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- 1. Software Developers View of Hardware Electronic Circuits
- 2. What are circuits? Computers are electrical devices, so therefore all functions performed by a computer need to done via the use of circuits. Circuits are designed via the use of Logic Gates which show the path and the way in which electronic signals are sent and received.
- 3. Logic Gates Are a hardware circuit that produces a 0 or 1, which is normally an electronic impulse. There are THREE basic logic gates and THREE extended gates that can be used to build integrated circuits.
- 4. BASIC GATES 1. NOT Gate This is the simplest of all gates, it involves a single input and a single output. The purpose of this gate is the flipping of a bit similar to what is performed in one’s complement.
- 5. NOT Gate A X 0 1
- 6. NOT Gate
- 7. NOT Gate
- 8. NOT Gate – Truth Table IF A = 0 THEN A X X=1 0 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 ENDIF
- 9. BASIC GATES 1. AND Gate This is involves two inputs to produce one output. Both inputs must be true for the output to be true.
- 10. AND Gate A X B
- 11. AND Gate
- 12. AND Gate
- 13. AND Gate
- 14. AND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 0 ELSE X=0 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 1
- 15. BASIC GATES 1. OR Gate This is involves two inputs to produce one output. If either inputs are true then the output will be true.
- 16. OR Gate A X B
- 17. OR Gate
- 18. OR Gate
- 19. OR Gate
- 20. OR Gate
- 21. OR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 OR B=1THEN 0 0 0 X=1 0 1 1 ELSE X=0 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 1
- 22. Activity 1 Complete the truth table for the following circuit. A X Y B
- 23. Truth Table A B X Y 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
- 24. EXTENDED GATES 1. NAND Gate This is involves two inputs to produce one output. The output is the opposite of an AND gate. Is a combination of an AND and NOT gate.
- 25. NAND Gate A X B
- 26. NAND Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 1 ELSE X=1 1 0 1 ENDIF 1 1 0
- 27. EXTENDED GATES 1. NOR Gate This is involves two inputs to produce one output. The output is the opposite of an OR gate. It is a combination of an OR and NOT.
- 28. NOR Gate A X B
- 29. NOR Gate – Truth Table A B X IF A=1 AND B=1THEN 0 0 1 X=0 0 1 0 ELSE X=1 1 0 0 ENDIF 1 1 0
- 30. EXTENDED GATES 1. XOR Gate This stands for exclusive OR. This gate is true if only one input is true.
- 31. XOR Gate A X B
- 32. XOR Gate – Truth Table A B X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
- 33. SPECIALITY CIRCUITS Designed to make use of our binary knowledge and our circuitry knowledge Examples include: Adders Flip Flops Shifts
- 34. DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS These circuits are written to provide a specific function: Adder (Binary Addition) Flip Flop (Binary Storage)
- 35. DESIGNING SPECIALITY CIRCUITS Follow these steps: Identify inputs and outputs Identify the components required to produce the output (AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR) Construct the solution with logic gates Check the solution for validity (with a truth table) Evaluate the circuit design (could you make this circuit better by chaining different logic gates)
- 36. Binary Half Adder This device is basically a calculator. Lets look at the half adder truth table first.
- 37. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT To create a Binary Adder, A B Carry Sum we need to find a logic gate that give us the 0 0 0 0 Carry output and a logic gate 0 1 0 1 the Sum output 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
- 38. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT Carry output is created using a A B Carry Sum AND logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
- 39. Binary Half Adders INPUT OUTPUT Sum output is created using a A B Carry Sum XOR logic gate 0 0 0 0 A X B 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
- 40. Binary Half Adders The circuit: A Carry (C) B Sum (S)
- 41. Half And Full Adders Half Adders only work to add two digits To add more than 2 binary digits we need a full adder A full adder allows us to add the “carry” value to an binary addition
- 42. Full Adders A B Carry (C) Sum (S) Carry in
- 43. Truth Tables Construct a truth table for the full adder.
- 44. Truth Table A B CARRY CARRY SUM IN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
- 45. Circuit Design Steps Identify inputs and outputs. A+B+C=X Identify the components needed to obtain the desired output. AND/OR/NOT/XOR/NAND/NOR Construct a truth table to test.
- 46. Activity 2 Construct a truth table for the following circuit. A Y B X C
- 47. A B X C A B C Y X 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
- 48. Activity 3
- 49. Fault Door Switch x Light 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0

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