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Bernard Tschumi Philosophy

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a detailed description of bernard tschimi's philosophy with some of his major works...in ppt format !!!

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Bernard Tschumi Philosophy

  1. 1. Bernard Tschumi (1944) is an architect, writer, and educator, commonly associated with deconstructivism. He works and lives in New York City and Paris. He studied in Paris and at ETH in Zurich, where he received his degree in architecture in 1969. During the 1970s, through drawings and written texts, Bernard Tschumi insisted that there is no architecture without events, without actions or activity.
  2. 2. "Any relationship between a building and its users is one of violence, for any use means the intrusion of a human body into a given space, the intrusion of one order into another." -Bernard Tschumi
  3. 3. • ‘Form follows fiction’ is one example of Bernard Tschumi's rules of architectonic notation that have made him an internationally influential theorist. • He has applied his theories to the problems of cultural and educational institutions, with his approach evident in his successful proposal for the project that catapulted him to prominence, the Parc de la Villette, Paris in 1998. •Theory of Timelessness •Red is not a color
  4. 4. “There is no way to perform architecture in a book. Words and drawings can only produce paper space, not the experience of real space. By definition, paper space is imaginary: it is an image.”
  5. 5. A big influence on this work were the theories and structural diagramming by the Russian Cinematographer Sergei Eisenstein produced for his own films. Tschumi adapted Eisenstein's diagrammatic methodology in his investigations to exploit the interstitial condition between the elements of which a system is made of: space, event, and movement (or activity).
  6. 6. This approach unfolded along two lines in his architectural practice: first, by exposing the conventionally defined connections between architectural sequences and the spaces, programs, and movement which produce and reiterate these sequences; and second, by inventing new associations between space and the events that 'take place' within it through processes of defamiliarization, de-structuring, superimposition, and cross programming.
  7. 7. Screenplays, 1978. “The Screenplays are investigations of concepts as well as techniques, proposing simple hypotheses and then testing them out. They explore the relation between events (“the program”) and architectural spaces, on one hand, and transformational devices of a sequential nature, on the other.” Psycho, Fade-in and Fade-out.
  8. 8. Screenplays, 1978. • The use of film images in these works originated in Tschumi's interest in sequences and programmatic concerns. (“There is no architecture without action, no architecture without event, no architecture without program.”) Rather than composing fictional events or sequences, it seemed more informative to act upon existing ones. • The cinema thus was an obvious source. At the same time, the rich formal and narrative inventions of the only genuine 20th-century art inevitably encouraged parallels with current architectural thought. Flashbacks, crosscutting, jumpcuts, dissolves and other editing devices provided a rich set of analogies to the time and space nature of architecture. • Yet the concerns of the Screenplays were essentially architectural. They dealt with issues of: - material (generators of form: reality, abstraction, movement, events, etc.) - device (disjunction, distortion, repetition, and superimposition) - counterpoint (between movement and space, events and spaces, etc.) • The Screenplays aimed at developing a contemporary set of architectural tools.
  9. 9. Screenplays, 1978.
  10. 10. The Manhattan Transcripts, 1976 - 81. “Architecture is not simply about space and form, but also about event, action, and what happens in space.” • The Manhattan Transcripts differ from most architectural drawings insofar as they are neither real projects nor mere fantasies. • Developed in the late 1970s, they proposed to transcribe an architectural interpretation of reality. To this aim, they employed a particular structure involving photographs that either directed or witnessed events (some would call them “functions” others “programs”). • At the same time, plans, sections, and diagrams outlined spaces and indicated the movements of the different protagonists intruding into the architectural “stage set”.
  11. 11. The Manhattan Transcripts, 1976 - 81. • The Transcripts explicit purpose was to transcribe things normally removed from conventional architectural representation, namely the complex relationship between spaces and their use, between the set and the script, between “type” and “program”, between objects and events. •The Transcripts tried to offer a different reading of architecture in which space, movement and events were independent, yet stood in a new relation to one another, so that the conventional components of architecture were broken down and rebuilt along different axes.
  12. 12. • Tschumi’s style of design is often an integration of linear and curvature forms in his architecture. • The primary basis of Tschumi’s designs is the grid. Whether it be horizontal or vertical, angled or straight, it is usually a dominant part of his designs. • The grids incorporated in his designs are usually derived from characteristics of the building site or the city. • The linear characteristics of Tschumi’s designs are often accompanied by those of curved or organic form. • Tschumi combines the urbanistic and naturalistic qualities of the site in his building designs to create modernist qualities in his designs. • Another key to defining Tschumi’s design style is that his designs strive to integrate into the environment they encompass. However, they don’t integrate in a way that they blend in, the integrate in a way that they work functionally and visually portray Tschumi’s design intentions. Point, Line and Surface Theory
  13. 13. • Tschumi derives the elements of his designs forms from: – The existing layout of an urban fabric. – Existing cyclical patterns: • Vehicular • Pedestrian • Sun/Shadow • Land/Building Use – Linear connections to relevant city features: • Parks • Museums • Public Spaces • Monuments • Natural Land Features – Topography patterns within the building site. Above is a master plan of Parc de la Villete. The red squares indicate Tschumi’s connections to the urban grid. In this project, Tschumi is showing literal connections to the site by the use of Follies, which are small buildings throughout the city that relate back to Parc de la Villette.
