SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 64
Download to read offline
HHAAZZAARRDDOOUUSS WWAASSTTEE 
AANNDD IITTSS 
MMAANNAAGGEEMMEENNTT
Basics
Fate of Toxins 
 Many are broken down by natural processes 
 Two types persist in the environment 
 Heavy metals 
 Synthetic organics
Heavy Metals 
 Lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, tin, chromium, 
zinc, copper. 
 Used in metal-working, paint, and pesticides, among 
other products 
 Soluble in water and readily absorbed by body. 
 Interfere with enzyme function. 
 Example: mental retardation from lead poisoning.
Synthetic Organics 
 Chemical basis for plastics, synthetic fibers and rubber, 
solvents, and pesticides. 
 Resistant to biodegradation. 
 Major health effects: carcinogenic and mutagenic. 
 Halogenated hydrocarbons 
 At least one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced with a 
halogen atom 
Chlorine (most common) 
Bromine 
Fluorine 
Iodine
Halogenated Hydrocarbons
Toxic Tragedy 
 Minamata disease 
 Small fishing village in Japan 
 Suffered from mercury poisoning 
 biomagnification 
 “Mad as a hatter” 
 Hat makers exposed to mercury suffered from 
insanity
“ Hazardous waste” means any waste by reason of its 
physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, 
explosive or corrosive characteristics 
causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or 
environment, whether alone or when in contact 
with other wastes or substances
Definition of Hazardous Wastes 
In India, according to Hazardous waste Management & Handling Rules 
(MOEF Notification dated 20th May 2003-Part 2). 
 “Any substance, whether in solid, liquid or gaseous form, which has no 
foreseeable use and which by reasons of any physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, 
flammable, explosive, corrosive, radioactive or infectious characteristics causes 
danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or 
when in contact with other wastes or environment, and should be considered as 
such when generated, handled, stored, transported, treated and disposed of”. 
The Basel Convention defines hazardous wastes as follows : 
 "Wastes" are substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be 
disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law.
HW Characteristics and Generation
Regardless of concentration limit, classified as hazardous wastes 
if the waste exhibits any of the following characteristics 
E1 Flammable 
 Flammable wastes with flash point 65.6 °C or 
below. 
 Solid at STP capable of causing fire through 
friction, moisture changes or spontaneous chemical 
changes 
 Oxidizer 
E2 Explosive 
 Wastes which may explode under the effect of 
flame heat and photochemical conditions. 
 Any other waste of explosive materials included in 
the Indian Explosive Act. 
 Unstable 
 Reactive with water 
 Capable of detonation
Regardless of concentration limit, classified as hazardous wastes 
if the waste exhibits any of the following characteristics 
E3Corrosive 
 Wastes which may be corrosive, by chemical 
action will cause severe damage when in contact 
with living tissue. 
 pH < 2 or pH > 12.5 
E4 Toxic 
 Wastes containing or contaminated with 
established toxic and or eco-toxic constituents. 
 EPA definition 
 Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity and Endocrine 
disruptivity 
 Wastes contaminated or containing established 
carcinogens, mutagens and endocrine disruptors.
Classification of Hazardous Wastes 
Wastes can be classified under the following categories:- 
• Explosive 
• Corrosive 
• Oxidizing 
• Flammable 
• Infectious 
• Irritant 
• Toxic 
• Toxic for reproduction 
• Harmful 
• Mutagenic 
• Exotoxic 
• Carcinogenic 
• Residuary hazardous property
Hazardous Waste Assessment Methodology 
Source Revision of criteria and protocols of assessment and classification of 
hazardous waste Public Consultation Document R&D Project No P1-482 September 
2002
Indian & Global HW Scenario
Generation of hazardous waste 
• Hazardous wastes are generated from industrial processes, 
mining extraction, tailings from pesticide based agricultural 
practices, etc. 
• Industrial operations generate considerable quantities of 
hazardous waste and in rapidly industrializing countries such 
as India the contribution to hazardous waste from industries is 
largest. Since industrial units are spread all over the country, 
the impacts are region-wide. 
• States such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, TamilNadu, and Andhra 
Pradesh, which and have undergone relatively greater 
industrial expansion, face problems of toxic and hazardous 
waste disposal far more acutely than less developed states.
Global Scenario 
 Large manufacturing industries like chemical, metal, 
electrical, petroleum, transportation etc., generate 
hazardous wastes at the rate of more than 1000 
kg/month/unit. 
 More than 80% of the world's hazardous waste is produced 
in the United States and other industrial countries. 
 300-500 million tons of heavy metals, solvents, toxic 
sludge, and other wastes accumulate every year from 
industry. 
 In developing countries, 70% of industrial wastes are 
dumped untreated into waters where they pollute the 
usable water supply.
Hazardous Waste Management in India 
India is the second fastest growing economy. It accounts for ~ 20% of Asian 
and ~ 10% of global growth. 
 7.2 million tonnes / year generated: 
 1.4 million tonnes are recyclable 
 0.1 million tonnes are incinerable 
 5.2 million tonnes are destined for disposal on land 
 80 percent of hazardous waste is generated: 
Andhra Pradesh 
Gujarat 
Karnataka 
Maharashtra 
Tamil Nadu
Hazardous waste market worth C$52 million in 2003 with annual 
growth of 7 percent until 2010 
Sources of hazardous waste generation: 
• Medical and pharmaceuticals 
• Scrap recycling (ship breaking industry) 
• Asbestos 
• Paints and dyes 
• Caustic soda producers 
• Pesticides and fertilizers 
• Petroleum and petrochemicals 
• Inorganic chemicals 
• mining extraction 
• tailings from pesticide based agricultural practices 
• general engineering
Rules & Conventions
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary 
Movement of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal 
The convention is ratified by 35 countries, it entered 
into force on 5th May, 1992. The main principle of the 
convention is to regulate the Transboundary movement 
of hazardous wastes with prior informed consent of the 
importing country and to ensure environmentally sound 
management of hazardous wastes. The convention seeks 
to prohibited the export of hazardous wastes without 
the consent of the importing country.
Basel Convention 
 Basel convention is an international environment agreement on 
