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7 national higher education policies towards asean community by 2015 v2


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7 national higher education policies towards asean community by 2015 v2

  1. 1. National Higher Education Policies towards ASEAN Community 2015 <ul><li>5 th Director General, Secretary General, Commission of Higher Education Meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Nha Trang, Vietnam </li></ul>
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction to the ASEAN Community by 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education Thrusts in Each Southeast Asian Country </li></ul><ul><li>Future Higher Education Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Future Policy Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Engagement Strategies </li></ul>
  3. 3. ASEAN Community 2015 <ul><li>Section 1 </li></ul>
  4. 4. ASEAN Community Goals <ul><li>The ASEAN Leaders adopted the Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II) in Bali, Indonesia on 7 October 2003 to establish an ASEAN Community by 2020. </li></ul>
  5. 5. ASEAN Community Goals <ul><li>The ASEAN Community shall be established comprising three pillars, namely political and security community, economic community, and socio-cultural community that are closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing for the purpose of ensuring durable peace, stability, and shared prosperity in the region. </li></ul>Political and Security Community Economic Community Socio-cultural Community
  6. 6. The 13th ASEAN Summit <ul><li>The ASCC Blueprint ensures that concrete actions are undertaken to promote the establishment of an ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community </li></ul>ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint
  7. 7. ACCC Education Objectives <ul><li>creating a knowledge based society; </li></ul><ul><li>achieving universal access to primary education; </li></ul><ul><li>promoting early child care and development; and </li></ul><ul><li>enhancing awareness of ASEAN to youths through education and activities to build an ASEAN identity based on friendship and cooperation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Actions <ul><li>in close collaboration with the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) and the ASEAN University Network (AUN); </li></ul><ul><li>Promote and continue education networking in various levels of educational institutions </li></ul><ul><li>enhance and support student and staff exchanges and professional interactions </li></ul><ul><li>create research clusters among ASEAN institutions of higher learning, </li></ul>
  9. 9. Actions <ul><li>Strengthen collaboration with other regional and international educational organisations to enhance the quality of education in the region; </li></ul>
  10. 10. Discussion ASEAN 2015 National Higher Education Policies Regional Engagement strategies Higher Education Thrusts Research Areas Policy Discussions
  11. 11. Higher education thrusts in each country <ul><li>Section 2 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Brunei Darussalam Emerging Trends in HE <ul><li>3 HEI’s offering certificate, diploma and degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of ‘Discovery Year’ </li></ul><ul><li>Vision 2035 “ to build a first class education system that provides opportunities for every citizen and residence…” </li></ul><ul><li>Aiming for 40% participation rate </li></ul>
  13. 13. HE in Cambodia <ul><li>Higher Education only 30 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of degrees and academic awards </li></ul><ul><li>HE and TVET HEIs are supervised by 12 different ministries or government institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Privatisation and quality identified as key issues </li></ul>
  14. 14. HE in Indonesia <ul><li>4 types of Higher Education Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Academic and Vocational tracks </li></ul><ul><li>Diploma, Graduate Diploma, Masters, Doctorate, Islamic specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Information system and database </li></ul><ul><li>Scale and size of the institutions and disparity of capacity </li></ul><ul><li>M-I-T Mobility Project </li></ul>
  15. 15. HE in Lao PDR Emerging Trends <ul><li>160 colleges and 5 universities offering higher diplomas, bachelors, masters and PhDs - of which 77 HEI’s are private </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights include recent increase of general education to 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Key Thrusts: </li></ul><ul><li>Producing good quality human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing to the nation’s development </li></ul><ul><li>Developing appropriate higher education policies </li></ul><ul><li>Providing fair access to education </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance, quality and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Governance and financing. </li></ul>
  16. 16. HE in Malaysia Emerging Trends <ul><li>Mixture of public and private universities, colleges, foreign universities, polytechnics, and community colleges </li></ul><ul><li>Aiming for World Class Status by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>7 Strategic Thrusts: </li></ul><ul><li>- widening access and equity </li></ul><ul><li>- improving quality of teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Enhancing research and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>- Strengthening higher education institutions </li></ul><ul><li>- Intensifying internationalisation </li></ul><ul><li>- Enculturation of lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Reinforcing delivery systems of the Ministry </li></ul>
  17. 17. HE in Myanmar <ul><li>Mission “ To create an education system that can generate a learning society capable of facing the challenges of the Knowledge Age.” </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing new assessment techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Current challenge is developing research and developing quality assurance </li></ul>
  18. 18. HE in the Philippines & Emerging Trends <ul><li>Significant Number of Higher Education Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Large College Population </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity in Program Offerings </li></ul><ul><li>Key Challenge - Supply of Qualified Faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging Trends: </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring adequate Governance and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization of Quality Assurance Mechanisms in Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Quality Assurance and Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Access to Higher Education </li></ul>
