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Basics of Environmental Studies

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Basics of Environmental Studies

Unit-I

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Basics of Environmental Studies

  1. 1. Basics of Environmental Studies (110007)
  2. 2. Introduction to Environment, Ecology, Ecosystem Unit-1
  3. 3. Syllabus • Definition and Inter-relationships amongst and between them • Components of Environment, Relationship between different components • Man-Environment relationship • Impact of Technology on the environment • Environmental Degradation
  4. 4. Important Questions • Definitions • Environment, Ecology, Ecosystem • Define Environment and Explain Its Components. • Explain Man Environment Relationship. • Explain Impact of Technology on Environment. • Write a S.N. on Environmental Degradation. • Explain Importance of Environmental Education. • Explain IPAT Equation. • Discuss Biotic and Abiotic Components of Environment. • Discuss the physical components of environment • What is the role of Environmental Engineer ?
  5. 5. Environment • Environmental Science: “The systematic & scientific study of our environment and our role in it. This branch include the knowledge of Pure science & to some extent Social Sciences”. • Environmental Studies: “The branch of Study concerned with environmental issues. It has a broader coverage than environment science and includes the social aspects of the environment”.
  6. 6. Environment • Definition:- “All the living and non living factors affecting an organism and ultimately determining its form and survival is known as Environment.” • Some other Definitions of Environment:- • “ All the external factors influencing the life and activity of people, plant and animals”. • “ All the things (i.e. Object & Circumstances) surrounding us is known as Environment”.
  7. 7. Most Precise Definition of Environment • Environment is Define as “The Complex of Physical, Chemical & Biotic factors affecting an organism and ultimately determining its form and survival” is known as Environment.
  8. 8. Ecology • Definition:- Ecology is derived from two Greek words “Oikos” & “Logos” • Ecology= Oikos + Logos • Oikos means house or dwelling place • Logos means study of • Thus Ecology can be define as “Study of organisms with respect to their house or dwelling place”.
  9. 9. Ecosystem • Definition:- Ecosystem is Define as “Natural Functional Ecological Unit Comprising of living organisms & their non living environment which interact to form a self supporting system” is known as Ecosystem.
  10. 10. Components of Environment Biotic i.e. Living Components Abiotic i.e. Non-Living Components Environment • Environment can be divided into following Components
  11. 11. Components Of Environment • Biotic: It Includes all the living organisms. e.g. plants, animals, birds etc. • Abiotic: All the non living things are included in this category. e.g. Climatic conditions, soil, minerals etc.
  12. 12. Components of Environment Hydrosphere Biosphere Environment LithosphereAtmosphere •Environment can also be classified into various Physical Components
  13. 13. Components of Environment • Atmosphere: The region surrounding the earth is known as atmosphere. Atmosphere is generally a mixture of gases surrounding the earth. • Hydrosphere: All the water bodies on the earth surface are included in hydrosphere. It includes Oceans, rivers, glaciers, lakes, ponds, etc.
  14. 14. Components of Environment • Lithosphere: The uppermost part of the earth crust is known as Lithosphere. Lithosphere includes, soil and its particles, rocks, metal. etc. • Biosphere: The life supporting mantle of the earth extending from few kilometer into the atmosphere to the deep ocean is known as Biosphere The region of the earth where life exist is known as Biosphere.
  15. 15. Importance Of Environmental Education • Environmental education is a integral process which deals with man’s interrelationship with his nature and man made surroundings including the relation of population growth, pollution, resource allocation and depletion, conservation, technology, and urban and rural planning to the total human environment. • Environmental education is a study of the factors influencing ecosystem, mental & physical health, living and working conditions, decaying cities and population pressure. Environmental education is intended to promote among citizens the awareness and understanding of the environment, our relationship to it, and the concern and responsible action necessary to assure our survival and to improve the quality of life.