“control of trans boundary movement and disposal of hazardous 
waste” which was drafed on 22nd March, 1989. 
 Basel BAN 
On 31st Dec, 1997 a “total ban” on the trans boundary movement was 
decided rather than “control” or the “partial transboundary movement” 
of hazardous waste from OECD (Organisation for Economic 
Corporation and Development) to non OECD.
Major Hazardous Waste Laws (USA)
HHaazzaarrddoouuss WWaassttee MMaannaaggeemmeenntt RRuulleess 
11)) HHaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess sshhaallll bbee ccoolllleecctteedd,, ttrreeaatteedd,, ssttoorreedd aanndd ddiissppoosseedd ooff oonnllyy iinn ssuucchh ffaacciilliittiieess 
aass mmaayy bbee aauutthhoorriizzeedd ffoorr tthhiiss ppuurrppoossee.. 
((22)) EEvveerryy ooccccuuppiieerr ggeenneerraattiinngg hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess aanndd hhaavviinngg aa ffaacciilliittyy ffoorr ccoolllleeccttiioonn,, 
rreecceeppttiioonn,, ttrreeaattmmeenntt,, ttrraannssppoorrtt ssttoorraaggee aanndd ddiissppoossaall ooff ssuucchh wwaasstteess sshhaallll ttaakkee ggrraanntt ffrroomm 
GGoovvtt.. ffoorr aauutthhoorriizzaattiioonn ffoorr aannyy ooff tthhee aabboovvee aaccttiivviittiieess.. 
((33)) AAnnyy ppeerrssoonn wwhhoo iinntteennddss ttoo bbee aann ooppeerraattoorr ooff aa ffaacciilliittyy ffoorr tthhee ccoolllleeccttiioonn,, rreecceeppttiioonn,, 
ttrreeaattmmeenntt,, ttrraannssppoorrtt,, ssttoorraaggee aanndd ddiissppoossaall ooff hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess,, sshhaallll ttaakkee ggrraanntt ffrroomm 
GGoovvtt.. ffoorr aauutthhoorriizzaattiioonn ffoorr aannyy ooff tthhee aabboovvee aaccttiivviittiieess.. 
((44)) BBeeffoorree hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess iiss ddeelliivveerreedd aatt tthhee hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaassttee ssiittee,, tthhee ooccccuuppiieerr oorr 
ooppeerraattoorr ooff aa ffaacciilliittyy sshhaallll eennssuurree tthhaatt tthhee hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess iiss ppaacckkaaggeedd iinn aa mmaannnneerr 
ssuuiittaabbllee ffoorr ssttoorraaggee aanndd ttrraannssppoorrtt aanndd tthhee llaabbeelliinngg aanndd ppaacckkaaggiinngg sshhaallll bbee eeaassiillyy vviissiibbllee 
aanndd bbee aabbllee ttoo wwiitthhssttaanndd pphhyyssiiccaall ccoonnddiittiioonnss aanndd cclliimmaattee ffaaccttoorrss..
(5) The State Government or a person authorized by it shall undertake a 
continuing programme to identify the sites and compile and publish 
periodically an inventory of disposal sites within the State for the disposal of 
hazardous wastes. 
(6) The State Government or a person authorised by it shall undertake an 
environmental impact study before identifying a site as waste disposal site in 
the State. 
(7) The occupier generating hazardous waste and operator of a facility for 
collection, reception, treatment, transport, storage and disposal of hazardous 
waste shall maintain records of such operations in prescribed Form 
(8) Where an accident occurs at the facility or on a hazardous waste site or 
during transportation of hazardous wastes, the occupier or operator of a 
facility shall report immediately to the State
The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling Rules) 
1989, Amends., 2000, 2003 
•Ensure proper collection, reception, treatment, storage 
and disposal of hazardous wastes. 
•Apply for renewal of authorization before expiry of the 
validity period 
•Maintain records of hazardous wastes handling (Form 3) 
•Submit “Annual Returns” to the SPCB (Form 4) 
•Report to the SPCB any accident 
•Labeling / Packaging / Transportation of HW as per 
Motor Vehicle Act, 1988 and Rules, 1989 
Contd….
Schedule - 2 
List of Waste Substances with Concentration 
Limits 
Class A: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 5500 mmgg//KKgg 
CCllaassss BB:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 55,,000000 mmgg//KKgg 
CCllaassss CC:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 2200,,000000 mmgg//KKgg 
CCllaassss DD:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 5500,,000000 mmgg//KKgg 
CCllaassss EE:: RReeggaarrddlleessss ooff CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt
List of waste constituents with Concentration Limits 
Class A: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 5500 mmgg//KKgg.. 
A1 Antimony and antimony compounds 
A2 Arsenic and arsenic compounds 
A3 Berylium and berylium compounds 
A4 Cadmium and cadmium compounds 
A5 Chromium and chromium compounds 
A6 Mercury and mercury compounds 
A7 Selenium and selenium compounds 
A8 Tellerium and tellerium compounds 
A9 Thallium and thallium compounds 
A10 Inorganic cyanide compounds
A11 Metal cabonyls 
A12 Napthalene 
A13 Anthracene 
A14 Phenanthrene 
A15 Chrysene,benzo(a) pyrene,benzo (K) flouranthene, 
indeno(1-2-3cd) pyrene and benzo perylene. 
A16 Halogenated aromatic compounds. 
A17 Halogenated aromatic compounds. 
A18 Halogenated aromatic compounds. 
A19 Organo-chlorine pesticides. 
A20 Organo-tin compounds.
CCllaassss BB :: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 55,,000000 mmgg//KKgg 
BB11 CChhrroommiiuumm IIIIII ccoommppoouunnddss 
BB22 CCoobbaalltt ccoommppoouunnddss 
BB33 CCooppppeerr ccoommppoouunnddss 
BB44 LLeeaadd aanndd LLeeaadd ccoommppoouunnddss 
BB55 MMoollyybbeeddnneeuumm CCoommppoouunnddss 
BB66 NNiicckkeell ccoommppoouunnddss 
BB77 IInnoorrggaanniicc TTiinn ccoommppoouunnddss 
BB88 VVaannaaddiiuumm ccoommppoouunnddss 
BB99 TTuunnggsstteenn ccoommppoouunnddss 
BB1100 SSiillvveerr ccoommppoouunnddss
B11 Halogenated aliphatic compounds 
B12 Organo phosphorus compounds 
B13 Organic peroxidases 
B14 Organic nitro and nitroso compound 
B15 organic azo and azooxy 
B16 Nitriles 
B17 Amines. 
B18 (Iso- and-thio-)cynates compounds. 
B19 Phenol and phenolic compounds. 
B20 Mercaptans.
B21 Asbestos 
B22 Halogen-silanes 
B23 Hydrazines 
B24 Flourine 
B25 Chlorine 
B26 Bromine. 
B27 White and red phosphorus 
B28 Ferro-silicate and alloys 
B29 Manganese-silicate 
B30 Halogen-containing compounds which produce acidic 
vapors on contact with humid air or water ,e.g. silicon 
tetrachloride,aluminium chloride, titanium 
tetrachloride
CCllaassss CC:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 2200,,000000 mmgg//KKgg 
CC11 AAmmmmoonniiaa aanndd aammmmoonniiuumm ccoommppoouunnddss 
CC22 IInnoorrggaanniicc PPeerrooxxiiddeess 
CC33 BBaarriiuumm ccoommppoouunnddss eexxppeecctt bbaarriiuumm ssuullpphhaattee.. 
CC44 FFlluuoorriinnee ccoommppoouunnddss 
CC55 PPhhoosspphhaattee ccoommppoouunnddss eexxppeecctt pphhoosspphhaatteess ooff 
aalluummiinniiuumm,, ccaallcciiuumm aanndd iirroonn 
CC66 BBrroommaatteess 
CC77 CChhlloorraatteess 
CC88 AArroommaattiicc ccoommppoouunnddss ootthheerr tthhaann tthhoossee lliisstteedd 
uunnddeerr AA1122 ttoo AA1188.. 
