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The 20th Century New Wave of Argentine Literature


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Presentation on 20th century Argentine Literature I had to make for my class about the comic strip Mafalda and a few assigned books from the 20th century period.

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The 20th Century New Wave of Argentine Literature

  1. 1. Joaquín Salvador Lavado<br /><ul><li>Pen name: Quino
  2. 2. July 17th 1932 – present
  3. 3. born in Guaymallén, Mendoza to Spanish parents.
  4. 4. His comic strip: Mafalda
  5. 5. ran from 1964-1973
  6. 6. very popular in Latin America & parts of Europe</li></li></ul><li>Mafalda: the comic strip<br />Featured a 5-year-old girl Mafalda<br />Publication:<br />1964 to 1965: Primera Plana, weekly.<br /> 1965 - 1967: Mundo, daily<br /> - started following current events.<br />1968 - 1973: Siete Dias Illustrados, weekly<br /> - Mafalda discontinued in 1973.<br />After 1973, Mafalda evolved into an iconic character <br />often used by Quino to promote human rights<br />
  7. 7. Examples<br /> Dad: "Give me a chocolate bar."Dad: "Mafalda is going to be so happy with this!"Dad: "Guess what I brought you Maf...?"Mafalda: "A TV SET???"Dad: "I never knew chocolate could taste like failure."<br />
  8. 8. Man: "Hi, what's your name?"Mafalda: "Mafalda"Man: "How nice. Do you go to school?"Mafalda: "Yes, of course. Do you pay all your taxes?"Mafalda: "He started talking about obligations."<br />
  9. 9. Evidence of Mafalda’s Influence<br />In Argentina <br /> - coffee mugs, shirts at carnivals<br /> - Mafalda plaza in Colegiales<br /> - Sculpture of Mafalda in San Telmo<br />A plaza in Angoulème, France named after Mafalda.<br />Gatineau (QC), Canada obtained permission to name a street after Mafalda in 2010. <br />Movement in Argentina to create a Mafalda museum.<br />
  10. 10. Discussion Questions<br />Why does Quino use a child, and specifically a girl, as the central character of his comic strip to comment on the social life and current events?<br />Why is the comic strip medium so effective? Can you draw similarities between Mafalda in Argentina and Peanuts (by Charles Schulz) in the US? How were they distinct?<br />
  11. 11. Victoria Ocampo<br />Argentine writer; founder and director of literary journal Sur.<br />April 7, 1890 – January 27, 1979<br />Born into an elite landowning family<br />Home-schooled; Multilingual; visited Europe<br />Opposed Perón’s regime<br />Aristocratic counterpart of Evita<br />
  12. 12. Victorian Fathers<br />Victorian Era: Highly patriarchal society<br />Women of upper-class families not allowed outside alone before marriage.<br />Married women and young girls accompanied by maids.<br />Chastity of women was of great importance<br />Double standards for men and women<br />
  13. 13. Virginia Woolf<br />Educated and ambitious women needed a ‘room of their own’<br />1935 Reform of Civil Code threatened women’s rights<br />Victoria’s conversation with Magistrate. Magistrate’s beliefs:<br />Women belonged in the home<br />Outside world a cauldron of dangers/temptations threatening family<br />Men weaker than women in resisting temptation, law must protect them<br />Women equated to offering fruit of tree of good and evil<br />Legal children to be protected; illegitimate children had bad fate<br />Double standards regarding chastity, virginity<br />Only in 1919 in England, women allowed into workplace<br />Ocampo stands for emancipation of women, ending their treatment as male’s property and bringing them to equal status.<br />
  14. 14. WitoldGombrowicz (1904-1969)<br /><ul><li>Polish writer
  15. 15. Arrived in Buenos Aires 1939
  16. 16. Stayed for 24 years
  17. 17. Viewed Argentine society with sense of parody and detachment
  18. 18. Transformed his thinking about Argentina
  19. 19. Originally viewed country as prison
  20. 20. Grew to embrace the country</li></li></ul><li>The Foreign Gaze- Concert in Colon<br /><ul><li>Two entries from 1953 and 1954
  21. 21. Focus on the elite class' view on life
  22. 22. Believes elites are more focused on being seen rather than the concert itself
  23. 23. Becomes enraged when members of the elite class try to demonstrate interest in the performance
  24. 24. “a world in which man adores himself with music is more convincing than a world in which man adores the music itself”
  25. 25. Interest of the elite is only an act
  26. 26. “The applause of amateurs. The applause of the ignorant. The applause of the herd”</li></li></ul><li>The Foreign Gaze- Friday<br /><ul><li>Analyzes foreigners view of Argentina - “Here you know nothing will happen”
  27. 27. Argentina has a youthful, aristocratic spirit
  28. 28. gains its vibrance from its youth
  29. 29. “Only the common people are distinctive. Only the common people are aristocratic. The young people alone are impeccable in every detail.”
  30. 30. Believes Argentina has not reached its full potential but has the resources to one day do so
  31. 31. “This ten is a land in which poetry does not become reality, yet precisely because of that one feels even more strongly its awful silent presence behind the curtain,”</li></li></ul><li>Juan L. Ortiz<br /><ul><li>Poet from N.E province of Entre Rios
  32. 32. Distanced himself from Buenos Aires
  33. 33. Focused on the land and people around him
  34. 34. Beauty
  35. 35. Perseverance </li></li></ul><li>Village on the River<br /><ul><li>Finds beauty despite the poverty that surrounds these people
  36. 36. Juxtaposition of images to demonstrate an inner beauty- untouchable by poverty
  37. 37. “And this washerwoman dense but with feet of feathers/ almost dancing with her washbowls upon the rug of her life”
  38. 38. “And this mother who carries stones from the riverbank until nighttime/ and crushes her life with them, to make the table less poor/ but not her smile, which is everyone's, in an offering composed of jasmine...”
  39. 39. “Where do they find, all these children of the coast/ in spite of everything, that gentle strength/ profoundly gentle, against the dark humiliations that seem to sleep?” </li></li></ul><li>Julio Cortazar (1914-1984)<br /><ul><li>Opposed Juan Domingo Peron
  40. 40. Chose exile in 1951 to escape Peronism
  41. 41. Focused on class differences
  42. 42. Middle class vs. poor masses
  43. 43. Work often depicted middle class in bizarre situations</li></li></ul><li>House Taken Over<br /><ul><li>Fictional story of a brother and sister living together when their house is taken over by an unknown entity
  44. 44. Brother and sister live in quite serenity
  45. 45. Repeated patterns of living- cleaning, cooking, knitting
  46. 46. Quietness of the house disturbed by the invading force
  47. 47. Brother and sister forced to move to the other side of the house
  48. 48. Eventually forced to leave the house and all their possessions</li></li></ul><li>Class Discussion<br />Why does Ocampo bring in the images of the Victorian Era in “Victorian Fathers”? In what ways is she similar and strikingly dissimilar to Eva Perón?<br />In “The Foreign Gaze” Gombrowicz writes, “Argentina is full of miracles and magic, but this charm is discrete; wrapped in a smile that does not want to express too much.” What is he trying to convey about Argentina?<br />Ortiz analyzes the life of the popular class in “Village on the River.” How does this description compare with Gombrowicz's view of the elite class? <br />In “House Taken Over” the peaceful house is invaded by a destructive but unseen force. What do you think this situation represents based on what is known about the author's beliefs?<br />