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Powerline Communcation For Home Automation


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Powerline Communcation For Home Automation

  1. 1. PROJECT PRESENTATIONONPOWERLINE COMMUNICATION USING X10 PROTOCOLin partial fulfillment of the requirements for theaward of the degree ofBachelor of EngineeringinELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICSofVisvesvaraya Technological University, BelgaumAJITESH RAJ 1SI09EE004GAURAV 1SI09EE016KHAGESH MADHAV 1SI09EE022MUKUND KUMAR 1SI06EE030Under the guidance ofH. S. Sridhar, M.TechAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Electrical & Electronics EngineeringSIDDAGANGA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYTUMKUR-5721032012-136/5/2013 Powerline Communication Using X-10 1
  2. 2. Abstract In the latest generation of home automation systems,appliances can exchange information by transmittingdata over the domestic mains wiring. As a result there isno need to install extra control cables and appliancescan be connected to the network simply by pluggingthem into the nearest wall socket. Microcontroller can easily be used in conjunction with X-10 technology to create home automation applications.The PIC16F877A can be selected for this applicationbecause of its versatility as a general purposemicrocontroller, its FLASH program memory(for ease ofdevelopment), data EEPROM, and ample I/O ports.2Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  3. 3. Power Line Communication “Power Line Communications” basically means anytechnology that enables data transfer through power lines. X-10 is a communication protocol designed for sendingsignals over 230 VAC wiring. X-10 uses high frequency bursts timed with zero crossing torepresent digital information. PIC microcontrollers can easily be used in conjunction with X-10 technology to create home automation applicationsbecause of the versatility of PICmicro which can be used as ageneral purpose microcontroller.3Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  4. 4. PLC for Home Automation Power Line Communications for home control applicationsapplies the modulation of frequency signals in a carrier wavebetween 20kHz-200kHz into the household wiring at thetransmitter. This carrier is modulated by digital signals. The receivers in the system has a specific address and canbe individually commanded by signals transmitted overhousehold wiring and decoded at the receiver. The devices can be either plugged into regular power outlets,or permanently wired in place.4Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  5. 5. X-10 Protocol X-10 is a technique based on transmitting a frame of datapreceded by a start code at every zero crossing of 50Hz signal. Binary data is transmitted by sending burst of high frequency on50Hz power signal. A binary one is identified by the presence of a pulse followed by abinary zero which is identified by the absence of a high frequencypulse. For the purpose of redundancy, reliability X-10 protocol designedfor every frame to transmit data twice.6/5/2013 Powerline Communication Using X-10 5
  6. 6. Data Framing In Different Codes The actual data to be transmittedis first preceded by a start coderepresented as 1 nibble of data The receivers are designed onlyfor 6ms duration to receive 1msof X-10 data, thus every dataframe begins with at least 6leading zero crossings. The data frame is in the form ofdevice code sent after start code.6Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013Fig : Start code of dataFig : Device code of data
  7. 7. Contd…… The change of data fromone address to anotheraddress or from oneaddress to anothercommand or from onecommand to anothercommand is again followedby 6 clearing of zerocrossings (i.e “000000”). The sequence of six"zero’s" resets the shiftregisters. As before, all X-10 protocol transmitterssend their data framestwice.Fig: Frames of transmitteddata7Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  8. 8. Block Diagram :8Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  9. 9. Power Line Communication ModemPLC Modem is device which is useful to send and receiveserial data over the existing AC mains domestic power lines.Device Features:◦ Powered from 5V◦ Direct interface with microcontroller UART ,Txd, Rxdpins.◦ Transmit and Receive serial data at 9600 bps◦ Data Tx/Rx LEDs◦ Low Cost & Simple to use◦ Built in Error Checking9Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  10. 10. PLC Modem The module is designed to provide half-duplexcommunication over the mains of any voltage up to 250V andfor a frequency of 50Hz or 60Hz. Normally the module is in receiving mode all the time listeningto incoming communication on the power line. Once the application gives serial data to transmit on its Rx-INpin, it switches over to transmit and transmits the datathrough power line. Once transmit process is complete itswitches back to receive mode.6/5/2013 Powerline Communication Using X-10 10Fig : Application Diagram of PLC Modem
  11. 11. Transfer of Information through PLC Modem Transmission is based on byte by byte basis. Once one byteof data is given to module for transmission, it waits for at least500ms before a new byte is given to module again since themodule waits for zero crossing of AC mains to transfer a bit. For AC 50Hz system the zero crossing of AC signalshappens every 10ms and modem needs 50 zero crossings totransmit one byte with error checking data. That is why ittakes 500ms for one byte.f=50HzT=(1/f)=(1/50)=20ms11Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  12. 12. Interfacing of PLC Modem with PIC MCUPin Pin name DetailsRx-In Receive Input. Usuallyconnected to Tx-D pinof microcontrollerInput serial data of 5Vlogic level.Tx-Out Transmit output.Usually connected toRx-D pin ofmicrocontrollerOutput serial data of5V logic level+5 V Power Supply Regulated 5V inputsupply.Gnd( Vss) Ground Ground in commonwith VSS of MCUFig: Table showing pin description of PLCmodem 12Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  13. 13. Interfacing MCU to LCD ModuleControl Signal FunctionECausing data/controlstate to be latchedRising Edge = Latchescontrol state (RS andR/W)Falling Edge= LatchesdataRS Register Select Control1 = LCD in data mode0 = LCD in commandModeR/¯w Read/ Write control1 = LCD to write data0 = LCD to read data6/5/2013 Powerline Communication Using X-10 13