CC99 OOrrggaanniicc ssiilliiccoonn ccoommppoouunnddss 
CC1100 OOrrggaanniicc ssuullpphhuurr ccoommppoouunnddss..
CC1111 IIooddaatteess 
CC1122 NNiittrraatteess,, NNiittrriitteess.. 
CC1133 SSuullpphhiiddeess 
CC1144 ZZiinncc ccoommppoouunnddss.. 
CC1155 SSaallttss ooff ppeerr--aacciiddss.. 
CC1166 AAcciidd aammiiddeess.. 
CC1177 AAcciidd aannhhyyddrriiddeess
CCllaassss DD:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 5500,,000000 mmgg//KKgg 
DD11 TToottaall SSuullpphhuurr 
DD22 IInnoorrggaanniicc aacciiddss 
DD33 MMeettaall hhyyddrrooggeenn ssuullpphhaatteess 
DD44 OOxxiiddee aanndd hhyyddrrooxxiiddeess eexxppeecctt tthhoossee ooff 
hhyyddrrooggeenn,, ccaarrbboonn,, ssiilliiccoonn,, ccaallcciiuumm 
DD55 TToottaall hhyyddrrooccaarrbboonnss ootthheerr tthhaann tthhoossee lliisstteedd iinn 
AA1122 ttoo AA1188 
DD66 OOrrggaanniicc ooxxyyggeenn ccoommppoouunnddss 
DD77 OOrrggaanniicc nniittrrooggeenn ccoommppoouunnddss eexxpprreesssseedd aass 
nniittrrooggeenn 
DD88 NNiittrriilleess 
DD99 HHyyddrriiddeess
Hazardous Waste Classification: as per Hazardous 
Waste Rules 2003 India 
Waste Categories Type of Waste Regulatory Quantities 
Waste category 1 Cyanide wastes 1 Kg per year 
Waste category 2 Metal finishing wastes 10 Kg per year 
Waste category 3 Waste containing water 
soluble chemical 
compounds of Lead, Cr, 
Cu, Zn, Ni, Ba, Sb 
10 Kg per year 
Waste category 4 Arsenic, Thalium, Cd, Hg 
bearing wastes 
5 Kg per year 
Waste category 5 Non Hydrogenated 
hydrocarbons 
200 Kg per year 
Waste category 6 Halogenated hydrocarbons 50 Kg per year
Hazardous Waste Classification: as per Hazardous Waste Rules 2003 India 
Waste Categories Type of Waste Regulatory Quantities 
Waste category 7 Wastes from paints, pigments, 
glue, varnish and printing ink 
250 Kg per year 
Waste category 8 Wastes from dyes and dye 
intermediates containing inorganic 
compounds 
200 Kg per year 
Waste category 9 Wastes from dyes and dye 
intermediates containing organic 
compounds 
50 Kg per year 
Waste category 10 Waste oil and oil emulsions 1000 Kg per year 
Waste category 11 Tarry wastes from refining and tar 
residues from distillation or 
pyrolytic treatment 
200 Kg per year
Hazardous Waste Classification: as per Hazardous 
Waste Categories Type of Waste Regulatory Quantities 
Waste category 12 Sludges from treatment of waste waters 
containing heavy metals, toxic organics, 
oil emulsions, incineration ash 
Irrespective of quantity 
Waste category 13 Asbestos 5Kg per year 
Waste category 14 Phenols 200 Kg per year 
Waste category 15 Wastes from manufacture of pesticides 
and herbicides 
5 Kg per year 
Waste category 16 Acid / alkaline slurry 200 Kg per year 
Waste category 17 Off spec/ discarded products Irrespective of quantity 
Waste category 18 Discarded containers and liners of 
hazardous and toxic wastes 
Irrespective of quantity 
Waste Rules 2003 India
HW Treatment
Hazardous Waste Problems 
 Cleaning up old wastes 
 Union Carbide Plant Waste in Bhopal 
 Fukushima Waste 
 Managing new wastes 
 Avoiding future wastes
HHaazzaarrddoouuss WWaassttee TTrreeaattmmeenntt
SSccrreeeenniinngg 
HHyyddrroossiieevvee
FFiillttrraattiioonn 
RRaappiidd SSaanndd FFiilltteerr
SSeeddiimmeennttaattiioonn 
TTuubbee SSeettttlleerr ((LLaammeellllaa))
FFlloottaattiioonn 
DDiissssoollvveedd AAiirr FFlloottaattiioonn
CCooaagguullaattiioonn aanndd ffllooccccuullaattiioonn
AAddssoorrppttiioonn 
PAC 
GAC
IIoonn--eexxcchhaannggee
AAiirr ssttrriippppiinngg 
Stripping basins Stripping towers
HW Incineration 
 About 4.4% of hazardous wwaassttee ggeenneerraatteedd iinn tthhee 
ccoouunnttrryy iiss ooff tthhee nnaattuurree,, wwhhiicchh hhaass ttoo bbee iinncciinneerraatteedd.. 
 BBeessiiddeess,, sseeggrreeggaatteedd oorrggaanniicc rreessiidduueess,, hhiigghhllyy 
ccoonncceennttrraatteedd eefffflluueennttss ssuucchh aass mmootthheerr lliiqquuoorrss aanndd 
ttooxxiicc eefffflluueennttss nnoott ffeeaassiibbllee ffoorr pphhyyssiiccoo--cchheemmiiccaall,, 
bbiioollooggiiccaall ttrreeaattmmeenntt aallssoo rreeqquuiirree pprrooppeerr ddiissppoossaall 
tthhrroouugghh iinncciinneerraattiioonn..
Hazardous Waste Incineration 
Reduces volume, making transportation and disposal more efficient
Land Disposal
Land Disposal 
 Deep-well underground injection wells 
 Surface impoundments 
 Landfills 
 Waste piles.
Special Measures during HW disposal 
 Banning liquids from landfills. 
 Banning underground injection of hazardous waste within 500 
m of a drinking-water well. 
 Requiring more stringent structural and design conditions 
for landfills and surface impoundments, including two or 
more liners, leachate collection systems above and between 
the liners, and ground water monitoring. 
 Requiring cleanup or corrective action if hazardous waste 
leaks from a facility. 
 Requiring information from disposal facilities on pathways of 
potential human exposure to hazardous substances. 
 Requiring location standards that are protective of human 
health and environment.
Deep-well Injection
Surface Impoundments
Landfills 
 Designed aass aa mmoodduullaarr sseerriieess ooff 33DD ccoonnttrrooll cceellllss.. 
 WWaasstteess aarree ppllaacceedd iinn aann aapppprroopprriiaattee cceellll aanndd ccoovveerreedd 
aatt tthhee eenndd ooff eeaacchh wwoorrkkiinngg ddaayy wwiitthh aa llaayyeerr ooff ccoovveerr 
ssooiill.. 
 TThheerree mmuusstt bbee aa ddoouubbllee lliinneerr ssyysstteemm ttoo ssttoopp tthhee ffllooww 
lleeaacchhaattee ffrroomm eenntteerriinngg tthhee ssooiill aanndd ggrroouunndd wwaatteerr 
bbeenneeaatthh.. 
 LLeeaacchhaattee iiss ccoolllleecctteedd aanndd ppuummppeedd ttoo ssuurrffaaccee ffoorr 
ttrreeaattmmeenntt..
Landfills
Landfills
Summary of different bioremediation strategies 
Nitrogen 
compounds 
• Phytoremediation 
•Injection wells 
•Aeration 
Examples 
Ammonia, 
Nitrate, 
Nitro-aromatics 
etc. 
Hydrocarbons 
• Compositing 
• Surfactants 
• Fungi 
• Plants 
• Fertilizers 
Examples 
for typical hazardous wastes 
Dibenzothiophenone, 
Toluene, 
phenanthrene, 
Carbazole, 
octane etc. 
Hazardous Wastes 
Halogenated 
organic 
compounds 
•Nutrient 
application 
•Aeration 
•Bioaugmentation 
•Phytoremediation 
Examples 
Carbonatetra chloride, 
Tetrachloro ethylene, 
Trichloro ethylene, 
PCBs, DDT etc 
Herbicides/ 
pesticides 
• Microbial, 
• Bioaugmentation 
• Phytoremediation 
Examples 
Atrazine, 
metachlor 
Dinoseb, 
Aldicarb etc. 
Metals 
• Phytoremediation 
•Injection wells 
•Constructed 
wetlands 
Examples 
Iron, 
Lead, 
Chromium, 
Copper, 
mercury etc.
HAZARDOUS WASTE LIFE CYCLE 
Process 
Raw Materials 
Catalyst 
Products 
Hazardous 
Wastes 
Wastes other than 
Hazardous Wastes 
for treatment & 
further 
reuse / 
disposal 
Recycled in other 
industries 
Treatment 
Wastes with 
Potential reuse 
Landfill till HW cycle 
is complete
Thank You

