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  1. 1. Water diviner The water-diviner is capable of finding water under stones. Everybody looks at him in amazement, completely confused And he, armed with a simple wooden mechanism, scours the territory until he point out- with complete certainty - the place to dig the well. The people around him look at each other in disbelief, but after he has solved the task, everyone locks at each other with admiring. The water-diviner is not a magician, he doesn’t have Supernatural talents. The water-diviner has a technique. He respect certain strategies when he walks around a piece of land. He follows clues and he isn’t the one who digs the well, but the one who point out the place.....
  2. 2. Strategy number 1: Finding water
  3. 3. Following water Sege aa catchment area lies in the southwest of Sweden. Sege aa catchment area covers a total of 333 km2. Risabergabecken further west, cover about 30 km2. Sege aa and its tributaries has over the past 150 years been subjected to increased emission of nitrogen and phosphorus from both communities and agriculture. Meanwhile, a radical change of the landscape has led too a lost of self-purifying capability. Much of the water has been led trough water pipes and has been straightened, and the wetlands has been covered up. The consequences has been that natural conditions for the digestion of nutrients has decreased. Since the early 1900s, the area of wetland in the catchments area has decreased by about 90% and distance open water has decreased by about 50%. Nutrients causes problems not only in the rivers and lakes, but also in the sea. The pollution of the sea, results in a sharp growth of algae’s. Dead algae fall down to the bottom and decomposition leads to oxygen deficiency. As a result, it could lead to fish death in big scale. Phosphorus transport to the Øresund is about 10 tons pr. year (average for period 1990-2006).
  4. 4. SKÅNE SEGE MALMØ RISABERGA BECKEN OXIE Smaller streas in the area
  5. 5. The streams catchment area, and sub-catchment area During the process of evaluating and searching for pound and wetland loca- tions in Seges catchment area has the need for a detailed breakdown of sub- catchment areas become clear, this by a systematic review of maps. The work is exemplified below with bigger and smaller catchment areas, di- vided into smaller areas in the most detailed level. Protections Zone: With the protection zone means a zone between water and arable land with grass and herbs, and preferably also shrubs and trees. The with of the zone should be at least 5 meter and no fertilizer or pesticide may be used in this area. The with of the protection zone varies between 5 and 10 meters (today usually 6 m, according to EU directive). Environmental benefits: - The transportation of soil particles and nutrients ( mainly phosphorus) from arable land to watercourses decreases. - Decreased erosion in the water-ditches. - The potential for direct deposit of fertilizer and pesticides in water decreases. - Trees and shrubs shade the stream, which prevents overgrowth and reduce the need for cleaning, by lowering the water temperature. - Important corridors for the animals in the agricultural landscape are being created. - Availability for people will increase. Examples of protections zones between the arable land and the stream/water.
  6. 6. SKÅNE SEGE MALMØ RISABERGA BECKEN OXIE Catchment area Smaller streams in the area City zone
  7. 7. Pounds and wetlands Pounds and wetlands have an important function when it comes to natural purification processes. The processes that make the water cleaner is sedimentation (nutrient-rich particles sink to the bottom), denitrification (water soluble nitrogen is converted by bacteria into the air nitrogen, which is harmless to the environment) and through absorption of nutrients (plants take up nutrients in the pond). Ponds and wetlands are effective nutrient traps in the area. The degree of purification depends among others on the ponds design and age, and water retention in the pond. Concept of pond and wetland. The term pond in this context is a permanent body of water that is created to purify incoming water, and is beneficial to plants, animals and humans. The typical pond is made of a flat slope and has often an irregular shape, which is shaped by the landscape. The depth can vary between one (1,0) and three (3,0) meter. And the size is usually from 0,3 ha. till 5 ha. In periods of little rain the water level may be just beneath ground level. Aqua vegetation plays a prominent role in our wetlands. Wetlands is typical in the ponds edge zone, which means that the pond and habitats in our wetlands often are connected to one another. The environmental benefits on ponds and wetlands. - The water is cleaned when it comes to soil particles, nutrients, metals, pesticides and other harmful substances. - Habitat for wetlands-related plants and animals increases. - Recreation potential for people in the agricultural landscape increases. - Flood variations in the water can be reduced locally. - Environmental damage at the temporary discharges of oil, urine or other harmful substances can be limited. - Biotopes in the local area will increase.