  16. 16. Objectives of Environmental Education • Awareness: To help individuals and social groups to acquire basic awareness of and sensitivity towards the environment & its related problem. • Knowledge: To help individuals and social groups to acquire basic understanding of the environment, its associated problems and their responsible role towards the betterment of the environment. • Attitude: To help individuals and social groups to acquire social values, strong feeling of concern for the environment and the motivation for actively participating in its protection and improvement.
  17. 17. • Skills: To help individuals and social groups to acquire the skills for solving environmental problems. • Evaluation ability: To help individuals and social groups to evaluate environmental measures and education program in terms of ecological, political, economical, social, aesthetic and education factors. • Participation: To help individuals and social groups to develop a sense of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure appropriate action to solve those problems.
  18. 18. Role of Environmental Engineer • Environmental engineer are the technocrats who are committed to protect human beings from the harmful effects of environmental degradation caused by the pollution in the environment due to population growth, rapid industrialization and urbanization. • Environmental engineer generally acts to build a bridge between engineering, technology and biology. Following are the duties of an environmental engineer. • Environmental engineer basically make environmental strategies like evaluation of environmental quality, steps for improvement in quality of water, air and food as well as suggestions regarding the proper collection and disposal of solid and liquid wastes from the city. • Environmental engineers do the design, construction and operation of treatment facilities for water, air, and solid waste. These treatment facilities, which are designed by the environment engineers are mainly based on the assimilating capacity of lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.
  19. 19. Role of Environmental Engineer • Environmental engineers design the different processes to handle large volumes of pollutants with the principles of optimization, socio- economic effects and rapid treatment to convert any objectionable material to a less objectionable material. • Environmental engineer also keep in mind to protect natural resources from the effect of disposal of hazardous waste, toxic chemicals and radioactive waste. • Environmental engineer have a special role of having good coordination with other technocrats and engineers to make rapid advancement in cleaning up the environment with eco-friendly techniques. • The basic challenging role of an environmental engineer is to make public aware about the environmental degradation and also to impart training in such a way, so that people participate in the programs of keeping the environment clean.
  20. 20. Man –Environment Relationship Q. Man and environment relationship. • Environment Man The relationship between humans and environment has varied from the early periods of human settlement on the earth to the present day. The relationship between environment and human beings has also being varying from place to place at any given period of time. For example, early humans considered the environment to be dominant. They were afraid of lightning and thunder, dense forests, wild animals, vast oceans and large rivers, to name a few. The environment has considerably affected human beings right from his evolution. The environment affects humans in many ways. Population on the earth varies due to variation in the environment. The main factors which affect the distribution of population and human settlement are:
  21. 21. Man –Environment Relationship 1) Topography of Land The populations in the high mountainous areas, such as the Himalayas in India, Andes in South America, Rocky in North America, etc., have very low settlement level. This is because the relief is rugged here which represents obstacles in the construction of roads, railways and communication. Due to steep slopes, agriculture is done with a great difficulty and industries also could not be established. These places having very less economic activity have less population and hence have small isolated settlements. Whereas the plain areas of the world are most suitable for human settlement. Fertile plains of Ganga in India, Indus in Pakistan, Hwang-Ho in China and plains of Europe have huge population concentration having compact or huge semi-compact type of settlement.
  22. 22. Man –Environment Relationship 2) Climate Most of the areas of the earth having density less than two persons/sq. km are not favorable for settlement because of their unfavorable climate. Areas of cold climate-North Siberia, North Canada, Alaska etc. have low density of population. Hot and arid regions of -Sahara, Kalahari Desert in Africa, Great Australian Desert etc. are not suitable for human settlement. In tropical regions due to heavy rain and temperature, the density of population is very low, example in Amazon basin population density is less than two persons/sq. km. But places with favorable climate and favorable terrain, have dense population and hence have compact settlement.
