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# Business Research Methods, 9th ed.Chapter 20

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William G. Zikmund, Barry J. Babin, Jon C. Carr, Mitch Griffin

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### Business Research Methods, 9th ed.Chapter 20

1. 1. Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 20: Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics
2. 2. Descriptive Analysis • The transformation of raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret; rearranging, ordering, and manipulating data to generate descriptive information
3. 3. Type of Measurement Nominal Two categories More than two categories Frequency table Proportion (percentage) Frequency table Category proportions (percentages) Mode Type of descriptive analysis
4. 4. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Ordinal Rank order Median
5. 5. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Interval Arithmetic mean
6. 6. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Ratio Index numbers Geometric mean Harmonic mean
7. 7. Tabulation • Tabulation - Orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format • Frequency table • Percentages
8. 8. Frequency Table • The arrangement of statistical data in a row- and-column format that exhibits the count of responses or observations for each category assigned to a variable
9. 9. Measure of Central Measure of Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion Nominal Mode None Ordinal Median Percentile Interval or ratio Mean Standard deviation Central Tendency
10. 10. Cross-Tabulation • A technique for organizing data by groups, categories, or classes, thus facilitating comparisons; a joint frequency distribution of observations on two or more sets of variables • Contingency table- The results of a cross- tabulation of two variables, such as survey questions
11. 11. Cross-Tabulation • Analyze data by groups or categories • Compare differences • Contingency table • Percentage cross-tabulations
12. 12. Base • The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages
13. 13. Elaboration and Refinement • Moderator variable – A third variable that, when introduced into an analysis, alters or has a contingent effect on the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. – Spurious relationship • An apparent relationship between two variables that is not authentic.
14. 14. Two rating scales 4 quadrants two-dimensional table Importance- Performance Analysis) Quadrant Analysis
15. 15. Data Transformation • Data conversion • Changing the original form of the data to a new format • More appropriate data analysis • New variables
16. 16. Data Transformation Summative Score = VAR1 + VAR2 + VAR 3
17. 17. Collapsing a Five-Point Scale • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree • Strongly Disagree • Strongly Agree/Agree • Neither Agree nor Disagree • Disagree/Strongly Disagree
18. 18. Index Numbers • Score or observation recalibrated to indicate how it relates to a base number • CPI - Consumer Price Index
19. 19. Calculating Rank Order • Ordinal data • Brand preferences