  8. 8. The rhizome of water SKÅNE Ponds Wetlands
  9. 9. SKÅNE SEGE MALMØ RISABERA BECKEN OXIE Smaller streams in the area Catchment area City zone Ponds Wetlands
  10. 10. Sub- catchment area To determine the size and boundaries of a catchment area, a map with elevation where the state of water is clear. in order to get better glance, you may want to first draw the arrows perpendicular to the height of the curves from higher to lower levels. These arrows indicate direction of movement of rainfall water. Water components can then gradually link together into coherent strings. In this way, the catchment areas approximate boundary and size are identified. Catchment area size: To get a high nutrient load in the ponds and wetlands, there should be large catchment areas (at least 100 times larger than the pond/ wetland). Catchment area of 100 hectares or more is often needed. If the ponds can adjusted accordingly to the catchment area, of course, we can work with small catchment areas and still get a good effect. Soils: Ponds and wetlands can be build in most soils, although soils with high clay content are best because they provide a completely sealed pond. Sandy soil with permeability involves a risk of leaking that can cause dehydration during dry periods. The major technical limitation for construction of ponds and wetlands is the relationship between the soil surface level within the proposed pond area and the level of the running water. This ratio determines the soil volume it is needed to be excavated out and thereby how expensive the project becomes. The higher the water level is proportional to the surface of the soil, the better the conditions for creating a cost-effective pond/wetland.
  11. 11. SKÅNE MALMØ OXIE The streams different sub-catchment areas The map showes that the topography gives the smal stream and its catch- ment areas the possibility to go into the outer part of the city. This gives the opportunity to create ponds and wetlands in the urban landscape.
  12. 12. Øresund Øresund SEARCHING FOR WATER Øresund Øresund
  13. 13. 1 1,0 hectare 2 2,0 hectare 1,0 hectare 3 1,0 hectare 11 4 0,75 hectare 12 1,5 hectare 5 4,0 hectare 6 0,5 hectare 7 0,5 hectare 8 1,5 hectare 9 1,0 hectare 10 1,0 hectare Ponds in the city zone of Mamø, in the rural area between Oxie and the outer city zone of Malmø city. Some of the ponds are now visible while others remain buried and must be restored. Interesting for future development. The agriculture land in the western Skåne, particularly near the larger cities such as Malmo, is not seldom the subject of various explorations plans. This may be the new road route. Wire rolls and the development of new residential areas or industrial areas. This has until now been a direct restriction in terms of the development of ponds and wetlands in the area. But recent years more people have become aware, and can see the quality of these natural water areas/resources. As an important resource when it comes to developing Malmö city in a sustainable ecological way. To the best, for the people and the environment in Malmo.
  14. 14. Strategy number 2: Finding the city
  15. 15. Understanding the city In the past, most attempts to understand the city scientifically have not seen the city’s most obvious network - its street network – as being of scientific relevance or interest. But it is the street network that links the aggregations of buildings into a single system, it is what you see when you look down on a city, and it is what you navigate when you walk or drive in a city. In all these senses, the street network seems to be the common ground between the real space of the city and our experience of it. They say something about how cities are structured spatially, how they work, and how they grow and change. Networks of space have, in recent years, brought to light a fundamental link between the structure and functioning of cities: that the configuration of the network is the primary shaper of the pattern of movement. In shaping movement, it also shapes the patterns of human co-presence - and of course co-absence – that seems to be the key to our sense that good cities are human and social things as well as physical things. This is a far reaching proposition, and, if true, as increasing evidence suggests it is, it has far reaching implication for how we think about cities and design them. The large scale architecture of city space, which has been neglected for decades, matters much more than we thought to the life of the city and how it comes into existence. In principle, this idea is not really new. Most designers believe that we can manipulate space to create the emergent human patterns that are the source of our sense that cities are civilised, safe and pleasurable. People make trips because the shops are there. But it is maybe not fundamental. Maybe the space network itself, shapes movement, then the shops are where they are because they are following the patterns of movement already created by the network. So we can not start with attraction if we want to understand this city. We should start with the network which creates the pattern of attraction. So the network view of the city is also a paradigm change. It puts everything in the city in a different order. Once we understand the relation between the network configuration and movement, we can begin to creating a networks of centres and sub-centres. This is the nature of the organic city which evolves over tens or hun- dreds of yearsto form the seamless web of busy and quiet places, with everything seem- ing to be in the right place, the organic city. How local places arise in cities depends as much on how it is embedded in its larger scale context as in its intrinsic properties. In fact, this is mabyetrue of space in general, and that the local-global relation has featured too little in our attempts to reproduce the excellencies of cities through design. Malmö 2009
  16. 16. Malmö as fragmented city Malmö high density city Malmö global structures Malmö local structures
  17. 17. Malmö City zones City center Inner city Outer city Rural area
