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# Electronic Circuits

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### Electronic Circuits

1. 1. Software Developers View of Hardware Electronic Circuits
2. 2. What are circuits?  Computers are electrical devices, so therefore all functions performed by a computer need to done via the use of circuits.  Circuits are designed via the use of Logic Gates which show the path and the way in which electronic signals are sent and received.
3. 3. Logic Gates  Are a hardware circuit that produces a 0 or 1, which is normally an electronic impulse.  There are THREE basic logic gates and THREE extended gates that can be used to build integrated circuits.
4. 4. BASIC GATES 1. NOT Gate  This is the simplest of all gates, it involves a single input and a single output.  The purpose of this gate is the flipping of a bit similar to what is performed in one’s complement.
5. 5. NOT Gate A X 0 1
6. 6. NOT Gate
7. 7. NOT Gate
8. 8. NOT Gate – Truth Table IF A = 0 THEN A X X=1 0 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 ENDIF
9. 9. BASIC GATES 1. AND Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  Both inputs must be true for the output to be true.
10. 10. AND Gate A X B
11. 11. AND Gate
12. 12. AND Gate
13. 13. AND Gate
14. 14. AND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 0 ELSE X=0 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 1
15. 15. BASIC GATES 1. OR Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  If either inputs are true then the output will be true.
16. 16. OR Gate A X B
17. 17. OR Gate
18. 18. OR Gate
19. 19. OR Gate
20. 20. OR Gate
21. 21. OR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 OR B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 1
22. 22. Activity 1 Complete the truth table for the following circuit. A X Y B
23. 23. Truth Table A B X Y 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
24. 24. EXTENDED GATES 1. NAND Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  The output is the opposite of an AND gate.  Is a combination of an AND and NOT gate.
25. 25. NAND Gate A X B
26. 26. NAND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 1 ELSE X=1 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 0
27. 27. EXTENDED GATES 1. NOR Gate  This is involves two inputs to produce one output.  The output is the opposite of an OR gate.  It is a combination of an OR and NOT.
28. 28. NOR Gate A X B
29. 29. NOR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 0 ELSE X=1 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 0
30. 30. EXTENDED GATES 1. XOR Gate  This stands for exclusive OR.  This gate is true if only one input is true.
31. 31. XOR Gate A X B
32. 32. XOR Gate – Truth Table A B X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
33. 33. SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  Designed to make use of our binary knowledge and our circuitry knowledge  Examples include:  Adders  Flip Flops  Shifts
34. 34. DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  These circuits are written to provide a specific function:  Adder (Binary Addition)  Flip Flop (Binary Storage)
35. 35. DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS  Follow these steps:  Identify inputs and outputs  Identify the components required to produce the output (AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR)  Construct the solution with logic gates  Check the solution for validity (with a truth table)  Evaluate the circuit design (could you make this circuit better by chaining different logic gates)
36. 36. Binary Half Adder  This device is basically a calculator.  Lets look at the half adder truth table first.
37. 37. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  To create a Binary Adder, A B Carry Sum we need to find a logic gate that give us the 0 0 0 0 Carry output and a logic gate 0 1 0 1 the Sum output 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
38. 38. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  Carry output is created using a A B Carry Sum AND logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
39. 39. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT  Sum output is created using a A B Carry Sum XOR logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
40. 40. Binary Half Adders The circuit: A Carry (C) B Sum (S)