Finding water


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Finding water

  1. 1. Water diviner The water-diviner is capable of finding water under stones. Everybody looks at him in amazement, completely confused And he, armed with a simple wooden mechanism, scours the territory until he point out- with complete certainty - the place to dig the well. The people around him look at each other in disbelief, but after he has solved the task, everyone locks at each other with admiring. The water-diviner is not a magician, he doesn’t have Supernatural talents. The water-diviner has a technique. He respect certain strategies when he walks around a piece of land. He follows clues and he isn’t the one who digs the well, but the one who point out the place.....
  2. 2. Following water Sege aa catchment area lies in the southwest of Sweden. Sege aa catchment area covers a total of 333 km2. Risabergabecken further west, cover about 30 km2. Sege aa and its tributaries has over the past 150 years been subjected to increased emission of nitrogen and phosphorus from both communities and agriculture. Meanwhile, a radical change of the landscape has led too a lost of self-purifying capability. Much of the water has been led trough water pipes and has been straightened, and the wetlands has been covered up. The consequences has been that natural conditions for the digestion of nutrients has decreased. Since the early 1900s, the area of wetland in the catchments area has decreased by about 90% and distance open water has decreased by about 50%. Nutrients causes problems not only in the rivers and lakes, but also in the sea. The pollution of the sea, results in a sharp growth of algae’s. Dead algae fall down to the bottom and decomposition leads to oxygen deficiency. As a result, it could lead to fish death in big scale. Phosphorus transport to the Øresund is about 10 tons pr. year (average for period 1990-2006).
  3. 3. SKÅNE SEGE MALMØ RISABERGA BECKEN OXIE Smaller streas in the area
  4. 4. The streams catchment area, and sub-catchment area During the process of evaluating and searching for pound and wetland loca- tions in Seges catchment area has the need for a detailed breakdown of sub- catchment areas become clear, this by a systematic review of maps. The work is exemplified below with bigger and smaller catchment areas, di- vided into smaller areas in the most detailed level. Protections Zone: With the protection zone means a zone between water and arable land with grass and herbs, and preferably also shrubs and trees. The with of the zone should be at least 5 meter and no fertilizer or pesticide may be used in this area. The with of the protection zone varies between 5 and 10 meters (today usually 6 m, according to EU directive). Environmental benefits: - The transportation of soil particles and nutrients ( mainly phosphorus) from arable land to watercourses decreases. - Decreased erosion in the water-ditches. - The potential for direct deposit of fertilizer and pesticides in water decreases. - Trees and shrubs shade the stream, which prevents overgrowth and reduce the need for cleaning, by lowering the water temperature. - Important corridors for the animals in the agricultural landscape are being created. - Availability for people will increase. Examples of protections zones between the arable land and the stream/water.
  5. 5. SKÅNE SEGE MALMØ RISABERGA BECKEN OXIE Catchment area Smaller streams in the area City zone
  6. 6. Pounds and wetlands Pounds and wetlands have an important function when it comes to natural purification processes. The processes that make the water cleaner is sedimentation (nutrient-rich particles sink to the bottom), denitrification (water soluble nitrogen is converted by bacteria into the air nitrogen, which is harmless to the environment) and through absorption of nutrients (plants take up nutrients in the pond). Ponds and wetlands are effective nutrient traps in the area. The degree of purification depends among others on the ponds design and age, and water retention in the pond. Concept of pond and wetland. The term pond in this context is a permanent body of water that is created to purify incoming water, and is beneficial to plants, animals and humans. The typical pond is made of a flat slope and has often an irregular shape, which is shaped by the landscape. The depth can vary between one (1,0) and three (3,0) meter. And the size is usually from 0,3 ha. till 5 ha. In periods of little rain the water level may be just beneath ground level. Aqua vegetation plays a prominent role in our wetlands. Wetlands is typical in the ponds edge zone, which means that the pond and habitats in our wetlands often are connected to one another. The environmental benefits on ponds and wetlands. - The water is cleaned when it comes to soil particles, nutrients, metals, pesticides and other harmful substances. - Habitat for wetlands-related plants and animals increases. - Recreation potential for people in the agricultural landscape increases. - Flood variations in the water can be reduced locally. - Environmental damage at the temporary discharges of oil, urine or other harmful substances can be limited. - Biotopes in the local area will increase.
  7. 7. The rhizome of water SKÅNE Ponds Wetlands
  8. 8. SKÅNE SEGE MALMØ RISABERA BECKEN OXIE Smaller streams in the area Catchment area City zone Ponds Wetlands
  9. 9. Sub- catchment area To determine the size and boundaries of a catchment area, a map with elevation where the state of water is clear. in order to get better glance, you may want to first draw the arrows perpendicular to the height of the curves from higher to lower levels. These arrows indicate direction of movement of rainfall water. Water components can then gradually link together into coherent strings. In this way, the catchment areas approximate boundary and size are identified. Catchment area size: To get a high nutrient load in the ponds and wetlands, there should be large catchment areas (at least 100 times larger than the pond/ wetland). Catchment area of 100 hectares or more is often needed. If the ponds can adjusted accordingly to the catchment area, of course, we can work with small catchment areas and still get a good effect. Soils: Ponds and wetlands can be build in most soils, although soils with high clay content are best because they provide a completely sealed pond. Sandy soil with permeability involves a risk of leaking that can cause dehydration during dry periods. The major technical limitation for construction of ponds and wetlands is the relationship between the soil surface level within the proposed pond area and the level of the running water. This ratio determines the soil volume it is needed to be excavated out and thereby how expensive the project becomes. The higher the water level is proportional to the surface of the soil, the better the conditions for creating a cost-effective pond/wetland.
  10. 10. SKÅNE MALMØ OXIE The streams different sub-catchment areas The map showes that the topography gives the smal stream and its catch- ment areas the possibility to go into the outer part of the city. This gives the opportunity to create ponds and wetlands in the urban landscape.
  11. 11. Øresund Øresund SEARCHING FOR WATER Øresund Øresund
  12. 12. Ponds in the city zone of Mamø, in the rural area between Oxie and the outer city zone of Malmø city. Some of the ponds are now visible while others remain buried and must be restored. Interesting for future development. The agriculture land in the western Skåne, particularly near the larger cities such as Malmo, is not seldom the subject of various explorations plans. This may be the new road route. Wire rolls and the development of new residential areas or industrial areas. This has until now been a direct restriction in terms of the development of ponds and wetlands in the area. But recent years more people have become aware, and can see the quality of these natural water areas/resources. As an important resource when it comes to developing Malmö city in a sustainable ecological way. To the best, for the people and the environment in Malmo.
  13. 13. Farmland water Movement Green water City to be continue
  14. 14. and after he found water - the diviner said: The ponds and the wetland is a grid in which movement is structurally absorbed by the system. It is a combination of flexibility and motion. The wet grid forms lines in less defined areas that are surfaces. The line is taken up in a field of potential which make it an intensive line. A curve is a straight line with more openness to it. The wet grid is always a network, topological and defined. Lets go to the city - and find line structures.