Role of nanoparticles in drug delivery


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Role of nanoparticles in drug delivery

  1. 1. Role of nanoparticles in drug delivery By K.Gautham Reddy 2011A8PS364G
  2. 2. Drug delivery Method of administering pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect . -Targeted Drug Delivery: Delivering drug to specific site
  3. 3. Controlled Drug Delivery: Delivering drug at predetermined rate
  4. 4. Basic challenges • Biological degradation • Effective Targeting
  5. 5. Nanoparticles • The use of nanoparticles allows one to change the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug without changing the active compound.
  6. 6. Advantages • Enhanced interaction • More efficient uptake by cells • Less dosage and thereby fewer side effects • Suitable encapsulation • Release drugs in controlled manner
  7. 7. Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery • Metal-based nanoparticles-Au, Ag, Cd-Se, Zn-S etc • Lipid-based nanoparticles-Liposome & Neosome • Polymer-based nanoparticles-Dendrimer, Micelle • Biological nanoparticles-Bovine-albumin serum
  8. 8. Metal-based Nano particles • AuNPs acting as heat producer featured high conversion efficiency of NIR light to heat. • Used mainly in cancer therapy • Disadvantage: Toxicity
  9. 9. Lipid based Nanoparticles • A liposome is an artificially-prepared spherical vesicle composed of a lipid bilayer • Advantage: Biodegradable
  10. 10. Polymer nanoparticles • Carries drug through forming drug-polymer complex • Dentrimers : Carries drugs through covalent conjugation • Advantage: Carriers of DNA in gene therapy, proteins, peptides and genes .
  11. 11. Optimal design of nanoparticles • Rapid clearance during systemic delivery • Opsonization - nonspecific protein adsorption • Rapid clearance by Mononuclear Phagocyte system (MPS) in the liver and by spleen filtration
  12. 12. Factors • Size Nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm can be rapidly cleared by the kidneys or through extravasation, while larger nanoparticles may have higher tendency to be cleared by cells of the MPS • Surface charge Neutrally charged particles have demonstrated much lower opsonization rates than charged particles
  13. 13. • PEGylation A PEG shell on the nanoparticle surface shields charged particles from attachment by blood proteins leading to prolonged circulation half-life. • Targeting Ligands Size and charge of the ligand molecule, and their ease of modification and conjugation to the nanoparticles.
  14. 14. Conclusion • Designing nanoparticles to be taken orally. • Introduction and improvement of controlled release properties and targeting ligands is expected to enable the development of safer and more effective therapeutic nanoparticles. • The development of particles that are nano scaled has created great opportunities in the of improved drug delivery systems.