More Related Content

What's hot

Hazardous waste management (2)
Hazardous waste management (2)Hazardous waste management (2)
Hazardous waste management (2)angbeen choudhary
 
Hazardous-Waste Management
Hazardous-Waste Management Hazardous-Waste Management
Hazardous-Waste Management Arkadeep Dey
 
Solid waste management
Solid waste managementSolid waste management
Solid waste managementArvind Kumar
 
Hazardous waste managment
Hazardous waste managmentHazardous waste managment
Hazardous waste managmentpavanrk7066
 
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPT
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPTHAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPT
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPTMAHAMMED RAFI
 
Hazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste ManagementHazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste ManagementTareq Zarouni
 
A Lecture On Waste Handling And Collection
A Lecture On Waste Handling And CollectionA Lecture On Waste Handling And Collection
A Lecture On Waste Handling And CollectionDr. Felicia Chinwe Mogo
 
Hazardous Waste Management & Its Legal Requirement in India
Hazardous Waste Management & Its Legal Requirement in IndiaHazardous Waste Management & Its Legal Requirement in India
Hazardous Waste Management & Its Legal Requirement in IndiaNikesh Banwade
 
Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules and...
Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules  and...Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules  and...
Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules and...Ranveer Singh Mahwar
 
solid waste management
solid waste managementsolid waste management
solid waste managementRiyaj Bashinde
 
Hazardous waste management in india
Hazardous waste management in indiaHazardous waste management in india
Hazardous waste management in indiaAmity University
 
Hazardous waste Management
Hazardous waste Management Hazardous waste Management
Hazardous waste Management sankethkulkarni1
 
Landfill leachate treatment
Landfill leachate treatmentLandfill leachate treatment
Landfill leachate treatmentJohn Pravin
 
waste minimization techniques
waste minimization techniqueswaste minimization techniques
waste minimization techniquesAbuzer Ansari
 
Hazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste ManagementHazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste ManagementUlsah T N
 

What's hot (20)

Hazardous waste management (2)
Hazardous waste management (2)Hazardous waste management (2)
Hazardous waste management (2)
 
Hazardous-Waste Management
Hazardous-Waste Management Hazardous-Waste Management
Hazardous-Waste Management
 
Hazardous waste
Hazardous wasteHazardous waste
Hazardous waste
 
Solid Waste Management - Presentation Slides
Solid Waste Management - Presentation SlidesSolid Waste Management - Presentation Slides
Solid Waste Management - Presentation Slides
 
Solid waste management
Solid waste managementSolid waste management
Solid waste management
 
Hazardous waste managment
Hazardous waste managmentHazardous waste managment
Hazardous waste managment
 
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPT
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPTHAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPT
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPT
 
Hazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste ManagementHazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste Management
 
A Lecture On Waste Handling And Collection
A Lecture On Waste Handling And CollectionA Lecture On Waste Handling And Collection
A Lecture On Waste Handling And Collection
 
Treatment and disposal of Hazardous wastes
Treatment and disposal of Hazardous wastesTreatment and disposal of Hazardous wastes
Treatment and disposal of Hazardous wastes
 
Hazardous Waste Management & Its Legal Requirement in India
Hazardous Waste Management & Its Legal Requirement in IndiaHazardous Waste Management & Its Legal Requirement in India
Hazardous Waste Management & Its Legal Requirement in India
 
Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules and...
Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules  and...Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules  and...
Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules and...
 
Solid waste management
Solid waste managementSolid waste management
Solid waste management
 
solid waste management
solid waste managementsolid waste management
solid waste management
 
Hazardous waste management in india
Hazardous waste management in indiaHazardous waste management in india
Hazardous waste management in india
 
cetp
cetpcetp
cetp
 
Hazardous waste Management
Hazardous waste Management Hazardous waste Management
Hazardous waste Management
 
Landfill leachate treatment
Landfill leachate treatmentLandfill leachate treatment
Landfill leachate treatment
 
waste minimization techniques
waste minimization techniqueswaste minimization techniques
waste minimization techniques
 
Hazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste ManagementHazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste Management
 

Similar to 82 hazardous waste management

overview on hazardous wastes and its management
overview on hazardous wastes and its managementoverview on hazardous wastes and its management
overview on hazardous wastes and its managementarvind kumar
 
Overview of hazardous waste management
Overview of hazardous waste management Overview of hazardous waste management
Overview of hazardous waste management karan gulshan
 
overview on hazardous wastes and its management
overview on hazardous wastes and its managementoverview on hazardous wastes and its management
overview on hazardous wastes and its managementArvind Kumar
 
