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Construction Management & Equipments

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Construction Management & Equipments

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Construction Management & Equipments

  1. 1. Construction Management and Equipments
  2. 2. Syllabus • Construction Equipment: • Introduction to Construction Equipment: Their contribution and importance in construction Industry. Classification of Equipment, Financial aspects related to construction equipments: Discounted present worth analysis, Depreciation, Cost of owning and operating construction equipment, Basics of equipment replacement policy.
  3. 3. Importance of Construction Equipments • In Case of major construction projects, the speed of work and the timely completion of work is very important. Due to the reason, the mechanization of most of the construction work is required, in which the construction equipment play the most important role. The proper use of the appropriate equipment contribute to economy, quality, safety, speedy and timely completion of the project. • The cost of construction is a major factor in all the projects. The factors that influence construction costs mainly are materials, labour, construction equipments, overhead and profit.
  4. 4. Major Construction Projects
  5. 5. Importance of Construction Equipments
  6. 6. Importance of Construction Equipments
  7. 7. Importance of Construction Equipments
  8. 8. Importance of Construction Equipments • The cost of construction equipment for civil engineering construction projects ranges from 25 % to 40 % of the total project. • The amount which is invested in the purchase of a construction equipment should be recovered during the useful period of such equipment.
  9. 9. Importance of Construction Equipments
  10. 10. Importance of Construction Equipments • If it is found that the purchase price of a particular construction equipment is far less than the estimated profit to the contractor due to its use on the project, the contractor should purchase the same without considering its further use or salvage value. • The construction equipment are deployed on the construction projects for the various reasons, such as
  11. 11. Importance of Construction Equipments • Cost-effective implementation • For execution of work that is not feasible by manual efforts or when deployment of construction equipments may help in doing the work more efficiently. • Large output can be maintained, even if there is a shortage of skilled and semi-skilled manpower. • Precession of implementation is done by using modern construction equipments equipment equipped with software control. • The construction equipment and machineries of very high capacities are available now and very large output are possible due to mechanization, adhering to the construction schedules.
  12. 12. Importance of Construction Equipments
  13. 13. Classification of Equipments • The Construction equipments are classified as below: • The equipment are classified according to the type of work it performs, • Intermittent Type: This type of equipments have the intermittent cycle of work. They can be operated on series of work cycles and each cycle completes in itself. • Continuous flow type: This type of equipments have a continuous flow of work turned out. • Belt conveyors, pipelines, air compressor, etc. are the example of continuous flow type equipments.
  14. 14. Concrete Mixers
  15. 15. Belt Conveyors
  16. 16. Classification of Equipments • Mixed type • This type of equipments have characteristics of both, intermittent as well as continuous flow type equipments. • They are continuously operated over a defined surface area. After completion of a particular sweep, it requires operation cease and readjustment of its position to resume production on another area. • Motor graders, bulldozers, scrapers, etc. are the examples of mixed type equipments.
  17. 17. Motor graders, Bulldozers, Scrapers
  18. 18. Classification of Equipments • The construction machineries or equipments can be broadly classified into following types: • Earth Excavating and transportation equipments • Hoisting Equipments • Conveying Equipments • Drilling equipments • Pumping equipments • Compacting Equipments • Pile- Driving Equipments
  19. 19. Earth Excavating and Transportation Equipments
  20. 20. Hoisting Equipments
  21. 21. Conveying Equipments
  22. 22. Drilling Equipments
  23. 23. Pumping Equipments
  24. 24. Compacting Equipments
  25. 25. Pile- Driving Equipments
  26. 26. Classification of Equipments • Depending upon their availability, commercial sizes and specifications, the equipments can be classified into following types: • (i) Standard Equipments • (ii) Special Equipments
  27. 27. Classification of Equipments • Standard Eqipments: • The standard equipments are commonly manufactured and are easily available to the prospective purchasers. • They can be used for variety of construction operations without any difficulty and they are available in standard commercial sizes. The initial investment is less as compared to a special equipment. • The delivery of standard equipments is very quick, as it is readily available in the market. • The repair parts for standard equipment can be obtained more quickly in short period. • If the contractor no longer needs a unit of standard equipment, he can usually dispose of it more easily and at a more favorable price than a piece of special equipment.
  28. 28. Standard Construction Equipments
  29. 29. Standard Construction Machineries
  30. 30. Classification of Equipments • Special Equipments: • The special equipments are those which are manufactured for a specific project or which does not have readily accessible spare parts. • The selection of special equipments should be made carefully after proper financial analysis. • The initial investment in case of special equipment is very high and there is risk of change in design, it cannot, be used economically on the other project.
  31. 31. Special Construction Equipments
  32. 32. Special Equipments • A special order is to be given to the manufacturer of special equipments and a special price is to be given and therefore the delivery of special equipments can be obtained after long period. • Examples of special equipment include tunnel- boring machines, large hauling units and very large shovels, such as a 70 to 80 cubic metre shovel used to strip-mine coal.
  33. 33. Special Construction Equipments