  18. 18. Buildings and the city of Malmø exist for us in two ways: as the physical forms that we build and see, and as the spaces that we use and move through. So what is space: The first is that we have to learn to think of space not as the background to human activity, as we think of it as the background to objects, but as an aspect of everything human beings do, in the sense that moving through space, interacting with other people in space, or even just seeing ambient space from a point in it have a natural and necessary spatial geometry: movement is Shoving main infrastructure inn and out of Malmø city. These human essentially a linear activity, interaction requires a convex space in which all struktures makes spaces and human activity/movement. But creates also points can see all others, from any point big barriers when it comes to social interaction between people in Malmø. in space we see a variably shaped visual field, and it is by accumulating these as we move through the complex patterns of space we find in buildings and cities that we somehow build an enduring picture of the pattern of space as a whole. This describes some aspect of how we use or experience space, and for this reason how buildings and cities are organised in terms of these geometric ideas is a vital aspect of how we create them, use them and understand them. For example, space in cities is for the most part linear – streets, boulevards, avenues, alleys and so on are all linear concepts - with occasional convex elements we call squares or public open spaces. So the language of city space is written in this geometric language reflecting human behaviour and experience. By filling these spaces, we see that the spaces are growing as the distance to the city-senter increase. This indicate different human activities in diffrent spaces. That means that different kind of people are attracted to their “ favor- ite space”, or because of financial reasons. This means spaces of segregation
  19. 19. Going in to the different spaces 1 Shorter lines. Making more crosses. 1 2 2 Longer lines. Making fewer crosses. 3 3 Longest lines. Making Studying the lines of the different zones in the city of Malmö ( Zone 1 - city center. Zone 2 - inner less crosses city. Zone 3 - outer city). Different zones in the city have different line structures. Zone 1 -city center have short lines with many crosses. Creating an urban feeling in dense spaces. The different lines in the city makes different spaces, meaning different urban feelings. The different structures zones 1,2 and 3 makes little connections to the global structures. The local lines and the global lines are not working together. Few interesting meeting points. The spaces are looking into itself and not interacting with other spaces. Makes city development difficult. Need to find new structures.
  20. 20. Malmö Public green spaces in Malmö Finding the structure of the DNA City center Inner city Outer city Rural area 1 2 3 4 Mapping different qualities in selected districts; 1. City center, 2. Inner city, 3. Fosie Analyzing the different districts by relations of green spaces, water, building and 4.Oxie density and open spaces.
  21. 21. CITY CENTER Building density and green areas (parks and water), as well as com- pactness and spaciousness in selected districts in the city of Malmö. Buildings INNER CITY The most compact unit in the inner city is provided Green space by high density housing combined with key water routes and green areas. The parks and water kom- CITY CENTER bined with high density givs “the right” urban felling. Water FOSIE Open space Less green areas, no water spaces, but high den- OXIE sity. Low spaciousness, indicating that inner city may have a shortage of outdoor nature. For future condensation it is needed more green areas, com- bined with new buildings. This will increase the INNER CITY compact unit. Less dens. More open spaces but littel green spaces In a densification process is the interaction between compactness and spa- In a densification process is the interaction between ciousness important. When spacious unit is reduced, as it generally does compactness and spaciousness important. When spa- with densification, the compact unit should increase to maintain the urban cious unit is reduced, as it generally does with densi- environment more attractive. This is an opportunity that does not appear to fication, the compact unit should increase to maintain be utilized in the the outer city zones of Malmø. The risk with this develop- FOSIE- the urban environment more attractive. ment is primarily the single suburban zone reduces the attractiveness to the point that it runs on more urban sprawl in the spacious periphery. The decrease in compactness that currently takes place in the outer city zone is likely to create a less competitive and less space-efficient region as a whole The lowest compactness, in other words, the low- est urbanity, is located in areas that are only “green Green structure - an arena of polarization in the urban planning, where there space”, For example, in rural areas, or no green are contradictions between the green structure and urban development. It is OXIE space, such as industrial areas. therefore important to study this landscape at the local level in the citys outer zone in Malmö. With the expected continuing high population growth in com- bination with national and regional objectives for nature conservation, the city becomes the arena of conflicting interests - to build or preserve? As I already have shown, different spaces ( city zones) are isolating the different districts in The graphs show the basic density and landscape structure in inner and outer the city from each other, and become a driving factor in a social segregation Malmö city. Malmö is now a relatively green and spacious area, which has a processes. Social segregation and income gaps between rich and poor areas high compactness of the inner city, but lack the density and compactness of the are increasing, and calls for an development that creates links in and between suburbs. the inner-outer city urban areas. At the same time, they represent an important Case study area includes a landscape around the ring road where strong inter- resource as ecological potential areas. As part of the effort to meet national ob- ests for urban development and different nature- landscape conservation jectives for both enviromental issues and biodiversity will the landscape around interests are meet. The area is located in the east of Malmö city, where the and in the city be an important aspect of Malmö as an sustainable city for the outer city zone meets the rural area with strong agriculture traditions. future.
