Connectivity and Conversion


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Connectivity and Conversion

  1. 1. Connectivity and Conversion Unit-X
  2. 2. Syllabus Connectivity and Conversion: • Between Satellite Cities, cities of cultural/business/ tourism attraction, between cities and towns, Cities getting converted into regions and towns getting converted into cities. Express ways and freight corridors, Golden Quadrilateral, Hub airport, Impact of these on urban development.
  3. 3. Satellite City • A satellite town or satellite city is a concept in urban planning that refers essentially to smaller metropolitan areas which are located somewhat near to, but are mostly independent of larger metropolitan areas.
  4. 4. Satellite City
  5. 5. Satellite City • Satellite cities are small or medium-sized cities near a large metropolis, that: • predate the metropolis' suburban expansion. • Are at least partially independent from that metropolis economically and socially are physically separated from the metropolis by rural territory or by a major geographic barrier such as a large river; • Satellite cities should have their own independent urbanized area, or equivalent have their own bedroom communities • Have a traditional downtown surrounded by traditional "inner city" neighborhoods may or may not be counted as part of the large metropolis' Combined Statistical Area
  6. 6. Satellite City
  7. 7. Satellite Cities Versus Other Types Of Settlement • Satellite cities are different from and are sometimes confused with the following related patterns of development Suburbs • Satellite cities differ from suburbs in that they have distinct employment bases, commuter sheds, and cultural offerings from the central metropolis, as well as an independent municipal government. Satellite cities are not bedroom communities. Edge cities • Satellite cities differ from edge cities, which are suburbs with large employment bases and cultural offerings, in that satellite cities must have a true historic downtown, a distinct independent municipal government, existed as a city prior to becoming interconnected with the larger metropolitan core, and are surrounded by both their own family of bedroom communities and a belt of rural land between themselves and the central city.
  8. 8. Suburbs
  9. 9. Edge Cities
  10. 10. Satellite cities versus other types of settlement • Conceptually, both satellite cities and some types of edge city could be (and once were) self-sufficient communities outside of their larger metropolitan areas, but have become interconnected due to the suburban expansion of the larger metropolis. However, while edge cities may have their own government and share many characteristics with satellite cities, they are much more physically integrated with the core city and would not exist in anything like their present form if not for the suburban expansion of their larger neighbor. Edge cities are activity nodes within a metro area, not miniature metro areas themselves.
  11. 11. Multi-Polar Cities • In some cases large metropolitan areas have multiple centers of close to equal importance. These multi-polar cities are often referred to as twin cities. Multi-polar cities differ from satellite cities in two key ways: • satellites are clearly much less important than the larger center around which they are located, while the various nodes of multi-polar cities are close to each other in importance satellites are separated from the larger center by a substantial belt of rural territory, while twin cities may be fully integrated in physical form
  12. 12. Multi-Polar Cities
  13. 13. Metropolitan Areas • Conceptually, satellite cities are miniature metro areas on the fringe of larger ones. Satellite cities are sometimes listed as part of the larger metro area, and sometimes listed as totally independent.
  14. 14. Metropolitan Areas
  15. 15. Metropolitan Areas
  16. 16. Expressways • An expressway is a controlled-access highway; it is a highway that controls entrances to it and exits from it by incorporating the design of the slip roads for entry and exit into the design of the highway itself. Access-control should not be confused with collection of toll. An expressway may be free to use and may not collect toll at all. Expressways are the highest class of roads in the Indian Road Network. These are six- or eight-lane highways with controlled-access. India has approximately 942 km expressways.
  17. 17. Expressways
  18. 18. Expressways • National Highway system of India consists of approximately 10,000 km (6,200 mi) of four-laned highways that collect toll from users but do not have control of access and cannot be called expressways. Currently, a massive project is underway to expand the highway network and the Government of India plans to add an additional 18,637 km (11,580 mi) of expressways to the network by the year 2022.
  19. 19. Expressways
  20. 20. Expressways • These roads will be access-controlled roads and will feature between four and six lanes with 3,530 km (2,190 mi) km to come up by 2015. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways is already in the process of preparing a draft for creation of a National Expressways Authority of India (NEAI) on the lines of NHAI. • Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has proposed a green-field access-controlled Expressways network across India. Study was conducted on identifying stretches on which new expressways can be constructed. But, as of now no further action has been taken on the Indian National Expressways Network report.
  21. 21. Expressways
  22. 22. Expressways • This list includes roads without access-control. Such a road cannot be called "expressway" though the name of the road may include the word "expressway" and may be a misnomer. Such a road should be excluded from this list. Eastern and Western Express Highways in Mumbai are two examples of such roads. Ambala-Chandigarh NH is another such example as it does not have access control for entry and exit at predetermined points. As stated above, access-control is different from collection of toll.