Ass4205 hazardous wasteassignment
Ass4205 hazardous wasteassignmentAss4205 hazardous wasteassignment
Ass4205 hazardous wasteassignmentharinathinfotech
 
Hazardous waste.pdf
Hazardous waste.pdfHazardous waste.pdf
Hazardous waste.pdfamatulwasey
 
What is Waste Management, types of waste management system.pdf
What is Waste Management, types of waste management system.pdfWhat is Waste Management, types of waste management system.pdf
What is Waste Management, types of waste management system.pdfaqibjaved773097
 
Hazardous Waste Management.docx
Hazardous Waste Management.docxHazardous Waste Management.docx
Hazardous Waste Management.docxNikhil Patil
 
Solid and hazardous waste
Solid and hazardous wasteSolid and hazardous waste
Solid and hazardous wasteJaxy Peilun
 
Hazardous Waste Management by Joshua Seli
Hazardous Waste Management by Joshua SeliHazardous Waste Management by Joshua Seli
Hazardous Waste Management by Joshua SeliDivine Word University
 
0081-Muhammad Yousuf Sher Project Environmental Chemistry.docx
0081-Muhammad Yousuf Sher Project Environmental Chemistry.docx0081-Muhammad Yousuf Sher Project Environmental Chemistry.docx
0081-Muhammad Yousuf Sher Project Environmental Chemistry.docxRaviansMotivations
 
management of waste and its impacts
management of waste and its impacts management of waste and its impacts
management of waste and its impacts Kanwaljeet Singh
 
WastetoEnergyPlantTechnology.pptx
WastetoEnergyPlantTechnology.pptxWastetoEnergyPlantTechnology.pptx
WastetoEnergyPlantTechnology.pptxIzzatTammam
 
Hazardous waste management in india and iraq
Hazardous waste management in india and iraq Hazardous waste management in india and iraq
Hazardous waste management in india and iraq Peshang hama karim
 
Toxic waste and environmental laws
Toxic waste and environmental lawsToxic waste and environmental laws
Toxic waste and environmental lawsIrfan Mohammad
 
SWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdf
SWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdfSWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdf
SWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdfMahmudHasan747870
 
Effluents and its management
Effluents and its management Effluents and its management
Effluents and its management PabbaSupraja
 
Solid waste management.
Solid waste management.Solid waste management.
Solid waste management.DivyaAlexander
 

Similar to 82 hazardous waste management (20)

overview on hazardous wastes and its management
overview on hazardous wastes and its managementoverview on hazardous wastes and its management
overview on hazardous wastes and its management
 
Overview of hazardous waste management
Overview of hazardous waste management Overview of hazardous waste management
Overview of hazardous waste management
 
overview on hazardous wastes and its management
overview on hazardous wastes and its managementoverview on hazardous wastes and its management
overview on hazardous wastes and its management
 
Ass4205 hazardous wasteassignment
Ass4205 hazardous wasteassignmentAss4205 hazardous wasteassignment
Ass4205 hazardous wasteassignment
 
Hazardous waste.pdf
Hazardous waste.pdfHazardous waste.pdf
Hazardous waste.pdf
 
Solid waste
Solid wasteSolid waste
Solid waste
 
What is Waste Management, types of waste management system.pdf
What is Waste Management, types of waste management system.pdfWhat is Waste Management, types of waste management system.pdf
What is Waste Management, types of waste management system.pdf
 
Hazardous Waste Management.docx
Hazardous Waste Management.docxHazardous Waste Management.docx
Hazardous Waste Management.docx
 
Solid and hazardous waste
Solid and hazardous wasteSolid and hazardous waste
Solid and hazardous waste
 
Hazardous Waste Management by Joshua Seli
Hazardous Waste Management by Joshua SeliHazardous Waste Management by Joshua Seli
Hazardous Waste Management by Joshua Seli
 
Waste types and disposable managment
Waste types and disposable managmentWaste types and disposable managment
Waste types and disposable managment
 
0081-Muhammad Yousuf Sher Project Environmental Chemistry.docx
0081-Muhammad Yousuf Sher Project Environmental Chemistry.docx0081-Muhammad Yousuf Sher Project Environmental Chemistry.docx
0081-Muhammad Yousuf Sher Project Environmental Chemistry.docx
 
management of waste and its impacts
management of waste and its impacts management of waste and its impacts
management of waste and its impacts
 
WastetoEnergyPlantTechnology.pptx
WastetoEnergyPlantTechnology.pptxWastetoEnergyPlantTechnology.pptx
WastetoEnergyPlantTechnology.pptx
 
Hazardous waste management in india and iraq
Hazardous waste management in india and iraq Hazardous waste management in india and iraq
Hazardous waste management in india and iraq
 
Toxic waste and environmental laws
Toxic waste and environmental lawsToxic waste and environmental laws
Toxic waste and environmental laws
 
SWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdf
SWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdfSWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdf
SWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdf
 
Effluents and its management
Effluents and its management Effluents and its management
Effluents and its management
 
Solid waste management.
Solid waste management.Solid waste management.
Solid waste management.
 
Environmental Toxicology
Environmental ToxicologyEnvironmental Toxicology
Environmental Toxicology
 

More from Gaurav Pahuja

Msw numerical problems
Msw   numerical problems Msw   numerical problems
Msw numerical problems Gaurav Pahuja
 
Introduction and ecology
Introduction and ecologyIntroduction and ecology
Introduction and ecologyGaurav Pahuja
 
Ce 105 e-waste - ce 105vcs
Ce 105 e-waste - ce 105vcsCe 105 e-waste - ce 105vcs
Ce 105 e-waste - ce 105vcsGaurav Pahuja
 
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcsCe 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcsGaurav Pahuja
 
Ce 105 12 air pollution iii part
Ce 105 12 air pollution iii partCe 105 12 air pollution iii part
Ce 105 12 air pollution iii partGaurav Pahuja
 
Ce 105 12 air pollution - numerical problems
Ce 105 12 air pollution - numerical problems Ce 105 12 air pollution - numerical problems
Ce 105 12 air pollution - numerical problems Gaurav Pahuja
 
41 solid waste management
41 solid waste management41 solid waste management
41 solid waste managementGaurav Pahuja
 
11 air pollution dispersion
11 air pollution dispersion11 air pollution dispersion
11 air pollution dispersionGaurav Pahuja
 

More from Gaurav Pahuja (10)

Wetlands bp
Wetlands bpWetlands bp
Wetlands bp
 
Msw numerical problems
Msw   numerical problems Msw   numerical problems
Msw numerical problems
 
Introduction and ecology
Introduction and ecologyIntroduction and ecology
Introduction and ecology
 
Ce 105 e-waste - ce 105vcs
Ce 105 e-waste - ce 105vcsCe 105 e-waste - ce 105vcs
Ce 105 e-waste - ce 105vcs
 
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcsCe 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
 
Ce 105 12 air pollution iii part
Ce 105 12 air pollution iii partCe 105 12 air pollution iii part
Ce 105 12 air pollution iii part
 