  14. 14. In each of Tschumi’s projects pictured below, the linear and curvature qualities of the grid and the curve are key elements that define Tschumi’s architectural design style.
  15. 15. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. • The competition for the Parc de la Villette was organized by the French Government in 1982. • Its objectives were both to mark the vision of an era and to act upon the future economic and cultural development of a key area in Paris. • Tschumi wanted to test his ideas in competitions with other architects, and he entered the competition for the design of the Parc de le Villette against 470 other designers. Up to this point, he believed his architecture would be purely theoretical. However, he surprised himself and won the competition, the first he ever entered. • Despite its name, the park as designated in the competition was not to be a simple landscape replica. On the contrary, the brief for this “Urban Park for the 21st Century” developed a complex program of cultural and entertainment facilities, encompassing, open-air theatres, restaurants and cafes, art galleries, music and video workshops, playgrounds and computer displays, as well as the obligatory gardens where cultural invention, rather than natural recreation was encouraged. • The object of the competition was to select a chief architect who would oversee the master plan and build the “structuring elements” of the park. Artists, landscape designers, and other architects were to contribute a variety of gardens or buildings for the project.
  16. 16. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. History of the site : • First, it was the former site of a slaughter house that employed more than 3,000 people. • Second, two canals run through the site. The Ourcq canal supplied water to the city of Paris and the St. Denis canal was used to transport cargo and freight. Design Requirements : • Parc de la Villette’s design is the opposite of the 19th century “park in the city” that Frederick Law Olmstead championed, because the residents of a modern 21st century city are different from their 19th century counterparts, their parks should also be different. • The idea of a city park as a naturalistic representation in the heart of the city does not necessarily satisfy the various needs of current city dwellers. • Parisian city parks no longer serve as communal areas. Instead, they are used mostly by children and the elderly, and function as the meeting place the town square once provided.
  17. 17. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. Aerial View of the site while under construction.
  18. 18. Our starting point is ideas or concepts, and the ways in which concepts relate to other disciplines and to different modes of thought. Architecture is not knowledge of form, but rather a form of knowledge. In other words, whenever we start to do something as architects we need to ask ourselves what architecture is. Architecture is not a pre-given thing. We architects always think that we define spaces by using walls, but “to define” also means to provide a definition or meaning. As architects, we need to constantly define and redefine what architecture is.
  19. 19. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. • The park is located on one of the last remaining large sites in Paris, a 125 acre expanse situated in the north-east corner of the city. • Over 1 kilometer long in one direction and 700 meters wide in the other La Villette appears as a multiple programmatic field, containing in addition to the park, the large Museum of Science and Industry, a City of Music, a Grande Halle for exhibitions and a rock concert hall. Site Plan.
  20. 20. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97.
  21. 21. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. The basis of the design is the superimposition of three independent systems, namely: 1. Points 2. Lines 3. Surfaces Superimposition: lines, points, surfaces.
  22. 22. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. 1. Points • The folies are placed according to a point-grid coordinate system at 120 meter intervals throughout the park. The form of each is a basic 10 x 10 x 10 meter cube or three-story construction of neutral space that can be transformed and elaborated according to specific programmatic needs. Taken as a whole, the folies provide a common denominator for all of the events generated by the park program. • The repetition of folies is aimed at developing a clear symbol for the park, a recognizable identity as strong as the British public telephone booth or the Paris Metro gates. • Their grid provides a comprehensive image or shape for the otherwise ill-defined terrain. Similarly, the regularity of routes and positions makes orientation simple for those unfamiliar with the area. An advantage of the point-grid system is that it provides for the minimum adequate equipment of the urban park relative to the number of its visitors. Models of the Folies
  23. 23. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. Folie P6: prototype folie
  24. 24. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. Folie P6: plan
  25. 25. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. Folie P6: prototype folie
  26. 26. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. Folie R7: jazz club, stage, bar
  27. 27. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97.
  28. 28. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. 2. Lines • The folie grid is related to a larger coordinate structure, an orthogonal system of high-density pedestrian movement that marks the site with a cross. • The North-South passage or Coordinate links the two Paris gates and subway stations of Porte de la Villette and Porte de Pantin, the East-West Coordinate joins Paris to its western suburbs. • A 5 meter wide, open, waved covered structure runs the length of both Coordinates. North-south gallery East-west passage
  29. 29. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. Also, organised along the Coordinates so as to facilitate and encourage access are folies designated for the most frequented locations and activities, including the City of Music, cafes and restaurants, children's playgrounds, the first aid center, and music performances.