  22. 22. Micro - biology Macro - city Like the micro organism in water form a pattern of lines, the city forms new lines by looking for alternative streets/routes in the purpose of braking up different spaces/ar- eas. In this way new patterns can be build, and the social interaction can develop.
  23. 23. Space shapes movement The problem in Malmø is that all the main streets ( global streets ) is occupied with car traffic. This becomes both a physical and mental barrier This streets take you directly from the city center and out in the rural area. The main streets ( because of the heavily traffic) makes barriers to the different city spaces. This leads to segregation and different social zones in the city. By locking for alternative spaces we can brake down these barriers between these physical and social spaces. Once we have this line network, we can calculate, say, the integration value of each line in relation to all others, and color up as usual. The global structures ( long lines) are given the colors red, yellow and orange. The local structures are given the colors pink, blue and purple. When ever tree colors mets in the network ( one global structure and two local structures) we mark a connection point ( green circle) . A new interesting space will then occur. And the the lines between the green circles vill guide us through the city in new way. These green circle can be new green structures inn the city or new social interactions spaces. The lines between the green circles will brace down the global structure, By this a urban development of Malmø can develop in an including way in all the different spaces. People Spaces New spaces People move inn lines Interact in segregated space Interact in new visual fields connecting different lines and making new spaces for interac- tion among different people in Malmø
  24. 24. Where the different lines (streets) meets ( valued by Lines are finding new connections color) new interesting spaces are made The new local connections are braking Local structures (lines) are making new meeting ( down the old global structures green) spaces.
  25. 25. Braking the barrier of the Ring The new green spaces in the city meeting water ( ponds) -road ( global structure) in the rural area. Together they make a new city strukture
  26. 26. Breaking trough the global structure ( Ring road ) Ring road Case study area includes a landscape around the ring road where strong interests for urban development and different nature- landscape conservation interests are meet. The area is located in the east of Malmö city, where the outer city zone meets the rural area with strong agriculture traditions. New ecological landscape
  27. 27. Farmland water Movement Project: Green Defined landscape water City Concept model
  28. 28. Connections Architecture Landscape Gardens Water TRANSFORMING THE LANDSCAPE
  29. 29. Systems, actions or processes capable of growing and developing, mutating and transforming, varying, deforming and being precise and flexible, at once determinate and indeterminate No longer lovly volumes under the light, but No longer lovly volumes under the light, but rather ambiguous landscapes under the sky. rather ambiguous landscapes under the sky. Fields within other fields. Fields within other fields. No longer strict geometric schemes but rather No longer strict geometric schemes but rather freer and more meaningful configurations. freer and more meaningful configurations. A new desire to to lift the background to the surface, A new desire lift the background to the surface, in in short, to turn the ground and the surface into short, to turn the ground and the surface into the object of of the project. the object the project. Water belt Water belt
  30. 30. Malmö city Risaberga- backen Copenhagen Ponds Landscape to develop
  31. 31. Landscape to define Landscape to explore Experimental fields for developing new New ecological food housing. products. To prevent sprawl. er/ ov gs y sin hwa s ig ro h w c the Ne er d un Agriculture fields. For producing ecological food. Exploration of potential - Three key con- cepts, drawn from the fields of urban ecol- ogy and landscape urbanism has been used to examine and identify how the po- tential of green architecture might bee in a growing region: Availability, resilience and readability. The last two concepts are described by the American landscape theorist Julia Czerniak as “essential for the social, ecological and generative role Streams in large green spaces in the contemporary and ponds city. Resilience is also an important con- in the land- cept in environmental research where eco- scape logical resilience is the ability for ecosys- tems to resist or adapt to change without losing the capacity to produce ecosystem services
  32. 32. Means of links informal entrances. Attraction as a Combining new hous- starting point. es with water Experimental design area for food production to cover up/ go over the highway With build land- Stepping ponds. scape Ponds linked together with new water structure open landscape with visual links under the highway Using water (Risaberga- becken) Means of entrances Walking and bike path
  33. 33. Crossings: New To combine the hous- ing. Highway To west side and prevent sprawl. r/ the east side of s so ve ing hway ros hig wc e Concept model: Floating landscape the highway Ne er th un d Crossing 1. Over Crossing 2. the highway Under the highway 1. Floating landscape over the Ringroad Models of possible crossings over and under the highway Working with 1:1 sketch. Exploring the landscape 2. Risabergabacken as an open installation under the highway View from under the crossing landscape Leading the way out in the open landscape.
