C H A P T E R 1 2 P R E S E N T A T I O N
B Y : G E R N E L L A U S T I N
The Ending is Just the
Sometimes when you
think that the meanings
of words are telling you
the complete story, you
can be very mistaken.
Explained in this
presentation are three
suffixes that will bring to
life a deeper knowledge
of the human nervous
system for you.
The endings of these
medical terms are only
the beginning of your
understanding of their
meanings & how it
effects human life.
The three suffixes and their definition are listed
-PLEGIA: paralysis; or complete loss of muscle
-PHASIA: speech; or pertaining to speech.
-PARESIS: weakness; or pertaining to the weakness
Now, you may be
thinking how paralysis,
speech and weakness
relate to the human
Well, the nervous system
coordinates and controls
all body functions
through sensory inputs
and by ordering body
These inputs and
responses control the
reactions of the body’s
muscles, speech and
weakness as it relates to
pain stimulus, among
many other things.
…is defined as the loss of the ability to move and/or
feel both legs and generally, the lower trunk.
…is often caused by an injury to the spinal cord,
such as those resulting from a car accident, gunshot
wound or a non-traumatic factor such as a spinal
Immediately after the spinal cord injury, the loss of
movement, sensation, and reflexes below the
level of the spinal cord injury can occur.
Each year, approximately 11,000 people have spinal
cord injuries that result in paraplegia.*
This is Susan Rotchy of
California and she is
living with a T12 spinal
cord injury. She uses
cardio and specialized
therapy as treatment for
her paraplegia and has
increased levels of
blood circulation in her
…is a disorder that results from damage to portions of
the brain that are responsible for language, many times
caused by stroke.
...usually occurs suddenly, but it may also develop slowly,
as in the case of a brain tumor.
There are two categories of aphasia: fluent and non-
Damage to the temporal lobe of the brain may result in
Wernicke’s, a fluent aphasia.
A type of non-fluent aphasia is Broca’s aphasia, in which case people
have damage to the frontal lobe of the brain.
According to the National Aphasia Association,
approximately 80,000 individuals acquire aphasia each
year from strokes.*
Here a granddaughter
sits with her grand-
father, who suffers from
aphasia as a result of a
stroke. According to
the utterance patterns
of patients can aid in
…is weakness on one side of the body caused by damage
to the frontal lobe, usually as a result of a stroke.
When hemiparesis happens as a result of a stroke, it
commonly involves muscles in the face, arm, and leg.*
About 80% of people who have had a stroke have some
degree of trouble moving one side, or suffer from
weakness on one side of their bodies. **
People with hemiparesis may have trouble moving their
arms and legs, difficulty walking and may also experience
a loss of balance.
This patient suffered
from a stroke resulting
in hemiparesis. As you
can see in picture “A”,
the patient has no
muscle movement on
the left side of her face.
The “B” image is a
mimetic smile produced
by a pharmaceutical
company researching a
new treatment for