  23. 23. Expressways
  24. 24. Expressways Expressway Name Distance State(s) • Ahmedabad Vadodara Expressway 95 km (59 mi) Gujarat • Mumbai Pune Expressway 93 km (58 mi) Maharashtra • Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway 90 km (56 mi) Rajasthan • Allahabad Bypass Expressway 86 km (53 mi) Uttar Pradesh • Durgapur Expressway 105 km (65 mi) West Bengal • Ambala Chandigarh Expressway 35 km (22 mi) Haryana/Punjab • Chennai Bypass 32 km (20 mi) Tamil Nadu • Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway 28 km (17 mi) Delhi/Haryana • Noida-Greater Noida Expressway 24.53 km (15.24 mi) Delhi/Uttar Pradesh • Delhi Noida Direct Flyway 9.2 km (5.7 mi) Delhi/Uttar Pradesh
  25. 25. Expressways • Hyderabad Elevated Expressways 11.6 km (7.2 mi) Andhra Pradesh • Hosur Road Elevated Expressway 9.985 km (6.204 mi) Karnataka • Kona Expressway 8 km (4.97 mi) West Bengal • Outer Ring Road, Hyderabad 158 km (98 mi) Andhra Pradesh • Raipur-Bhilai-Durg Expressway 26 km (16 mi) Chhattisgarh • Yamuna Expressway 165 km (103 mi) Uttar Pradesh • Lucknow Amar Shaheed Path, Elevated access controlled stretch 49 km (30 mi) Uttar Pradesh • Mumbai Nashik Expressway 150 km (93 mi) Maharashtra • Outer Ring Road, Guntur & Vijayawada Expressway 46 km (29 mi) Andhra Pradesh • Bangalore-Nelamangala Elevated Expressway 19.5 km (12.1 mi) Karnatak • a 23 Eastern Freeway 22 km (14 mi) Maharashtra Total Length of Expressways 1,222.81 km (759.82 mi)
  26. 26. Expressways
  27. 27. Planned Indian National Expressways Network • India has the third-largest road network in the world spanning 4.69 million km, next in line only to the US and China. However, when it comes to the quality of roads, India lags far behind. Compared to the length of expressways in leading countries, China (84,946 km), the US (75,238 km), Canada (17,000 km), Spain (15,152 km) and Germany (12,800 km), India’s progress in the road sector seems dwarfed at just 1208 km. • On an overall basis also, highways constitute only a 1.7 per cent share at 79,116 km.
  28. 28. Indian National Expressways Network
  29. 29. Indian National Expressways Network • Given the importance of expressways, the Government of India had approved the construction of 1,000 km of expressways under the National Highways Development Project (NHDP) Phase VI. • Besides, the ministry came up with a project report to formulate a master plan aiming to construct 15,600 km by 2022, marking the end of the 13th five year plan. • Given the current precarious economic conditions, constructing expressways through the EPC route seems to be the most pragmatic approach. The government can raise long-term debt through bonds or low- cost foreign loans from multi-lateral and bilateral institutions while revenue can be generated by charging tolls from vehicles at entry and exit points. • Also, as witnessed in other countries, state governments should be urged to increase contribution toward these projects, as they will be the key beneficiaries of expressways.
  30. 30. Indian National Expressways Network
  31. 31. Indian National Expressways Network • Another way to expedite the process could be that the government could develop the first 50–100 km of the expressway to attract private developers, a model being followed by Jaipur metro. • Once traffic picks up on the expressway, developers could construct the remaining length and be allowed to charge toll on the entire length. • If India needs to achieve the next level in highway development, it has to focus on transit efficiency. For this, the country will have to increase reliance on public funding and shift focus from PPP. • It could also opt for innovative financial models, as suggested above, to make expressway construction a viable business in the country.
  32. 32. Dedicated Freight Corridors • A Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) can be described as a network of railway lines “dedicated” for the movement of freight trains. Such DFCs are separate from the passenger railway networks to ensure uninterrupted movement of the freight trains. Railway tracks under DFC are often provided with a higher voltage overhead power line than that of normal passenger railway networks, so the freight trains can attain higher speeds.
  33. 33. Dedicated Freight Corridors
  34. 34. Dedicated Freight Corridors • For high GDP growth, we need lot of electricity =lot of coal need to be transported from mines to thermal power station. • For infrastructure (bridges, roads, buildings)= need fast transport of cement, steel, machinery. • Because of growing international trade via sea lanes= need to quickly transport products from factories to ports. • This has led to birth of Dedicated Freight Corridors along the Eastern and Western Routes in 2005.