  23. 23. Man –Environment Relationship 3) Soils Fertile alluvial soils encourage dense population which in turn gives rise to compact type of settlement. This is so because alluvial soils give rise to agricultural activities. Java Islands of Indonesia has fertile soil of young volcanic material and agriculture is an important activity, hence dense and compact settlements are found here. Whereas in Sumatra, due to infertile soil, the population density is very low.
  24. 24. Man –Environment Relationship 4) Mineral Deposits Mineral wealth is yet another factor responsible for population distribution and density. The presence of coal and iron-ore in different parts of the world has attracted huge population. Coal mining regions have become regions of dense population for example, Jharkhand in India and gold mines in Australian desert.
  25. 25. Man –Environment Relationship 5) Water supply Population distribution is very much affected by water supply. The earliest settlements or civilizations developed on the banks of major rivers, example-Nile, Indus, etc. Adequate water supply provides irrigation facilities to farmers and hence population increases due to increase in primary activities. In dry regions, population is concentrated in those areas where there is water, hence nucleated- circular settlements are found.
  26. 26. Man –Environment Relationship • Thus it can be said that the environment plays an important role in deciding population distribution, density, settlement type and pattern. • The Industrial Revolution which provided mechanical power, invention of steam engine and other machinery, greater use of metals etc. gave them opportunities to modify the environment. At the same time agriculture provided abundant food so that they could settle down permanently. The family grew in size and people migrated to different parts, via rail, road and sea, because of improvement in transport system, example the new lands in America and Australia were settled by people from Europe. • Another development which enabled humans to survive was the use of preventive and cumulative steps taken to protect them from epidemics and diseases-it increased the span of human life and reduced death rate.
  27. 27. Man –Environment Relationship • Man Environment • With increase in the knowledge and skill and development of human economy there was a gradual increase in carbon dioxide content. It is estimated that carbon dioxide content has increased by 25% in last 100yrs and the global temperatures have risen between 0.3 degree Celsius to 0.7 degree Celsius. Increase in carbon dioxide is attributed to large scale deforestation and will lead to increase in sea level causing submergence of coastal regions. • Burning of coal, oil and petroleum adds sulphur dioxide to the atmosphere. Lead, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are added to the atmosphere from automobile exhaust. These gases result in acid rain which affects aquatic life, example acid rain in industrial regions of Europe and North America. • Even now substances which were not present previously, are introduced into the air, water and soils. The most dangerous one is radioactive substance spewed into the atmosphere by nuclear explosions. They have adverse effects on organisms including man and cause death, impairment of limbs, diseases and psychological disorders.
  28. 28. Man –Environment Relationship • The catastrophe of nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in Ukraine (1988) is a burning example of adverse environmental effects of use of minerals like uranium, thorium etc. through most advanced and sophisticated technology. • The environment has already been degraded to such an extent in certain areas that people are forced to migrate. They are facing scarcity of resources like food and energy. Man's impact on environment has resulted in pollution of environment which not only affects air, water and land but also organisms of biosphere. The main points summing up the impact of man on environment are:
  29. 29. Man –Environment Relationship Air pollution-burning of fossil fuels in large quantities from jet aircraft, CFCs used in aerosol spray cans, refrigerators and farm blowing are responsible for depletion of ozone to 3-4% in last 100 years. Water pollution- leakage of petroleum from huge ships and oil tankers into the sea, causes oil slicks which spread rapidly over water and spell disaster to marine life and to human depending on marine resources.. The most widespread source of water pollution is disposal of sewage of urban centers into rivers. The Ganga and Yamuna are polluted in this way and the same rivers provide domestic water supply as well. Ocean waters are polluted by discharge of sewage from cities located along the coast. Land degradation-dumping of solid waste from urban centers and waste materials from mining centers renders the land unsuitable for any use. Surface run-off from such areas pollutes streams and ground water seepage. Saline encrustation of irrigated lands is another example of land degradation. In the semi-arid region, wind action causes deposition of sand on a large scale over cultivated land rendering them unfit for cultivation. This marks the beginning of the process of desertification.