  34. 34. Selection of Equipments • The various factors to be considered, while selecting the construction equipment are as follows: • Standard Type of Equipments: • The contractor should confine their purchase to standard equipment unless a project definitely justifies the purchase of special equipments. • Replacement of Parts: Prior to purchasing equipments, the buyer should determine where spare parts are obtained. • If the parts are not obtainable quickly, it may be wise to purchase other equipment, for which the parts are quickly available, even though the latter seems less desirable.
  35. 35. Selection of Equipments
  36. 36. Selection of Equipments • Operating Costs: The most efficient and therefore the most economical equipment is one whose operating cost is the minimum. This is a fullproof measure for selection of the equipment. • Utilization of Equipments: The maximum utilization of the existing machine should be done to reduce the cost of production of various items of the project.
  37. 37. Selection of Equipments • Availability of Equipment: Sometimes the selection of equipment has to be made from the available equipment held with the manufacturers or dealers. • Source of Equipment: Contractor and other users of construction equipment frequently are concerned with a decision as to whether to purchase or rent (Lease) equipments.
  38. 38. Selection of Equipments
  39. 39. Selection of Equipments • Country of Origin: • As far as possible, indigenous equipments should be used. This encourages the industry of the country and saves foreign exchange. When imports have to be resorted to, they should be preferable restricted to soft currency area. • Operating Facility: The equipments chosen for project should be such that the trained operators fpr the machine are available. • Suitability of Equipment for Future: • While selecting an equipment, the useful life of the equipment should be compared with the duration of the project. • If the life of the equipment is longer, it should be possible to use the equipment for other projects.
  40. 40. Selection of Equipments
  41. 41. Selection of Equipments
  42. 42. Aspect Related to Finance • How to Arrange Finance: • When the contractor place the equipment purchase order to the manufacturers, the majority of the manufacturers, demand 10 to 30 % advance with orders, without any commitment of delivery period • The arrangement of finance can be done from the advances given by the project authorities or from the advances given to the contractor on equipment purchase.
  43. 43. Aspect Related to Finance • Now a days, the contractors are allowed for advances on new equipment to be purchased in case of all major contracts. • In some cases, even foreign exchange is made available in contracts for import of equipments and spares. • The finance can also be arranged from Industrial Development Banks and leasing Companies
  44. 44. Aspect Related to Finance
  45. 45. Buy or Hire • A Piece of Equipment may be employed on a project, in one of the following two ways: • 1. Direct Purchase • 2. Hiring
  46. 46. Direct Purchasing • If the equipments are to be used frequently for many types of jobs for a long duration of time on a project, it will be economical for the contractors to purchase the equipments.
  47. 47. Advantages of Purchasing a Equipment • The construction equipment would be available at all times for deployment. • These equipments could be used in other projects as required according to the conceived programme. • The cost of such equipments could be apportioned among different contracts. • It is always economically operated and can be maintained properly
  48. 48. Advantages of Purchasing a Equipment
  49. 49. Dis-advantages of Purchasing a Equipment • If the equipment purchased by the contractor becomes obsolete or if another equipment is available with superior performance, the contractor cannot take advantage of such situation. • The sum invested for purchase of equipment will be blocked and can not be available for another purpose. • The disposal of equipment after the project completion becomes difficult due to modernization of machinery. • The owned equipment may be utilized by the contractor beyond its economical life, thereby reducing his profit. • The purchased equipment remains idle during the period of no work.
  50. 50. Dis-Advantages of Purchasing a Equipment
  51. 51. Hiring • If the project is small and if the equipment is to be used for a short duration of time on the project, it will be economical for the contractor to get it by hiring or by renting from other agencies.
  52. 52. Advantages of Hiring • The equipment could be rented as and when required for a calculated period of time. • The hiring agencies are responsible for repair, replacements and even operation depending on the contractual terms. • On completion of the hiring period, the executing agency would be liability-free of the rented items. • The sum to be invested for the purchase of equipments can be diverted to the other projects. • There is no fear of obsolescence of equipments and full advantage of rented equipment can be taken by the contractor.
  53. 53. Advantages of Hiring
  54. 54. Hiring • But, the rented items of equipments should not be left idle for a long period, otherwise it will be uneconomical to use. • Sometimes, the combined method of partly purchasing and partly renting the selected equipment may be advantageous. • For instance, the equipment may be hired initially and then subsequently, if found useful, it can be purchased, considering the various aspects of the project, works on hand, further prospects of getting works, available funds, storage space for equipment, loss due to non-availability of equipment, hiring, charges, etc.
  55. 55. Depreciation • Depreciates can be defined as the loss or decrease in the value of the property due to the use, life, wear and tear, decay and obsolescence. • As the equipment which is purchased today will not work for ever. This may be due to wear and tear of the equipment or obsolescence of technology. • Hence, it is to be replaced at the proper time for continuance of any business. The replacement of the equipment at the end of its useful life involves money. This must be internally generated from the earnings of the equipments.
  56. 56. Depreciation
  57. 57. Depreciation • The recovery of money from the earnings of an equipment for its replacement purpose is called depreciation fund, since we make an assumption that the value of the equipments decrease with the passage of time. • Thus, the word, depreciation means decrease in value of physical assets with the passage of time.
  58. 58. Depreciation Fund
  59. 59. Thanks…

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