  35. 35. Dedicated Freight Corridors
  36. 36. Benefits of Dedicated Freight Corridors? • The existing rail network, runs on a combination of diesel + electrical trains. • The Dedicated freight corridor will operate entirely on electric trains= less greenhouse gases. • After Dedicated freight corridor, the passenger traffic and freight (goods) traffic will be separated = leading to faster speeds and efficiency.
  37. 37. Dedicated Freight Corridors
  38. 38. High Speed Rail Corridors
  39. 39. High Speed Rail Corridors • Under the High Speed Railway corridors (HSR) plan, the Railways intend to run trains at the speed of 160 km to 200 km per hour. • Ministry of Railways has selected following six corridors • Delhi-Chandigarh-Amritsar • Pune-Mumbai-Ahmedabad • Hyderabad-Dornakal-Vijaywada-Chennai • Chennai-Bangalore-Coimbatore-Ernakulam • Howrah-Haldia • Delhi -Agra-Lucknow -Varanasi – Patna
  40. 40. Benefits • A high-speed rail moving at speeds of 300 km/hr would take just about 2 hours to reach from New Delhi to Lucknow. Currently, it takes six hours for the fastest train on the route to cover the same distance. • The benefits of high-speed rail are immense vis-a-vis road and airlines. These rail systems have 30% less land requirement in comparison to expressways for same carrying capacity. • High-speed railways would directly compete with economy class tickets of an airline. • These trains are highly fuel-efficient as their energy consumption is one third less than private cars and 5 times less than airplanes.
  41. 41. High Speed Rail Corridors
  42. 42. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • Development plan with aim promotion of a city as attracting place is the principal planning policy which for are interested all those involved in development of the place that is promoting . • It recognizes that achieving urban regeneration is dependent on creating an attractive and safe environment within the city, by using high - profile projects. This benefits the existing residents and businesses and attracts new investment, particularly in the city centre.
  43. 43. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns
  44. 44. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • Cities pursue these types of tourism strategies as a tool to give some competitive advantage in an increasingly globalized and interdependent Economy. In the interrelation between tourism and interurban competition, globalization decidedly affects the way in which policies for tourism are formulated and put into practice. • Destinations (in this case, cities) face increasing pressure to raise their ‘place identity’ in order to position themselves competitively in the global context. • Improvement of the physical environment, will promote the city as an attractive and enjoyable place to visit, to invest in, and to live in.
  45. 45. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns
  46. 46. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • Many cities are combining the use of high–profile Projects with enhanced tourism policy to seek to revitalize economic decline and improve their urban physical structure. These high – profile projects are developed in city centres, and comprise prominent conference centres and meeting places; museums and other leisure destinations; and concent rations of restaurants, bars and nightlife.
  47. 47. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns
  48. 48. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns
  49. 49. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • Tourism, nation branding and investment Tourism can improve the city’s environment, enhances the city’s image and aids inward investment. Flagship Projects for promotion a city as nation brand, ensure the potential for new investment to be attracted due to the fact of promoting a new image by creating a new and attractive physical environment. A new and positive image is seen as a crucial element of attracting inward business investment.
  50. 50. Tourism, Nation Branding
  51. 51. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction • As part of tourism strategy, could be developed an agenda for attracting overnight business tourists and to raise international profile of the city. Thus, tourism strategy in these high - profile projects for promotion a city as nation brand include: - • encouraging access and movement, providing quality tourist information, - setting up visitor priority areas, - developing a coherent mixture of visitor attractions, - encouraging investment in retailing , restaurants and accommodation, - incorporating with various organizations , Improving physical environment as a critical role for the promotion of tourism activities
  52. 52. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction
  53. 53. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • Creating additional leisure and tourism facilities and major visitor attractions based on the industrial and social heritage , - encouraging the creation of a cross - city pedestrian walkway , etc. • These major events will attract large numbers of visitors. • Consequently, the reputation and perception of the city will effectively enhance. • As the number of visitors to the city increases and the city’s national and international image through the development of tourism policy along with high – profile projects.
  54. 54. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • Co-operation programmes and high – profile projects will support the efforts of a city to Improve benefits for the development and implementation of sustainable tourism policies and programmes Improving the competitive city image, will bring investment support and promotion, product development and strengthening linkages between tourism and other sectors of economic activity.
  55. 55. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns
  56. 56. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • That’s why there is need for a fundamental consideration of factors that influence the location of business and can help highlight the decisions that potential business investors and developers make. In addition, the necessity of the marketing principle in image promotion is an important issue. Cities are different from one another, and it could be argued, city marketing must reflect this difference. The considerations of these marketing approaches in and of themselves can help to improve city strategies for inward investment and provide a focus for work on city image and potential target businesses.