  30. 30. Man –Environment Relationship • Depletion of resources-population growth in the recent past has resulted in rapid depletion of all kinds of resources. The most striking example of such resource depletion is the food deficit faced by about 100 countries of the world. • Forest and soil resources are getting depleted at a fast rate owing to population pressure. Tropical forests are depleting at a rate of 2% per annum. It is estimated that the world is losing 7% of top soil per decade. • Depletion of resources is most significant in respect of non-renewable mineral and power resources. The world is facing energy crisis as existing oil resources may last for a few decades. Though coal reserves are adequate for a few centuries but it cannot replace oil, especially for transport. • Humans have come to realize that their economic activities are threatening their survival on earth. Their survival depends on their realization that they have to live in harmony with the various elements of environment which are interconnected. An understanding of the components and processes which take place in environment, the relationship between biotic and abiotic components, and the assessment of resources with reference to need of people in a region is essential for their survival.
  31. 31. Impact of Technologies on • New and better technology is being introduced, by each passing day. In every field, new technology is introduced very frequently. This advancement of technology is beneficial, but has also created adverse effects on the environment. • Advancement of technology & machines, has increased industrialization and increased pollution as a result of which environment has deteriorated. • Advancement in weapon technology had also considerably affected the environment. • New technology means more production and more consumption like vehicles, which creates pollution. • Thus technology, on one hand can be beneficial, but can create a bad impact on the environment. Environment
  32. 32. Impact of Technologies on • If we discuss the effect of machines on environment. More and better machines mean that there will be rapid industrialization. No doubt industrialization is beneficial for the economy, and as well as for the people living in the country. But, • Industrialization would create pollution including; noise pollution, air pollution and water pollution • With development in technology and industrialization , many areas with natural beauty will be destroyed, in order to establish industries, thus creating bad impact on environment. • Improvement in technology will improve the production of weapons, and when these weapons will be tested and used; then also the environment will get polluted. Increased use of cars will increase the pollution and destroy the environment. Environment
  33. 33. Impact of Technologies on • Improvement in technology has also led to pollute children's mind. Media and the computers are the source of technology, but they have led in polluting the mind, and destroying their health and environment of studies. • Children spend more time watching television or using computers, so less time for studies & recreation; which has affected their physical & mental growth. Environment
  34. 34. Impact of Technologies on • Technology has also created problem for peoples. As environment is polluted, different and fatal diseases are being given 'birth'. These diseases are very dangerous for humans. Due to the cost of health products, pollution and the different diseases, which attack people, health costs have increased. On the other hand, the government are also facing problems, as they would have to give health subsides, and try to overcome the fatal diseases, their costs would rise too; Because of people illnesses they would be unable to work, thus again problems for government as per head GDP, would decrease (and production would also fall.) Environment
  35. 35. • We discussed about the negative impact of technologies on environment. Now, if we say that is technology beneficial? The answer would most likely be yes! But depends upon the people and government, that how they use the technology. • If we consider improvement in technology then as mentioned earlier that it would increase industrialization. Industrialization is most likely beneficial, as production would increase, supply would increase and ultimately the prices would be less. When there would be more production, then it means businesses would expand; thus, employment rate will increase too. • Standard of living will improve as income would be more. • Exports would increase, as production would be more (and imports will fall) Thus beneficial for the economy. • So, we can say technology can be beneficial, but it depends on the way it has been used. Remedies can be that government should make laws about how to use technology; so that it does not affect the environment.
  36. 36. Classification of Impacts • Direct Impact: The impacts which directly affect the environment due to deforestation, urban development, rapid industrial growth. • Indirect Impacts: These impacts will indirectly affect the environment ,which may be called as chain impact. For e.g. the indirect impact of deforestation may result in extinction of some species in forest and other consumers at later stage. • Cumulative Impacts: These impacts will be the result of direct & indirect impacts. The ultimate effect on the environment will be very dangerous as it progresses at slow rate.