  14. 14. Relay Interfacing with MCU In order to control the lamp module with its own houseand unit address.Pic16f877aRelayDriverRelay LOAD14Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  15. 15. Interfacing of PLC- Relay Driver-Relay withPIC MCU A relay is an electromagnetic switch which is usedto switch High Voltage/Current using Low powercircuits. Relay isolates low power circuits from high powercircuits. It is activated by energizing a coilwounded on a soft iron core.Note :A relay should not be directly connected to amicrocontroller, it needs a driving circuit. A microcontroller is not able to supply current required for theworking of a relay. The maximum current that a PICMicrocontroller can source or sink is 25mA while a relay needsabout 50 – 100mA current. A relay is activated by energizing its coil. Microcontroller may stopworking by the negative voltages produced in the relay due to itsback emf. 15Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  16. 16. Interfacing of PLC- Relay Driver-Relaywith PICmicro (contd…)16Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  17. 17. Interfacing PLC Relay with PICmicrocontroller using IC2003 If more relays are used,using transistors will bedifficult. In these casesyou may use ULN2003. These are ICs consistingof High Voltage HighCurrent Darlingtontransistor arrays. When using these driverICs we don’t need toconnect freewheelingdiode as they have builtin clamp diodes.Fig: Relay interfacing with PICMCU through ULN 200317Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  18. 18. Circuit connections on Transmitter side18Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  19. 19. Circuit connections on Receiverside19Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  20. 20. Algorithm for TransmitterSTEP 01: Do the basic initialization of microcontroller ports, LCD andUART.STEP 02: Check whether the status of pin connected to house switch1.STEP 03: If status of the house switch1 is high, check the status ofdevice switch1.STEP 04: If the status of the device switch1 is high, send 1 to UART.STEP 05: If the status of the device switch1 is low, send 2 to UART.STEP 06: Check the status of the device switch2.STEP 07: If the status of the device switch1 is high, send 3 to UART.STEP 08: If the status of the device switch1 is low, send 4 to UART.20Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  21. 21. Algorithm for Transmitter(contd..)STEP 09: Check whether the status of pin connected to houseswitch2.STEP 10: If status of the house switch2 is high, check the statusof device switch2.STEP 11: If the status of the device switch1 is high, send 5 toUART.STEP 12: If the status of the device switch1 is low, send 6 toUART.STEP 13: Check the status of the device switch2.STEP 14: If the status of the device switch1 is high, send 7 toUART.21Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  22. 22. Flowchart for Transmitter22Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  23. 23. Flowchart for Transmitter(contd...)23Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  24. 24. Algorithm for TransmitterSTEP 01: Do the basic initialization of first microcontroller1ports, and UART.STEP 02: Check Rx data pin connected to the Tx of the powerline communication module.STEP 03: If the data received is 1, send signal to the pinconnected to the bulb to turn on.STEP 04: If the data received is 2, send signal to the pinconnected to the bulb to turn offSTEP 05: If the data received is 1, send signal to the pinconnected to the fan to turn on.STEP 06: If the data received is 1, send signal to the pinconnected to the fan to turn off.24Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  25. 25. Algorithm for Transmitter(contd..)STEP 07: Do the basic initialization of second microcontrollerports, and UART.STEP 08: Check Rx data pin connected to the Tx of the powerline communication moduleSTEP 09: If the data received is 1, send signal to the pinconnected to the bulb to turn on.STEP 10: If the data received is 2, send signal to the pinconnected to the bulb to turn off.STEP 11: If the data received is 1, send signal to the pinconnected to the fan to turn on.STEP 12: If the data received is 1, send signal to the pinconnected to the fan to turn off.25Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  26. 26. Flowchart for Transmitter26Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  27. 27. Result : Range of transmission : 100m of power line cable. Time taken for switching on : 1 to 3 sec (approximately) Baud rate : 9600 Program memory used : 5 Kilobyte Total number relay drivers : 2 (1 for each home) Total numbers of channels : 2 channels (each driving abulb and fan)27Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  28. 28. Contd: Crystal Frequency of PIC : 20Mhz Port used for LCD interfacing : Port D Frequency of PLC-Modem : 115kHzHOME DEVICE STATUS CODEHouse 1BULBON 00000001OFF 00000010FANON 00000011OFF 00000100House 2BULBON 00000101OFF 00000110FANON 00000111OFF 0000100028Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  29. 29. Transmitter29Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  30. 30. Receiver30Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  31. 31. Advantages : Simple to install and inexpensive. Additional wiring is not required. No interference due to sight obstructionslike wall, etc. High availability of the power outlets.31Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  32. 32. Limitations :• Affected by interference of radio signals• Difficult to incorporate over long distances• Time delay in sending signals• Complex form of communication is not possible.32Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  33. 33. Future Scope :33Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  34. 34. References : John Burroughs, X-10 Home Automation Using thePIC16F877A, Microchip Technology Inc., AN236, 2002. V Chunduru and N Subramanian, Student Member IEEE, Effectsof Power Lines on the Performance of Home ControlSystems, 2006. Jan Boer, Chair DS PHY Lucent Technologies WCNDUtrecht, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Physical LayerSpecification, March, 1996. Mark Palmer/Scott Fink Microchip Technology Inc., InterfacingPICmicro® MCUs to an LCD Module, 1997. Myke Predko, Programming and customizingPICmicro, Microcontrollers, McGraw-Hill, LCDs, page271, reprint 2001.34Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013
  35. 35. 35Powerline Communication Using X-106/5/2013