1
AttitudesAttitudes
Attitudes
Evaluative
statements or
judgments
concerning
objects,
people, or
events.
Affective Compone...
2
The Theory of Cognitive
Dissonance
The Theory of Cognitive
Dissonance
Desire to reduce dissonance
• Importance of elemen...
3
Measuring the A-B RelationshipMeasuring the A-B Relationship
Recent research indicates that attitudes (A)
significantly ...
4
Types of AttitudesTypes of Attitudes
Job Involvement
Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and
conside...
5
Attitudes and Workforce DiversityAttitudes and Workforce Diversity
Training activities that can reshape employee
attitud...
6
Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction
Measuring Job Satisfaction
Single global rating
Summation score
How Satisfied Are Peopl...
7
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on
Employee Performance
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on
Employee Performance
Satisfacti...
8
Job Satisfaction and OCBJob Satisfaction and OCB
Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship
Behavior (OCB)
Satisfied em...
9
Job Satisfaction and Customer
Satisfaction
Job Satisfaction and Customer
Satisfaction
Satisfied employees increase custo...
10
MOTIVATION
31
Defining MotivationDefining Motivation
Key Elements
1. Intensity: how hard a person tries
2. Direction: toward benefici...
The story about the tiny frogs….
There once was a bunch of tiny frogs,...
… who arranged a running competition.
The goal was to reach the top of a very high tower.
A big crowd had gathered around the tower to see the
race and cheer on the contestants...
The race began...
No one in crowd really believed that,
Honestly
the tiny frogs would reach the top
of the tower...
You heard statements such as:
"Oh, WAY too difficult!!
They will NEVER make it to the top."
or
"Not a chance that they will succeed. The tower is too high!"
The tiny frogs began collapsing. One by one...
... Except for those who in a fresh tempo were climbing
higher and higher...
"It is too difficult!!! No one will
make it!"
The crowd continued to yell
More tiny frogs got tired and gave up...
But ONE continued higher and higher and higher...
This one wouldn’t give up!
At the end everyone else had given up climbing the tower.
Except for the one tiny frog who after a big effort was the only
one who reached the top!
THEN all of the other tiny frogs naturally wanted to know how this one
frog managed to do it?
A contestant asked the tiny frog how the one who succeeded
had found the strength to reach the goal?
It turned out...
That the winner was
DEAF!!!!
The wisdom of this story is:
Never listen to other people’s tendencies to be
negative or pessimistic...
…cause, they take your most wonderful dreams and wishes away from
you. The ones you have in your heart!
Because everything you hear and read will affect your actions!
Always think of the power which words have.
Therefore...
ALWAYS be…
POSITIVE!
And above all:
Be DEAF when people tell YOU that YOU can not fulfil YOUR dreams!
I can do this!
Always think:
64
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
(Maslow)
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
(Maslow)
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
There is a hierarchy of...
Maslow’sMaslow’s
HierarchyHierarchy
of Needsof Needs
SelfSelf
EsteemEsteem
SocialSocial
SafetySafety
PhysiologicalPhysiolo...
66
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas
McGregor)
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas
McGregor)
Theory X
Assumes that employees disli...
Theory XTheory X
EmployeesEmployees
Dislike WorkDislike Work
Avoid ResponsibilityAvoid Responsibility
Little AmbitionLittl...
68
Two-Factor Theory (Frederick
Herzberg)
Two-Factor Theory (Frederick
Herzberg)
Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory
In...
69
ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)
Core Needs
Existence: provision of basic
material requiremen...
70
David McClelland’s Theory of
Needs
David McClelland’s Theory of
Needs
nAch
nPow
nAff
Need for Achievement
The drive to ...
71
Cognitive Evaluation TheoryCognitive Evaluation Theory
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Providing an extrinsic reward for be...
72
Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin
Locke)
Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin
Locke)
Goal-Setting Theory
The theory that specific and di...
73
Goal Setting
Goals
Specific
Difficult
Accepted
Effects on Person
Directs attention
Energises
Encourages persistency
New...
74
Job Design TheoryJob Design Theory
Characteristics:
1. Skill variety
2. Task identity
3. Task significance
4. Autonomy
...
75
Job Design Theory (cont’d)Job Design Theory (cont’d)
Skill Variety
The degree to which a job requires a variety of
diff...
76
Job Design Theory (cont’d)Job Design Theory (cont’d)
Autonomy
The degree to which the job provides substantial
freedom ...
77
Equity Theory
(Adams, 1963; Landy, 1989;
Beehr, 1996)
78
Equity Theory
A version of discrepancy theory of
job satisfaction focusing on the
discrepancies between what one
has on...