  34. 34. Ponds: Designing the new landscape New restored Old ponds ponds as regestred in elements in the traditional forming a new agricultural landscape. landscape Ponds are Old pond. Not active. Have connected little effect on the sur- with new in- rounding landscape frastructure of small water canals Restored pond. Increasing its effect on the surrounding landscape Restoring the traditional and natural ponds in the Like a rhizome, the water agricultural landscape gives life to many spe- gives multiple effekts cies, and at the same time cleans up the nutri- The water are giving structure ents before it goes into to an transformation of the the ground water landscape. A new landscape will appear. Land and water are two opposites, like yin and yang that produce growth and prosperity when they come together. Dynamic processes of nature often appear where land meets water. To understand the Isolated ponds. Do not work By small water canals in the landscape ponds are starting to water as a site of a dynamic landscape, both as urban and ecological together.The potentianal is not fully used. work together. Icreas the wild and rebuild the industral agricultural landscape into a new sustain- life and the production in the area able land of multiple food production.
  35. 35. Agriculture fields. Agricultural land outside Malmö today For producing ecological food. Streams and ponds in the land- scape Water + New “green” water infrastructure Water are giving life Increased production Example of an new renovated “activ pond” in the landscape. Giving life and an sustain- able structure for a multiple agriculture by new water structures in the landscape. = The fabulous cultural landscapes which the territory of Skåne is renowned for. From this point of view the new water structure could be treated as a platform om which the es- sence of life and healthy interactions with nature could be grasped from. Agriculture land outside Malmö tomorrow. New field of permaculture. Water structures are giving life to a sustainable agriculture
  36. 36. Ponds Experimen- tal fields for in the New developing hous- new eco- ing. logical food urban To pre- vent products. sprawl. Example of design ponds integrated in the production land and new gardens Ponds in the new landscape. Protection zone. A zone be- tween water and arable land with grass, herbs and trees. Green space for the pro- duction of organic food and for recreation. Experimental gardening For new ecological Residential area integrated in the products. stream (Risabergabacken and restored ponds. The subject of land- scape investigation is a matter of dealing with resources, primarily ground and water: the articulation of Exampel of pond th the landscapein of a new sustainable residential area the inhabited with the territorial.
  37. 37. Malmö Today Malmö Tomorrow MING T RANSFOR APE TH E LANDSC Sustainable ecological Möllevången Tomorrow. gardening Selling local products Agricultural production Möllevången today. products today specialist for transportation world wide Produser Consumer Industrialized agriculture, mass production of selected products, specialized tasks. the soil becomes depleted, desiccation and Elastic is a body, system, order, organisation erosion. Need to supply more and more or relationship that is deformable or alterable fertilizer to keep up production of food. With by the action of a force, in an evolutionary the consequence of contaminated groundwater logic. This elastic dimension can guide us inn and polluted oceans. a new directionin which the producer and the consumer can be seen as one for a sustaineble future.
  38. 38. People, plants and animals need water to live and flourish. No city can exist without water. Water can be used to enhance the liveability of cities. But water, whether in a stream or ponds is a natural element and requires careful management. After centuries of living with water, it are the no-developed cultures, in particular, which have Malmö a new city to walk developed the wisdom and experience to exploit nature and construct a landscape as a solution. We also a new city to feel had the this knowledge, when every man had a relation and knowledge of the landscape and the elements. It is time to take this wisdom back. This wisdom of the landscape makes a culture sustainable for the future. No landscape, no culture. G.A. Bergen School of Architecture, Norway, Autumn 2009 City Nature Architecture Natur Water Sustainable society Landscape Landscape strategies