  37. 37. • The environmental impact can also be categorized as: • Positive & negative Impacts: Development of road will give employment to the people at the same time it will result in deforestation. • Local & widespread Impact: For e.g. construction of road will affect the local region while industrial development due to air pollution may enhance the phenomenon like global warming, acid rain, or ozone depletion. • Temporary & Permanent impacts: Some projects may affect the environment for temporary duration and some project may have permanent impact on the environment. • Short term & long term impacts: • Random Impacts: • Predictable impacts & non-predictable impacts:
  38. 38. IPAT Impact Equation • One of the earliest attempts to describe the role of multiple factors related to human society in determining environmental degradation was IPAT equation. • Paul Ehrlich and John Holdren proposed the following equation to estimate the overall impact of economic activity on the environment. • The equation has since been known as “IPAT” equation or also the” Master Equation” • The equation describes the contribution of population (P), affluence (A) and technology (T) to the Environment Impact (I).
  39. 39. IPAT Impact Equation • I= Environmental Impact (I) may be expressed in terms of resource depletion or waste generation • P= The size of Population • A= Affluence refers to the level of resources consumed by that population • T= Technology refers to the processes used to obtain resources. • In order to make IPAT equation more useful & meaningful, it has been split into 3 parts, • I= P1A1T1+ P2A2T2+P3A3T3
  40. 40. IPAT Impact Equation • I= P1A1T1 + P2A2T2 + P3A3T3 First World Countries Second world Countries Third world Countries First world: Highly Developed nations ( USA, Canada, Europe, Japan), Relative clean Technologies ( T1 ), Population is stable ( P1 ), bur the problem is of affluence ( A1 ). Second world: Transition nations: (Brazil, Russia, India, China) Moderate affluence(A2), but dirty technologies (T2), for some population (P2). Third World Countries: Poor nations: ( Bangladesh, Pakistan) very little affluence(A3), some dirty technologies (T3), and high population(P3). .
  41. 41. Environmental Degradation • Definition: Deterioration of the Environment is known as Environmental Degradation. • Environmental degradation is caused due to following factors: • Population • Pollution • Exploitation of Natural resources • Disturbance in Ecosystem • Waste Generation and Disposal
  42. 42. Population • Increase in Population will require more food which result in increase in more food production and more cultivation which require more nutrients from land which will degrade the land. Use of fertilizers will further degrade the land. • Increase in population will require more houses or land to reside which result in cutting of forest to build houses, as a result of which forest ecosystem are destroyed, which results in problem like Soil erosion, change in rainfall patterns • Increase in population will result in increase of infrastructures i.e. Roads, Industries, railways, houses, flyovers, etc. which will lead to pollution of different environmental components.
  43. 43. Pollution • Air pollution is causing tremendous damage to the environment in terms of global warming, ozone depletion, acid rains. • Water Pollution is also contributing heavily in degradation of Environment. Waste water from municipal and Industries degrades the quality of fresh water. • Land pollution occurs, due to over irrigation, soil erosion, deforestation, waste disposal on land. • Noise Pollution occurs due to increase in no of vehicles and industries. It causes decrease in efficiency of Person, and causes some serious health problems.
  44. 44. Exploitation of Natural Resources Man has been using air, water, land, forest, and all the things which are available to him naturally, which has resulted in disturbance of ecological balance, depletion of ground water, deforestation, endangered species, all this factor caused degradation of Environment.
  45. 45. Disturbance in Ecosystem Each organism has unique role to play in the environment, change in the environment has proven to be harmful for these organisms and has lead to extinction of certain species.
  46. 46. Waste Generation Waste generated from household industries and municipal sources are the major cause of air, water, noise, and land pollution.
  47. 47. Activity Make a note of Important days of Environmental Significance. Explain what can we do to save the planet.
  48. 48. Assignment Explain interrelationship between various components of the environment. Why is Environmental Protection discussed recently? Explain the term Clean Technology and its usefulness

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