  19. 19. HE in Singapore & Emerging Trends <ul><li>Internationalisation as a matter of bold national policy </li></ul><ul><li>Ability-driven education system </li></ul><ul><li>Degree programme, diploma & certificate courses </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights include aim 30% subsidised places by 2015 and Quality Assurance Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Key Trends: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing cohort participation rates </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing continuing education and training landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining affordability of higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-border higher education </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN Credit Transfer system </li></ul><ul><li>Building up research clusters </li></ul>
  20. 20. HE in Thailand & Emerging Trends <ul><li>Public and private universities and colleges of higher education offering certificate to doctorates </li></ul><ul><li>Several research universities </li></ul><ul><li>Key Trends </li></ul><ul><li>High Competencies Workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Research Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Hub in Higher Education Provision </li></ul>
  21. 21. HE in Vietnam & Emerging Trends <ul><li>Junior colleges, universities, institutions and research institutes offering Vocational, Bachelor, Master and Doctorate courses </li></ul><ul><li>Current challenges include lack of academic staff and forging links to industry </li></ul><ul><li>Key Trends: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural adjustment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New programs and teaching/learning methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workforce development - lecturing staff and managers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in research activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New financial mechanisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing autonomy, social accountability and competitiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing international integration and competitiveness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Common Higher Education Challenges in Southeast Asia <ul><li>Lack of qualified faculty staff </li></ul><ul><li>Limited experience of quality assurance processes </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring equitable access for all students </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic spread and diversity of universities </li></ul><ul><li>Limited research expertise </li></ul>
  23. 23. Future Trends <ul><li>Global Education Thrusts </li></ul>
  24. 24. Massification: <ul><li>cope with meeting demand, need for infrastructure, larger teaching corps. </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of diversity. Accessing subgroups not being included or appropriately served. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing competition for scarce resources, ranking, decline in academic community. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Globalisation <ul><li>Policies and projects to respond to globalisation including mobility projects, branch campuses overseas and inter-institutional partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>English as the dominant language </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarks and standards required to properly evaluate unfamiliar foreign qualifications </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mobility <ul><li>More than 2.5 million students studying out of their home country, estimated at 7 million by 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly South-North phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge of making mobility available to all, to ensure equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Call to expand programmes to include vocational placements and lecturer programmes. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Teaching, Learning & Curriculum <ul><li>Developing nations require specialists trained for science and technology and strong leaders with generalist knowledge who are creative and adaptable. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning has a direct impact on completion rates. </li></ul><ul><li>New professional related fields and diverse student populations require academic support and innovative pedagogy. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Quality <ul><li>Quality assurance, accountability and qualification frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>The need for internationally recognised standards among and between nations has become urgent. </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive growth of providers raises questions in regards to quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility has made comparability of qualifications a key area to be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to integrate national, regional and international efforts. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Financing <ul><li>Financing and public-good versus private-good debate </li></ul><ul><li>Education viewed as a major engine of economic development, so seen as a public good. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments can no longer keep up with demand, and provide free education. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly seen as a private good, as individual students benefit, so they are being asked to contribute. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing emphasis on cost recovery. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Private Revolution <ul><li>The Private Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>30% of global higher education enrolment globally is in private institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>A further trend is the privatisation of public universities. HEIs are being asked to earn more of their operating expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>Can contribute to commercialisation and conflict with traditional university roles. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Academic Profession <ul><li>Demand for academics has caused average base qualifications of academics to lower. </li></ul><ul><li>Up to half the world’s academic teaching population only have a bachelor degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in part-time professors. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalised academic labour market and brain migration to countries who pay more. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Research <ul><li>Research universities are expensive to build and costly to maintain at world-class standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely important to national development agendas. </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of research only, teaching only, or both universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property, can result in a tension between knowledge for public good and knowledge for commercialisation. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Information and Communication Technology <ul><li>The role of the internet in communicating knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking and the potential for collaboration over time and space. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing division between those with access and those without. </li></ul><ul><li>Distance learning being transformed by ICT. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Demographics to 2030 * <ul><li>student participation will continue to expand </li></ul><ul><li>women will substantially expand their participation </li></ul><ul><li>The mix of the student population will be more diverse (including greater numbers, international students, mature-age students, part-time students) </li></ul><ul><li>The social base of higher education will continue to broaden </li></ul><ul><li>* Sourced from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 2008 </li></ul>
  35. 35. Demographics to 2030 * <ul><li>Questions of access for disadvantaged groups will be central to government debates about education </li></ul><ul><li>The academic profession will become more internationally oriented and mobile </li></ul><ul><li>The roles of academics will be more specialised </li></ul><ul><li>The need for ever-expanding numbers of university teachers will mean that overall qualifications may remain low and part-time lecturers will be used. </li></ul><ul><li>* Sourced from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 2008 </li></ul>
  36. 36. Financial Implications 2030 * <ul><li>Research universities will see significant constraints on their budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Student loan programmes will decrease worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>The system will face pressures to establish or increase fees to students </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-cutting practices may impact on quality at universities. </li></ul><ul><li>* Sourced from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 2008 </li></ul>
  37. 37. Future policy discussion <ul><li>Section 3 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Discussion <ul><li>Helping Nations to meet the challenges facing their higher education systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Key areas requiring further research </li></ul><ul><li>Regional actions to be undertaken </li></ul>University Actions National Actions Regional Actions
  39. 39. Sustainable Development & Social Responsibility <ul><li>University Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty Alleviation </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic development </li></ul>
  40. 40. Cross-Border Higher Education <ul><li>Requires cooperation between countries and agreements between universities </li></ul><ul><li>Use ASEAN dimensions as platform to develop cross-border education initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Credit Transfer System (SEA-CTS) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation / recognition framework should be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing summer workshops for academic exchange on academic topics. </li></ul>
  41. 41. National Development <ul><li>Relevance of higher education training for the labour market is a key issue </li></ul><ul><li>Research required into the role of HEIs in human resource development for national development </li></ul><ul><li>How HEIs can help with a nations industrialisation. </li></ul><ul><li>High need for science and technology expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>How HEIs can help with poverty alleviation </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ensuring Quality <ul><li>Lack of required infrastructure and facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of regulation of teachers qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building required in quality assurance mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>National frameworks on qualifications and accreditation systems required </li></ul>
  43. 43. Research and Innovation <ul><li>Collaboration between competent research teams from multiple universities </li></ul><ul><li>National and international networking </li></ul><ul><li>Country Citation Indexes </li></ul>
  44. 44. Regional engagement strategies on higher education <ul><li>Section 4 </li></ul>
  45. 45. Key Capacity Building Needs <ul><li>Quality Assurance training </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce development </li></ul><ul><li>Revising curriculum and delivery modes in programmes to meet labour market needs </li></ul><ul><li>Use of UMAP and other Credit Transfer systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Citation Indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Good governance and management of higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Policy formulation </li></ul>
  46. 46. Intergovernmental Organisations <ul><li>ASEAN Quality Assurance Network (AQAN) should be strengthened, and linked to international quality networks </li></ul><ul><li>Develop frameworks including quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide networking opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Provide capacity building opportunities for all countries through seminars and study tours </li></ul>
  47. 47. Intergovernmental Org’s <ul><li>Establish ASEAN standards for HEI’s including curriculum, equipment and facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Revise curriculum and delivery modes in all programmes to meet labour market needs </li></ul><ul><li>Promote academic exchange and student mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Develop regional quality control and assurance system </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a mechanism for good governance and management of higher education </li></ul>
  48. 48. Areas Requiring Further Research: <ul><li>Sustainable Development and Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-border education </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education and National Development </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Good Governance </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Together we can reach </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN Community 2015 </li></ul>Thank you for your participation and attention