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  1. 1. Computer Fundamentals
  2. 2. A Computer Is a System Data is entered into the computer Becomes useful information The data is processed by adding, subtracting, and sorting Input Processing Output
  3. 3. Example Data for student registration A schedule for the student is created. Registration requests are checked against the lists (database), and if room is available, the student is added to the class list Input Processing Output
  4. 4. Computer Components <ul><li>Hardware: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard, monitor, system, scanners, mouse, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microchips, motherboard, ports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware & Software are required for the computer to work. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hardware System Storage <ul><li>Input hardware include: </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Output hardware includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Screen </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul>Processing hardware is microprocessor (i.e. Intel Pentium Processor) Input Processing Output
  6. 6. Input Hardware: Mouse <ul><li>As the mouse is moved, the cursor on the screen mimics the mouse movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball – motion of the ball in the mouse detected by wheels within the mouse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gets dirty. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on smooth surface. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical – small camera replaces the ball. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stays clean. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used on any surface. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless - no wire connecting the mouse to the computer. </li></ul></ul>I
  7. 7. Input Hardware: Keyboards <ul><li>Text and commands are entered using the keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized keys include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape (ESC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete & Backspace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number Lock (Num Lock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrow keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caps Lock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function Keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter Key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul>
  8. 8. Input Hardware: Scanners <ul><li>Text and graphics are digitized to become computer files. </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flatbed (most common) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Processing Hardware: Microprocessors <ul><li>2 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel architecture: Used with IBM-compatible PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celeron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola: Used with Macintosh computers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Microprocessors + RAM Microprocessor (CPU) Adds, subtracts, sorts, etc. Storage (RAM) All data and instructions must be loaded into RAM to be used by the microprocessor Data & instructions move back and forth Hard Drive: used for virtual RAM, and to store files for later use.
  11. 11. Printers <ul><li>Inkjet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small droplets of inks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive to buy, expensive to maintain </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Laser <ul><ul><ul><li>Usually black and white (some color available but rare) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High quality print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive to buy, less expensive to print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster than inkjet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Hardware System: Storage Storage <ul><li>Internal or Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM (Random Access Memory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External or Secondary Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zip Disk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul></ul>2 Types of Storage Input Processing Output
  14. 14. Units of Storage <ul><li>Size: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit (binary digit) = 0 or 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byte = 8 bits = 1 character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K (kilobyte) = 1,024 bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mb (megabyte) = 1 million bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gb (gigabyte) = 1 billion bytes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. How Much Can a Computer Hold? <ul><li>Primary storage (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Units of 32 megabytes (Mb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 32 Mb, 64 Mb, 128 Mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the number, the more the computer can process at once </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary storage (disk or CD-ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drives – gigabytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disks – 1.4 Mb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip disks – 100 Mb & 250 Mb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM – approximately 400 Mb </li></ul>
  16. 16. Computer Software <ul><li>System Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System – instructions that make the hardware work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows for IBM-Compatible PCs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh OS for Macintosh computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others: Unix, Linux, etc. – not as common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housekeeping </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Computer Software (continued) <ul><li>Application Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Processing – Word, WordPerfect, Works, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web authoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any software that a specific purpose or application. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How to Format a Disk <ul><li>PC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click on My Computer on the desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Explore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click on the disk drive where the disk you need to format is contained – usually the floppy disk drive (usually drive A) or the Zip Disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Format </li></ul></ul>