  57. 57. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • Internationally, the promotion of a place (as city in this case) by city authorities and donor organizations has typically aimed at encouraging private sector investment, macroeconomic growth and also foreign exchange earnings . • That’s why there is need for a fundamental consideration of factors that influence the location of business and can help highlight the decisions that potential business investors and developers make. In addition, the necessity of the marketing principle in image promotion is an important issue. Cities are different from one another, and it could be argued, city marketing must reflect this difference. The considerations of these marketing approaches in and of themselves can help to improve city strategies for inward investment and provide a focus for work on city image and potential target businesses.
  58. 58. Cities Of Cultural/Business/ Tourism Attraction, Between Cities And Towns • Tourism has the potential to empower communities and the sustainable tourism agenda needs to focus on how to bring this about. • Understanding tourists and tourism processes is the first stage to empowering the local community to make informed and appropriate decisions about their tourism development. Considerable investments are required in communication and trust building between the actors in tourism. • In this context to make successful development of tourism and place promotion is necessary to understand the importance of activities and tourism strategy as tools for tourism business success. In this way, tourism businesses have been identified as essential actors for creating jobs , tourism destination development and generally growing the economy.
  59. 59. Golden Quadrilateral • The Golden Quadrilateral is a highway network connecting many of the major industrial, agricultural and cultural centres of India. • A quadrilateral of sorts is formed by connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, and hence its name. Other cities among the top metropolises namely Pune, Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Kanpur, Surat at north and Bengaluru, Visakhapatnam & Bhubaneswar at south are also connected by the network.
  60. 60. Golden Quadrilateral
  61. 61. Golden Quadrilateral • The largest highway project in India and the fifth longest in the world, started by NDA Government It is the first phase of the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), and consists of building 5,846 km (3,633 mi) four/six lane express highways at a cost of 600 billion (US$10 billion).
  62. 62. Golden Quadrilateral
  63. 63. Golden Quadrilateral • The vast majority of the Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) is not access controlled, although safety features such as guardrails, shoulders, and high-visibility signs are in use. • The GQ project is managed by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) under the Ministry of Road, Transport and Highways. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway, the first controlled-access toll road to be built in India is a part of the GQ Project though not funded by NHAI, and separate from the main highway. Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services (IL&FS) has been one of the major contributors to the infrastructural development activity in the GQ project.
  64. 64. Golden Quadrilateral
  65. 65. Projected Economic Benefits Of The GQ Project Are • The projected economic benefits of the GQ project are - • Establishing faster transport networks between major cities and ports. • Providing an impetus to smoother movement of products and people within India. • Enabling industrial and job development in smaller towns through access to markets.
  66. 66. Golden Quadrilateral
  67. 67. Golden Quadrilateral • Providing opportunities for farmers, through better transportation of produce from the agricultural hinterland to major cities and ports for export, through lesser wastage and spoils. • Driving economic growth directly, through construction as well as through indirect demand for cement, steel and other construction materials. • Giving an impetus to Truck transport throughout India.
  68. 68. Truck Transport Throughout India
  69. 69. Hub Airports • A hub airport is a port that is normally used by airlines as a transfer airport for getting the passengers to their the plane engine to cool and for refuelling. • Where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations. This is as opposed to the Point to Point model. Many hubs of the airlines are also situated at airports in the cities of the respective head offices. • Some airlines may use only a single hub, while other airlines use multiple hubs. Hubs are used for both passenger flights as well as cargo flights. • intended destination. It is normally used as a pass by for
  70. 70. Hub Airports
  71. 71. Hub Airports • Many airlines also use focus cities, which have a good catchment area and function much the same as hubs, but on a smaller scale and may also function as feeders to main hubs. Some airlines also use the term secondary hubs for large focus cities. • A hub in the middle of a route is more effective than at either end as connecting traffic more easily fills the plane - passengers prefer a one-stop (two-leg) route over a two- stop (three-leg) route. • Another use of the phrase airline hub is an for airports ranked as such in the FAA airport categories which are re-evaluated every year based on number of commercial passengers.
  72. 72. Hub Airports
  73. 73. Hub Airports
  74. 74. Impact of these on Urban Development. • Cities around the world are separated by physical distance, but individuals can travel relatively easily between cities using various forms of transportation. Air travel not only connects people but it connects economies to further develop the global economy. • Airport development has also been linked with economic development. Much research has been done on this relationship, with focuses on different regions and cities around the world.
  75. 75. Hub Airports
  76. 76. References • Urbanization Urban Development & Metropolitan Cities in India • Dr V. Nath Concept Publications
  77. 77. Thanks…