Ce 105 12 air pollution - numerical problems
Ce 105 12 air pollution - numerical problems Ce 105 12 air pollution - numerical problems
Ce 105 12 air pollution - numerical problems
 
41 solid waste management
41 solid waste management41 solid waste management
41 solid waste management
 
12 air pollution
12 air pollution12 air pollution
12 air pollution
 
11 air pollution dispersion
11 air pollution dispersion11 air pollution dispersion
11 air pollution dispersion
 

82 hazardous waste management

  • 1. HHAAZZAARRDDOOUUSS WWAASSTTEE AANNDD IITTSS MMAANNAAGGEEMMEENNTT
  • 3. Fate of Toxins  Many are broken down by natural processes  Two types persist in the environment  Heavy metals  Synthetic organics
  • 4. Heavy Metals  Lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, tin, chromium, zinc, copper.  Used in metal-working, paint, and pesticides, among other products  Soluble in water and readily absorbed by body.  Interfere with enzyme function.  Example: mental retardation from lead poisoning.
  • 5. Synthetic Organics  Chemical basis for plastics, synthetic fibers and rubber, solvents, and pesticides.  Resistant to biodegradation.  Major health effects: carcinogenic and mutagenic.  Halogenated hydrocarbons  At least one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced with a halogen atom Chlorine (most common) Bromine Fluorine Iodine
  • 7. Toxic Tragedy  Minamata disease  Small fishing village in Japan  Suffered from mercury poisoning  biomagnification  “Mad as a hatter”  Hat makers exposed to mercury suffered from insanity
  • 8. “ Hazardous waste” means any waste by reason of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances
  • 9. Definition of Hazardous Wastes In India, according to Hazardous waste Management & Handling Rules (MOEF Notification dated 20th May 2003-Part 2).  “Any substance, whether in solid, liquid or gaseous form, which has no foreseeable use and which by reasons of any physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, radioactive or infectious characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or environment, and should be considered as such when generated, handled, stored, transported, treated and disposed of”. The Basel Convention defines hazardous wastes as follows :  "Wastes" are substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law.
  • 11. Regardless of concentration limit, classified as hazardous wastes if the waste exhibits any of the following characteristics E1 Flammable  Flammable wastes with flash point 65.6 °C or below.  Solid at STP capable of causing fire through friction, moisture changes or spontaneous chemical changes  Oxidizer E2 Explosive  Wastes which may explode under the effect of flame heat and photochemical conditions.  Any other waste of explosive materials included in the Indian Explosive Act.  Unstable  Reactive with water  Capable of detonation
  • 12. Regardless of concentration limit, classified as hazardous wastes if the waste exhibits any of the following characteristics E3Corrosive  Wastes which may be corrosive, by chemical action will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue.  pH < 2 or pH > 12.5 E4 Toxic  Wastes containing or contaminated with established toxic and or eco-toxic constituents.  EPA definition  Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity and Endocrine disruptivity  Wastes contaminated or containing established carcinogens, mutagens and endocrine disruptors.
  • 13. Classification of Hazardous Wastes Wastes can be classified under the following categories:- • Explosive • Corrosive • Oxidizing • Flammable • Infectious • Irritant • Toxic • Toxic for reproduction • Harmful • Mutagenic • Exotoxic • Carcinogenic • Residuary hazardous property
  • 14. Hazardous Waste Assessment Methodology Source Revision of criteria and protocols of assessment and classification of hazardous waste Public Consultation Document R&D Project No P1-482 September 2002
  • 15. Indian & Global HW Scenario
  • 16. Generation of hazardous waste • Hazardous wastes are generated from industrial processes, mining extraction, tailings from pesticide based agricultural practices, etc. • Industrial operations generate considerable quantities of hazardous waste and in rapidly industrializing countries such as India the contribution to hazardous waste from industries is largest. Since industrial units are spread all over the country, the impacts are region-wide. • States such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, TamilNadu, and Andhra Pradesh, which and have undergone relatively greater industrial expansion, face problems of toxic and hazardous waste disposal far more acutely than less developed states.
  • 17. Global Scenario  Large manufacturing industries like chemical, metal, electrical, petroleum, transportation etc., generate hazardous wastes at the rate of more than 1000 kg/month/unit.  More than 80% of the world's hazardous waste is produced in the United States and other industrial countries.  300-500 million tons of heavy metals, solvents, toxic sludge, and other wastes accumulate every year from industry.  In developing countries, 70% of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into waters where they pollute the usable water supply.
  • 18. Hazardous Waste Management in India India is the second fastest growing economy. It accounts for ~ 20% of Asian and ~ 10% of global growth.  7.2 million tonnes / year generated:  1.4 million tonnes are recyclable  0.1 million tonnes are incinerable  5.2 million tonnes are destined for disposal on land  80 percent of hazardous waste is generated: Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Maharashtra Tamil Nadu
  • 19. Hazardous waste market worth C$52 million in 2003 with annual growth of 7 percent until 2010 Sources of hazardous waste generation: • Medical and pharmaceuticals • Scrap recycling (ship breaking industry) • Asbestos • Paints and dyes • Caustic soda producers • Pesticides and fertilizers • Petroleum and petrochemicals • Inorganic chemicals • mining extraction • tailings from pesticide based agricultural practices • general engineering
  • 20.
  • 22. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal The convention is ratified by 35 countries, it entered into force on 5th May, 1992. The main principle of the convention is to regulate the Transboundary movement of hazardous wastes with prior informed consent of the importing country and to ensure environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes. The convention seeks to prohibited the export of hazardous wastes without the consent of the importing country.
