incorporates the knowledge of
In 1970 Paulien Hogeweg coined the term
While Margaret O. Dayhoff is said to be
the “Mother and Father of bio -
The primary goal is to increase the
understanding of biological processes.
Application of computational intensive
The main goal of the dental informatics is
to improve patient out come.
Major research in this field are
Bio-informatics must support and
improve the diagnosis, treatment and
prevention of disease and traumatic
injury, relive pain and pressure and
improve oral heath.
Evolution of Dental Informatics
The national library of medicine MEDLINE
is the world’s largest biomedical literature
data base and stores data from all health
Similarly Gen Bank, a data base of gene
and protein sequence information, to
which researchers from several domains
Applications of dental informatics
in oral pathology
Early detection of oral cancer.
Genomics in oral pathology.
Proteomics in oral pathology.
Early detection of oral cancer
Oral cancer is one of the most common
cause of cancer related death world wide.
Early detection will improve cure rates
and patients quality of life.
Unfortunately, more than 50% of patients
with oral cancer display evidence of
spread to regional lymph node and
metastases at the time of diagnosis.
Evolution of CDx system has contributed
to negating this drawback.
It’s a USA based company, of automatic
With this method optimizing human
and computer capabilities it becomes
possible to identify cellular
abnormalities that might otherwise
have been missed with manual
Genomics in oral pathology
It is derived from German word
The term “Genomics” was coined by
Dr. Tom Rodericks, a geneticist at the
Jackson Laboratory at a meeting held
in Maryland on the mapping of the
human genome in 1986.
Genome is all the DNA contained in an
Genomics is the study of functions
and interaction of all the genes in the
genome, including their interaction
with environmental factors.
The first free-living organism to be
sequenced was that of ''Haemophilus
influenzae'' in 1995, and since then
genomes are being sequenced at a rapid
As of September 2007, the complete
sequence was known of about
1879 viruses , 577 bacterial species and
roughly 23 eukaryote organisms, of which
about half are fungi.
Proteomics in oral pathology
Proteomics is the large scale study of
proteins, particularly their structure and
The term proteomic was coined in the
The word proteome is a blend of PROTEin
PROTEOME was coined in 1994 by
Marc R. Wilkins is an Australian
scientist who is credited with the
concept of the proteome, and is a
Professor in the School of
Biotechnology and Bio molecular
Sciences at the University of New
South Wales, Sydney, Australia
The National Institute of Dental &
Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) in the
US has undertaken a project to
catalog all the proteins contained in
human oral fluids.
Microarrays analysis is a new technology
in which all of the genes of an organism
are represented by oligonucleotide
sequences spread out in an 80x80 array
It is a multiplex “lab on a chip.”
It is usually a glass slide or silicon thin
Applications in oral pathology
It may be able to identify those
genetic alterations that are more
likely to determine the progression of
a premalignant lesion to frank
Applications in other fields
It is used commonly for detection of
viruses and other pathogens from blood
Can identify inheritable markers and have
been used as a genotyping tool.
Theoretical disciplines like Bioinformatics
will aid us greatly in understanding.
Genomics & Proteomics together will play
a vital role in providing better
understanding of disease processes at
molecular level, their potential to identify
risk factor and therapeutic target at
molecular level is established.
Current state of the art in both
genomics-proteomics and the
bioinformatics suggests that a proper
combination of experimental and
theoretical results, obtained with
different methods will soon becomes
the gold standard for the study of