79
Equity Theory
Inputs
- factors considered by the individual
that contribute to their work -
knowledge, skills and abili...
80
Equity Theory
I/O < I/O (Underpay)
5/10 10/10
Inequity
I/O = I/O (Equity)
10/10 = 10/10
I/O > I/O (Overpay
5/10 10/10
I...
81
Equity TheoryEquity Theory
Referent
Comparisons:
Self-inside
Self-outside
Other-inside
Other-outside
Referent
Compariso...
82
Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d)
Choices for dealing with inequity:
1. Change inputs (slack off)
2. Change ...
83
Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d)
Distributive Justice
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of
re...
84
Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d)
Distributive Justice
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of
re...
85
Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory
Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom)
The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way
...
86
Expectancy Theory
(Vroom)
3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship = Valence
1. Effort-Performance relationship = Expecta...
87
Expectancy Theory
Relationships
Expectancy Theory
Relationships

Effort–Performance Relationship

The probability tha...
How Expectancy Theory Works
Expectancy
Effort - Performance Link
E=0
No matter how much effort
you put in, probably not po...
Attitude
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  • 6 The best-known theory on motivation was developed by Abraham Maslow. According to Maslow, within every human being, a hierarchy of five needs exist. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one’s potential. As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next higher need becomes dominant. Physiological--food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other bodily requirements. Safety--s ecurity and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social--affection , belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. Esteem--internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention. Self-actualization--g rowth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment; the drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
  • 7 Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views about human nature--one a negative view, Theory X, and one a positive view called Theory Y. If a manager sees people as irresponsible and lazy,they will follow Theory X and assume the following: 1. Employees inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it. 2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened to achieve goals. 3. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction, if possible. 4. Most workers place security above all other work-related factors and will display little ambition. However, Theory Y managers see people as responsible and conscientious, and assume the following: 1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. 2. When committed to their objectives, people will exercise self-direction and self-control 3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. 4. Many workers besides managers have innovative decision-making skills. No hard evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is universally true. It is more likely that the assumptions of Theory X or Theory Y may or may not be appropriate, depending on the situation at hand.
  • Attitude

    1. 1. 1 AttitudesAttitudes Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
    2. 2. 2 The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
    3. 3. 3 Measuring the A-B RelationshipMeasuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. Moderating Variables • Importance of the attitude • Specificity of the attitude • Accessibility of the attitude • Social pressures on the individual • Direct experience with the attitude Moderating Variables • Importance of the attitude • Specificity of the attitude • Accessibility of the attitude • Social pressures on the individual • Direct experience with the attitude
    4. 4. 4 Types of AttitudesTypes of Attitudes Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization. Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.
    5. 5. 5 Attitudes and Workforce DiversityAttitudes and Workforce Diversity Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions. Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds. Exploring print and visual media that recount and portray diversity issues.
    6. 6. 6 Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction Single global rating Summation score How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002 Decline attributed to: • Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter deadlines • Less control over work
    7. 7. 7 The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Satisfaction and Productivity Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Satisfaction and Absenteeism Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.
    8. 8. 8 Job Satisfaction and OCBJob Satisfaction and OCB Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
    9. 9. 9 Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. They are less likely to turnover which helps build long-term customer relationships. They are experienced. Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.
    10. 10. 10 MOTIVATION
    11. 11. 31 Defining MotivationDefining Motivation Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
    12. 12. The story about the tiny frogs….
    13. 13. There once was a bunch of tiny frogs,... … who arranged a running competition.
    14. 14. The goal was to reach the top of a very high tower.
    15. 15. A big crowd had gathered around the tower to see the race and cheer on the contestants...
    16. 16. The race began...
    17. 17. No one in crowd really believed that, Honestly
    18. 18. the tiny frogs would reach the top of the tower...
    19. 19. You heard statements such as: "Oh, WAY too difficult!! They will NEVER make it to the top."
    20. 20. or
    21. 21. "Not a chance that they will succeed. The tower is too high!"
    22. 22. The tiny frogs began collapsing. One by one...
    23. 23. ... Except for those who in a fresh tempo were climbing higher and higher...
    24. 24. "It is too difficult!!! No one will make it!" The crowd continued to yell
    25. 25. More tiny frogs got tired and gave up...
    26. 26. But ONE continued higher and higher and higher...
    27. 27. This one wouldn’t give up!
    28. 28. At the end everyone else had given up climbing the tower.
    29. 29. Except for the one tiny frog who after a big effort was the only one who reached the top!