  30. 30. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. 3. Surfaces • The park surfaces receive all activities requiring large expanses of horizontal space for play, sports and exercise, mass-entertainment, markets and so forth. • During summer nights, for example, the central green becomes an open air film theater for 3,000 viewers. The so called left over surfaces where all aspects of the program have been fulfilled, are composed of compacted earth and gravel.
  31. 31. Parc de La Villette, Paris, 1982 - 97. Night View
  32. 32. Architecture as form Architecture as event a static definition of architecture a dynamic definition of architecture VS
  33. 33. “Architecture is not about creating a static envelope. In other words, the building is always about movement in space.” In many ways I prefer the images of Lerner with people because they show what the building is for. One day, a dance company decided to use the building for a performance. People were sitting outside the building and looking into the spectacle on the ramps. They had understood the building. -Bernard Tschumi
  34. 34. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001-09 • The design by Bernard Tschumi was selected as the winning project in the second competition for the design of the New Acropolis Museum. • Tschumi's design revolves around three concepts: light, movement, and a tectonic & programmatic element, which together “turn the constraints of the site into an architectural opportunity, offering a simple and precise museum” with the mathematical and conceptual clarity of ancient Greek buildings.
  35. 35. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001-09 • The new Acropolis Museum is situated at the southern base of the Acropolis, at the ancient road that led up to the “sacred rock” in classical times. • Set only 800 feet from the legendary Parthenon, the museum will be the most significant building ever erected so close to the ancient temple. • Visitors to the museum will be able to see the Parthenon from the glass gallery.
  36. 36. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001-09
  37. 37. • Movement in and through time is a crucial dimension of architecture, and of this museum in particular. • With over 10,000 visitors daily, the sequence of movements through the museum artifacts is conceived to be of utmost clarity. A movement concept • The visitor's route forms a clear three-dimensional loop, affording an architectural promenade with a rich spatial experience extending from the archeological excavations to the Parthenon Marbles and back through the Roman period. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001-09
  38. 38. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001-09
  39. 39. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001-09 • It is first and foremost a museum of natural light, concerned with the presentation of sculptural objects within it. A concept of light • More than in any other type of museum, the conditions animating the New Acropolis Museum revolve around light. • Not only does daylight in Athens differ from light in London, Berlin or Bilbao, light for the exhibition of sculpture differs from that involved in displaying paintings or drawings.
  40. 40. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001-09 A tectonic & programmatic concept • The base of the museum design contains an entrance lobby overlooking the Makriyianni excavations as well as temporary exhibition spaces, retail, and all support facilities.
  41. 41. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001-09
  42. 42. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001 -09 • The middle is a large, double-height trapezoidal plate that accommodates all galleries from the Archaic period to the Roman Empire with complete flexibility. • A mezzanine welcomes a bar and restaurant with views towards the Acropolis, and a multimedia auditorium. Plan at mid-level
  43. 43. • The top is the rectangular Parthenon Gallery around an outdoor court. • The characteristics of its glass enclosure provide ideal light for sculpture, in direct view to and from the reference point of the Acropolis. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001 -09 • The enclosure is designed so as to protect the sculptures and visitors against excess heat and light. Plan at level +92.5 m
  44. 44. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001 -09 •Base insulation system was used for protection from earthquake. Base is anchored to the ground but the upper part separated by cushion like ball bearings. •There is a gap between the double-glazing of the top floor, so the hot air from the galleries circulates through the glass wall gaps, via the ceiling and ends up in the basement, where it is cooled and brought back up in the galleries.
  45. 45. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001 -09
  46. 46. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001 - 09 Concept model
  47. 47. New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001 - 09 Front elevation
  48. 48. Pedestrian bridge , France The tubular lattice bridge connects the old centre of Atlantic coast town with newer districts across the TGV railway tracks. It has been said that there is no architecture without movement. A pedestrian bridge is not just a static object, but represents a dynamic vector in both its usage and urban perception.
  49. 49. .
  50. 50. Conclusion Throughout his career as an architect, theorist, and academic, Bernard Tschumi's work has reevaluated architecture's role in the practice of personal and political freedom. Since the 1970s, Tschumi has argued that there is no fixed relationship between architectural form and the events that take place within it. In Tschumi's theory, architecture's role is not to express an extant social structure, but to function as a tool for questioning that structure and revising it. Tschumi's critical understanding of architecture remains at the core of his practice today. By arguing that there is no space without event, he designs conditions for a reinvention of living, rather than repeating established aesthetic or symbolic conditions of design.
  51. 51. Always start with a question !! -Bernard Tschumi

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