  • 23. Basel Convention  Basel convention is an international environment agreement on “control of trans boundary movement and disposal of hazardous waste” which was drafed on 22nd March, 1989.  Basel BAN On 31st Dec, 1997 a “total ban” on the trans boundary movement was decided rather than “control” or the “partial transboundary movement” of hazardous waste from OECD (Organisation for Economic Corporation and Development) to non OECD.
  • 24. Major Hazardous Waste Laws (USA)
  • 25. HHaazzaarrddoouuss WWaassttee MMaannaaggeemmeenntt RRuulleess 11)) HHaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess sshhaallll bbee ccoolllleecctteedd,, ttrreeaatteedd,, ssttoorreedd aanndd ddiissppoosseedd ooff oonnllyy iinn ssuucchh ffaacciilliittiieess aass mmaayy bbee aauutthhoorriizzeedd ffoorr tthhiiss ppuurrppoossee.. ((22)) EEvveerryy ooccccuuppiieerr ggeenneerraattiinngg hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess aanndd hhaavviinngg aa ffaacciilliittyy ffoorr ccoolllleeccttiioonn,, rreecceeppttiioonn,, ttrreeaattmmeenntt,, ttrraannssppoorrtt ssttoorraaggee aanndd ddiissppoossaall ooff ssuucchh wwaasstteess sshhaallll ttaakkee ggrraanntt ffrroomm GGoovvtt.. ffoorr aauutthhoorriizzaattiioonn ffoorr aannyy ooff tthhee aabboovvee aaccttiivviittiieess.. ((33)) AAnnyy ppeerrssoonn wwhhoo iinntteennddss ttoo bbee aann ooppeerraattoorr ooff aa ffaacciilliittyy ffoorr tthhee ccoolllleeccttiioonn,, rreecceeppttiioonn,, ttrreeaattmmeenntt,, ttrraannssppoorrtt,, ssttoorraaggee aanndd ddiissppoossaall ooff hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess,, sshhaallll ttaakkee ggrraanntt ffrroomm GGoovvtt.. ffoorr aauutthhoorriizzaattiioonn ffoorr aannyy ooff tthhee aabboovvee aaccttiivviittiieess.. ((44)) BBeeffoorree hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess iiss ddeelliivveerreedd aatt tthhee hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaassttee ssiittee,, tthhee ooccccuuppiieerr oorr ooppeerraattoorr ooff aa ffaacciilliittyy sshhaallll eennssuurree tthhaatt tthhee hhaazzaarrddoouuss wwaasstteess iiss ppaacckkaaggeedd iinn aa mmaannnneerr ssuuiittaabbllee ffoorr ssttoorraaggee aanndd ttrraannssppoorrtt aanndd tthhee llaabbeelliinngg aanndd ppaacckkaaggiinngg sshhaallll bbee eeaassiillyy vviissiibbllee aanndd bbee aabbllee ttoo wwiitthhssttaanndd pphhyyssiiccaall ccoonnddiittiioonnss aanndd cclliimmaattee ffaaccttoorrss..
  • 26. (5) The State Government or a person authorized by it shall undertake a continuing programme to identify the sites and compile and publish periodically an inventory of disposal sites within the State for the disposal of hazardous wastes. (6) The State Government or a person authorised by it shall undertake an environmental impact study before identifying a site as waste disposal site in the State. (7) The occupier generating hazardous waste and operator of a facility for collection, reception, treatment, transport, storage and disposal of hazardous waste shall maintain records of such operations in prescribed Form (8) Where an accident occurs at the facility or on a hazardous waste site or during transportation of hazardous wastes, the occupier or operator of a facility shall report immediately to the State
  • 27. The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling Rules) 1989, Amends., 2000, 2003 •Ensure proper collection, reception, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes. •Apply for renewal of authorization before expiry of the validity period •Maintain records of hazardous wastes handling (Form 3) •Submit “Annual Returns” to the SPCB (Form 4) •Report to the SPCB any accident •Labeling / Packaging / Transportation of HW as per Motor Vehicle Act, 1988 and Rules, 1989 Contd….
  • 28. Schedule - 2 List of Waste Substances with Concentration Limits Class A: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 5500 mmgg//KKgg CCllaassss BB:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 55,,000000 mmgg//KKgg CCllaassss CC:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 2200,,000000 mmgg//KKgg CCllaassss DD:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 5500,,000000 mmgg//KKgg CCllaassss EE:: RReeggaarrddlleessss ooff CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt
  • 29. List of waste constituents with Concentration Limits Class A: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 5500 mmgg//KKgg.. A1 Antimony and antimony compounds A2 Arsenic and arsenic compounds A3 Berylium and berylium compounds A4 Cadmium and cadmium compounds A5 Chromium and chromium compounds A6 Mercury and mercury compounds A7 Selenium and selenium compounds A8 Tellerium and tellerium compounds A9 Thallium and thallium compounds A10 Inorganic cyanide compounds
  • 30. A11 Metal cabonyls A12 Napthalene A13 Anthracene A14 Phenanthrene A15 Chrysene,benzo(a) pyrene,benzo (K) flouranthene, indeno(1-2-3cd) pyrene and benzo perylene. A16 Halogenated aromatic compounds. A17 Halogenated aromatic compounds. A18 Halogenated aromatic compounds. A19 Organo-chlorine pesticides. A20 Organo-tin compounds.
  • 31. CCllaassss BB :: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 55,,000000 mmgg//KKgg BB11 CChhrroommiiuumm IIIIII ccoommppoouunnddss BB22 CCoobbaalltt ccoommppoouunnddss BB33 CCooppppeerr ccoommppoouunnddss BB44 LLeeaadd aanndd LLeeaadd ccoommppoouunnddss BB55 MMoollyybbeeddnneeuumm CCoommppoouunnddss BB66 NNiicckkeell ccoommppoouunnddss BB77 IInnoorrggaanniicc TTiinn ccoommppoouunnddss BB88 VVaannaaddiiuumm ccoommppoouunnddss BB99 TTuunnggsstteenn ccoommppoouunnddss BB1100 SSiillvveerr ccoommppoouunnddss
  • 32. B11 Halogenated aliphatic compounds B12 Organo phosphorus compounds B13 Organic peroxidases B14 Organic nitro and nitroso compound B15 organic azo and azooxy B16 Nitriles B17 Amines. B18 (Iso- and-thio-)cynates compounds. B19 Phenol and phenolic compounds. B20 Mercaptans.
  • 33. B21 Asbestos B22 Halogen-silanes B23 Hydrazines B24 Flourine B25 Chlorine B26 Bromine. B27 White and red phosphorus B28 Ferro-silicate and alloys B29 Manganese-silicate B30 Halogen-containing compounds which produce acidic vapors on contact with humid air or water ,e.g. silicon tetrachloride,aluminium chloride, titanium tetrachloride
