            INPUT         OUTPUT
   To create a
    Binary Adder,       A           B ...
Binary Half Adders
                                  INPUT         OUTPUT
       Carry output is
        created using a ...
Binary Half Adders
                              INPUT         OUTPUT
       Sum output is
        created using a   A   ...
Binary Half Adders

The circuit:
  A

                     Carry (C)
  B




                     Sum (S)
Half And Full Adders

   Half Adders only work to add two digits
   To add more than 2 binary digits we need a full
    ...
Full Adders

   A

   B

                     Carry
                     (C)


               Sum (S)
Carry in
Truth Tables
Construct a truth table for the full adder.
Truth Table
  A      B    CARRY   CARRY   SUM
                IN
  0      0       0      0      0
  0      0       1      ...
Circuit Design Steps
   Identify inputs and outputs.
    A+B+C=X
   Identify the components needed to obtain
    the des...
Activity 2
   Construct a truth table for the following
    circuit.

    A
                    Y
    B                  ...
A
    B               X



    C
A       B   C   Y       X
0       0   0   1       1
0       0   1   1       0
0       1  ...
Activity 3
Fault   Door   Switch   x   Light
  0      0       0            0
  0      0       1            0
  0      1       0      ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Electronic Circuits

4,188 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Electronic Circuits

  1. 1. Software Developers View of Hardware Electronic Circuits
  2. 2. What are circuits?  Computers are electrical devices, so therefore all functions performed by a computer need to done via the use of circuits.  Circuits are designed via the use of Logic Gates which show the path and the way in which electronic signals are sent and received.
  3. 3. Logic Gates  Are a hardware circuit that produces a 0 or 1, which is normally an electronic impulse.  There are THREE basic logic gates and THREE extended gates that can be used to build integrated circuits.
  4. 4. BASIC GATES 1. NOT Gate  This is the simplest of all gates, it involves a single input and a single output.  The purpose of this gate is the flipping of a bit similar to what is performed in one’s complement.
  5. 5. NOT Gate A X 0 1
  6. 6. NOT Gate
  7. 7. NOT Gate
  8. 8. NOT Gate – Truth Table IF A = 0 THEN A X X=1 0 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 ENDIF
  9. 9. BASIC GATES 1. AND Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  Both inputs must be true for the output to be true.
  10. 10. AND Gate A X B
  11. 11. AND Gate
  12. 12. AND Gate
  13. 13. AND Gate
  14. 14. AND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 0 ELSE X=0 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 1
  15. 15. BASIC GATES 1. OR Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  If either inputs are true then the output will be true.
  16. 16. OR Gate A X B
  17. 17. OR Gate
  18. 18. OR Gate
  19. 19. OR Gate
  20. 20. OR Gate
  21. 21. OR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 OR B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 1
  22. 22. Activity 1 Complete the truth table for the following circuit. A X Y B
  23. 23. Truth Table A B X Y 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
  24. 24. EXTENDED GATES 1. NAND Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  The output is the opposite of an AND gate.  Is a combination of an AND and NOT gate.
  25. 25. NAND Gate A X B
  26. 26. NAND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 1 ELSE X=1 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 0
  27. 27. EXTENDED GATES 1. NOR Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  The output is the opposite of an OR gate.  It is a combination of an OR and NOT.
  28. 28. NOR Gate A X B
  29. 29. NOR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 0 ELSE X=1 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 0
  30. 30. EXTENDED GATES 1. XOR Gate  This stands for exclusive OR.  This gate is true if only one input is true.
  31. 31. XOR Gate A X B
  32. 32. XOR Gate – Truth Table A B X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
  33. 33. SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  Designed to make use of our binary knowledge and our circuitry knowledge  Examples include:  Adders  Flip Flops  Shifts
  34. 34. DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  These circuits are written to provide a specific function:  Adder (Binary Addition)  Flip Flop (Binary Storage)
  35. 35. DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  Follow these steps:  Identify inputs and outputs  Identify the components required to produce the output (AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR)  Construct the solution with logic gates  Check the solution for validity (with a truth table)  Evaluate the circuit design (could you make this circuit better by chaining different logic gates)
  36. 36. Binary Half Adder  This device is basically a calculator.  Lets look at the half adder truth table first.
  37. 37. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  To create a Binary Adder, A B Carry Sum we need to find a logic gate that give us the 0 0 0 0 Carry output and a logic gate 0 1 0 1 the Sum output 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  38. 38. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  Carry output is created using a A B Carry Sum AND logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  39. 39. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  Sum output is created using a A B Carry Sum XOR logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
  40. 40. Binary Half Adders The circuit: A Carry (C) B Sum (S)
  41. 41. Half And Full Adders  Half Adders only work to add two digits  To add more than 2 binary digits we need a full adder  A full adder allows us to add the “carry” value to an binary addition
  42. 42. Full Adders A B Carry (C) Sum (S) Carry in
  43. 43. Truth Tables Construct a truth table for the full adder.
  44. 44. Truth Table A B CARRY CARRY SUM IN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
  45. 45. Circuit Design Steps  Identify inputs and outputs. A+B+C=X  Identify the components needed to obtain the desired output. AND/OR/NOT/XOR/NAND/NOR  Construct a truth table to test.
  46. 46. Activity 2  Construct a truth table for the following circuit. A Y B X C
  47. 47. A B X C A B C Y X 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
  48. 48. Activity 3
  49. 49. Fault Door Switch x Light 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0

×