By:Gaurav GunjanB.Tech Final YearDept. of Mechanical Engineering 1
Contents:-1. Quality2. Types Of Inspection3. Quality Control4. Types Of Quality Control5. Analytical Quality Control6. Statistical Quality Control7. Good Manufacturing Process8. Quality Assurance9. Conclusion
What Is Quality ?The quality of a product is the “degree of perfection” i.e. thetotality of features and characteristics of a product or servicethat bears on its ability to satisfy the needs of the customers. The quality of a product dependsupon a number of factors such as design andspecifications, production process, quality of raw materialsused, quality of machines and equipments, man powerexpertise and skill and the inspection.
Types of Inspection:Depending upon the objective, inspection can be oftwo types, namely, preventive and corrective. The primary purpose of it is todiscover the defective parts that have already beenmanufactured and prevent their use in the finalproduct. The idea is to prevent theinferior parts from further processing down theproduction line in order to reduce the cost ofproduction.
What is Quality Control?Quality control is defined as an industrial managementtechnique by means of which products of uniformacceptable quality are manufactured. It is a Process or system for monitoring thequality of laboratory testing, and the accuracy andprecision of results.
What is the goal of QC? To detect SIGNIFICANT errors rapidly Report out good results in a timely manner Be cost effective and simple to use If there is an error, identify the source of the error
What is an error??? A wrong answer.A significant error is one that changes the diagnosis Wrong answers canbe caused by random errors or by systematic errors
Types of Errors Random SystematicFluctuations Reagent problemTemperature Device problem Personnel
Types of Quality Control:-Internal Quality ControlWhen a company institutes protocol to check their system, this iscalled internal quality control.External Quality ControlWhen products or data is sent to an outside business not affiliatedwith the company, this is external control. One example of externalcontrol is in food production.
Analytical Quality ControlAnalytical quality control, commonly shortenedto AQC refers to all those processes and proceduresdesigned to ensure that the results of laboratoryanalysis are consistent, comparable,accurate andwithin specified limits of precision. In well managed laboratories,AQC processes are built into the routine operationsof the laboratory often by the random introductionof known standards in to the sample stream or bythe use of spiked samples.
Statistical Quality Control(SQC)A process by which a product/service is checkedduring its creation using certain set parameters andstatistical techniques to measure and analyze thevariation within the process.WHAT IS IT USED FOR:To monitor the consistency of product/servicequality and maintain processes to a fixed target asdesigned.To drive improvement actions within anorganization.
Advantages of Statistical Quality Control (SQC):The advantages of SQC are as follows:-(1) It ensures control, maintenance and improvement in thequality standards.(2) It provides better quality assurance at lower cost ofinspection.(3) It reduces the wastages of time and materials to theminimum. (4) The very presence of SQC policy in an organizationimproves and makes them quality conscious.(5) It provides basis for resolving differences among thevarious interests in the organization.
What can be controlled using SQC? VARIABLES ATTRIBUTES Variable Measures are Attributes arethose that can be measured characteristics that are on a continuous scale, for assessed by judgement example i.e. have two states such length, time, weight.... as right or wrong, looks OK or not OK.
Good Manufacturing PracticeA good manufacturing practice (GMP) is aproduction and testing practice that helps to ensurea quality product.Basic concepts of all of these guidelines tosafeguard the health of the patient as well asproducing good quality medicine, medical devicesor active pharmaceutical products.
Quality AssuranceQuality assurance (QA) refers to the systematicactivities implemented in a quality system so that qualityrequirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.QA includes management of the quality of rawmaterials, assemblies, products and components, servicesrelated to production, and management, production andinspection processes
Conclusion:When it comes to our focus, we understandthat when quality control makes sure the endproduct meets the qualityrequirements, quality assurance makes surethat the process of manufacturing the productdoes adhere to standards.So Quality control can be noted as a reactiveprocess.