  • 34. CCllaassss CC:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 2200,,000000 mmgg//KKgg CC11 AAmmmmoonniiaa aanndd aammmmoonniiuumm ccoommppoouunnddss CC22 IInnoorrggaanniicc PPeerrooxxiiddeess CC33 BBaarriiuumm ccoommppoouunnddss eexxppeecctt bbaarriiuumm ssuullpphhaattee.. CC44 FFlluuoorriinnee ccoommppoouunnddss CC55 PPhhoosspphhaattee ccoommppoouunnddss eexxppeecctt pphhoosspphhaatteess ooff aalluummiinniiuumm,, ccaallcciiuumm aanndd iirroonn CC66 BBrroommaatteess CC77 CChhlloorraatteess CC88 AArroommaattiicc ccoommppoouunnddss ootthheerr tthhaann tthhoossee lliisstteedd uunnddeerr AA1122 ttoo AA1188.. CC99 OOrrggaanniicc ssiilliiccoonn ccoommppoouunnddss CC1100 OOrrggaanniicc ssuullpphhuurr ccoommppoouunnddss..
  • 35. CC1111 IIooddaatteess CC1122 NNiittrraatteess,, NNiittrriitteess.. CC1133 SSuullpphhiiddeess CC1144 ZZiinncc ccoommppoouunnddss.. CC1155 SSaallttss ooff ppeerr--aacciiddss.. CC1166 AAcciidd aammiiddeess.. CC1177 AAcciidd aannhhyyddrriiddeess
  • 36. CCllaassss DD:: CCoonncceennttrraattiioonn lliimmiitt:: 5500,,000000 mmgg//KKgg DD11 TToottaall SSuullpphhuurr DD22 IInnoorrggaanniicc aacciiddss DD33 MMeettaall hhyyddrrooggeenn ssuullpphhaatteess DD44 OOxxiiddee aanndd hhyyddrrooxxiiddeess eexxppeecctt tthhoossee ooff hhyyddrrooggeenn,, ccaarrbboonn,, ssiilliiccoonn,, ccaallcciiuumm DD55 TToottaall hhyyddrrooccaarrbboonnss ootthheerr tthhaann tthhoossee lliisstteedd iinn AA1122 ttoo AA1188 DD66 OOrrggaanniicc ooxxyyggeenn ccoommppoouunnddss DD77 OOrrggaanniicc nniittrrooggeenn ccoommppoouunnddss eexxpprreesssseedd aass nniittrrooggeenn DD88 NNiittrriilleess DD99 HHyyddrriiddeess
  • 37. Hazardous Waste Classification: as per Hazardous Waste Rules 2003 India Waste Categories Type of Waste Regulatory Quantities Waste category 1 Cyanide wastes 1 Kg per year Waste category 2 Metal finishing wastes 10 Kg per year Waste category 3 Waste containing water soluble chemical compounds of Lead, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Ba, Sb 10 Kg per year Waste category 4 Arsenic, Thalium, Cd, Hg bearing wastes 5 Kg per year Waste category 5 Non Hydrogenated hydrocarbons 200 Kg per year Waste category 6 Halogenated hydrocarbons 50 Kg per year
  • 38. Hazardous Waste Classification: as per Hazardous Waste Rules 2003 India Waste Categories Type of Waste Regulatory Quantities Waste category 7 Wastes from paints, pigments, glue, varnish and printing ink 250 Kg per year Waste category 8 Wastes from dyes and dye intermediates containing inorganic compounds 200 Kg per year Waste category 9 Wastes from dyes and dye intermediates containing organic compounds 50 Kg per year Waste category 10 Waste oil and oil emulsions 1000 Kg per year Waste category 11 Tarry wastes from refining and tar residues from distillation or pyrolytic treatment 200 Kg per year
  • 39. Hazardous Waste Classification: as per Hazardous Waste Categories Type of Waste Regulatory Quantities Waste category 12 Sludges from treatment of waste waters containing heavy metals, toxic organics, oil emulsions, incineration ash Irrespective of quantity Waste category 13 Asbestos 5Kg per year Waste category 14 Phenols 200 Kg per year Waste category 15 Wastes from manufacture of pesticides and herbicides 5 Kg per year Waste category 16 Acid / alkaline slurry 200 Kg per year Waste category 17 Off spec/ discarded products Irrespective of quantity Waste category 18 Discarded containers and liners of hazardous and toxic wastes Irrespective of quantity Waste Rules 2003 India
  • 41. Hazardous Waste Problems  Cleaning up old wastes  Union Carbide Plant Waste in Bhopal  Fukushima Waste  Managing new wastes  Avoiding future wastes
  • 50. AAiirr ssttrriippppiinngg Stripping basins Stripping towers
  • 51. HW Incineration  About 4.4% of hazardous wwaassttee ggeenneerraatteedd iinn tthhee ccoouunnttrryy iiss ooff tthhee nnaattuurree,, wwhhiicchh hhaass ttoo bbee iinncciinneerraatteedd..  BBeessiiddeess,, sseeggrreeggaatteedd oorrggaanniicc rreessiidduueess,, hhiigghhllyy ccoonncceennttrraatteedd eefffflluueennttss ssuucchh aass mmootthheerr lliiqquuoorrss aanndd ttooxxiicc eefffflluueennttss nnoott ffeeaassiibbllee ffoorr pphhyyssiiccoo--cchheemmiiccaall,, bbiioollooggiiccaall ttrreeaattmmeenntt aallssoo rreeqquuiirree pprrooppeerr ddiissppoossaall tthhrroouugghh iinncciinneerraattiioonn..
  • 52. Hazardous Waste Incineration Reduces volume, making transportation and disposal more efficient
  • 53.
  • 55. Land Disposal  Deep-well underground injection wells  Surface impoundments  Landfills  Waste piles.
  • 56. Special Measures during HW disposal  Banning liquids from landfills.  Banning underground injection of hazardous waste within 500 m of a drinking-water well.  Requiring more stringent structural and design conditions for landfills and surface impoundments, including two or more liners, leachate collection systems above and between the liners, and ground water monitoring.  Requiring cleanup or corrective action if hazardous waste leaks from a facility.  Requiring information from disposal facilities on pathways of potential human exposure to hazardous substances.  Requiring location standards that are protective of human health and environment.
  • 59. Landfills  Designed aass aa mmoodduullaarr sseerriieess ooff 33DD ccoonnttrrooll cceellllss..  WWaasstteess aarree ppllaacceedd iinn aann aapppprroopprriiaattee cceellll aanndd ccoovveerreedd aatt tthhee eenndd ooff eeaacchh wwoorrkkiinngg ddaayy wwiitthh aa llaayyeerr ooff ccoovveerr ssooiill..  TThheerree mmuusstt bbee aa ddoouubbllee lliinneerr ssyysstteemm ttoo ssttoopp tthhee ffllooww lleeaacchhaattee ffrroomm eenntteerriinngg tthhee ssooiill aanndd ggrroouunndd wwaatteerr bbeenneeaatthh..  LLeeaacchhaattee iiss ccoolllleecctteedd aanndd ppuummppeedd ttoo ssuurrffaaccee ffoorr ttrreeaattmmeenntt..
  • 62. Summary of different bioremediation strategies Nitrogen compounds • Phytoremediation •Injection wells •Aeration Examples Ammonia, Nitrate, Nitro-aromatics etc. Hydrocarbons • Compositing • Surfactants • Fungi • Plants • Fertilizers Examples for typical hazardous wastes Dibenzothiophenone, Toluene, phenanthrene, Carbazole, octane etc. Hazardous Wastes Halogenated organic compounds •Nutrient application •Aeration •Bioaugmentation •Phytoremediation Examples Carbonatetra chloride, Tetrachloro ethylene, Trichloro ethylene, PCBs, DDT etc Herbicides/ pesticides • Microbial, • Bioaugmentation • Phytoremediation Examples Atrazine, metachlor Dinoseb, Aldicarb etc. Metals • Phytoremediation •Injection wells •Constructed wetlands Examples Iron, Lead, Chromium, Copper, mercury etc.
  • 63. HAZARDOUS WASTE LIFE CYCLE Process Raw Materials Catalyst Products Hazardous Wastes Wastes other than Hazardous Wastes for treatment & further reuse / disposal Recycled in other industries Treatment Wastes with Potential reuse Landfill till HW cycle is complete