    30. 30. THEN all of the other tiny frogs naturally wanted to know how this one frog managed to do it?
    31. 31. A contestant asked the tiny frog how the one who succeeded had found the strength to reach the goal?
    32. 32. It turned out...
    33. 33. That the winner was
    34. 34. DEAF!!!!
    35. 35. The wisdom of this story is:
    36. 36. Never listen to other people’s tendencies to be negative or pessimistic...
    37. 37. …cause, they take your most wonderful dreams and wishes away from you. The ones you have in your heart!
    38. 38. Because everything you hear and read will affect your actions! Always think of the power which words have.
    39. 39. Therefore...
    40. 40. ALWAYS be… POSITIVE!
    41. 41. And above all:
    42. 42. Be DEAF when people tell YOU that YOU can not fulfil YOUR dreams!
    43. 43. I can do this! Always think:
    44. 44. 64 Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs Theory There is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Self-Actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
    45. 45. Maslow’sMaslow’s HierarchyHierarchy of Needsof Needs SelfSelf EsteemEsteem SocialSocial SafetySafety PhysiologicalPhysiological Source: Motivation and Personality, Second Edition, by A. H. Maslow, 1970. Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
    46. 46. 66 Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.
    47. 47. Theory XTheory X EmployeesEmployees Dislike WorkDislike Work Avoid ResponsibilityAvoid Responsibility Little AmbitionLittle Ambition Theory YTheory Y EmployeesEmployees Enjoy WorkEnjoy Work Accept ResponsibilityAccept Responsibility Self-DirectedSelf-Directed
    48. 48. 68 Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors Factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
    49. 49. 69 ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.
    50. 50. 70 David McClelland’s Theory of Needs David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
    51. 51. 71 Cognitive Evaluation TheoryCognitive Evaluation Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. The theory may only be relevant to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting.
    52. 52. 72 Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Goal-Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Self-Efficacy The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship: Goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture.
    53. 53. 73 Goal Setting Goals Specific Difficult Accepted Effects on Person Directs attention Energises Encourages persistency New strategies developed Feedback Performance
    54. 54. 74 Job Design TheoryJob Design Theory Characteristics: 1. Skill variety 2. Task identity 3. Task significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback Characteristics: 1. Skill variety 2. Task identity 3. Task significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback Job Characteristics Model Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.
    55. 55. 75 Job Design Theory (cont’d)Job Design Theory (cont’d) Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities. Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. Task Significance The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
    56. 56. 76 Job Design Theory (cont’d)Job Design Theory (cont’d) Autonomy The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
    57. 57. 77 Equity Theory (Adams, 1963; Landy, 1989; Beehr, 1996)
    58. 58. 78 Equity Theory A version of discrepancy theory of job satisfaction focusing on the discrepancies between what one has on the job and what one thinks is fair - what one should have
    59. 59. 79 Equity Theory Inputs - factors considered by the individual that contribute to their work - knowledge, skills and abilities Outcomes - factors considered by the individual to have personal value - money, promotion, praise
    60. 60. 80 Equity Theory I/O < I/O (Underpay) 5/10 10/10 Inequity I/O = I/O (Equity) 10/10 = 10/10 I/O > I/O (Overpay 5/10 10/10 Inequity Equity
    61. 61. 81 Equity TheoryEquity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
    62. 62. 82 Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1. Change inputs (slack off) 2. Change outcomes (increase output) 3. Distort/change perceptions of self 4. Distort/change perceptions of others 5. Choose a different referent person 6. Leave the field (quit the job) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1. Change inputs (slack off) 2. Change outcomes (increase output) 3. Distort/change perceptions of self 4. Distort/change perceptions of others 5. Choose a different referent person 6. Leave the field (quit the job)
    63. 63. 83 Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d) Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards.
    64. 64. 84 Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d) Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards.
    65. 65. 85 Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
    66. 66. 86 Expectancy Theory (Vroom) 3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship = Valence 1. Effort-Performance relationship = Expectancy 2. Performance-Rewards relationship = Instrumentality Individual Effort Individual Performance Personal Goals Organisational Rewards 1 2 3
    67. 67. 87 Expectancy Theory Relationships Expectancy Theory Relationships  Effort–Performance Relationship  The probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.  Performance–Reward Relationship  The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.  Rewards–Personal Goals Relationship  The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual.
    68. 68. How Expectancy Theory Works Expectancy Effort - Performance Link E=0 No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible to memorise the text in 24 hours Instrumentality Performance - Rewards Link I=0 Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million Valence Rewards - Personal Goals Link V=1 There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning. Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do this task.

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