Chitin trimulyadi


Published on

The remarkable rapid and successful expansion of prawn processing industry in Indonesia suggests the possibility of utilizing prawn-processing waste as raw material for the manufacture of many valuable products such as chitin and chitosan

1 Comment
1 Like
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chitin trimulyadi

  1. 1. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF RADIATION PROCESSING OF CHITIN AND CHITOSAN IN INDONESIA Gatot Trimulyadi Rekso Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technologies National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta, IndonesiaINTRODUCTION Indonesia is the worlds largest archipelago with around 13,000 island, of which 6.000are inhabited, and occupies a 5,100-km stretch from the Indian to the Pacific Ocean. Witha total land area of almost 195 million hectares, it is the largest member country of theAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the most important country inAsia regarding of ocean and lands those rich of natural polymer material. Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technologies(P3TIR) which was established in December 20, 1966 the Pasar Jumat Atomic EnergyResearch Complex, Industrial processing division is one of the several divisions in P3TIR. In thisdivision has five group activities, radiation polymerization, radiation sterilization andfood preservation, industrial dosimeter and waste recycle for industrial purpose. Thewaste recycle for industrial purpose group is one of the new groups, which hasestablished in 1998. The activity of this group is research and development utilization ofshell seafood waste. For industrial purpose such as chitin and chitosan Shell seafood waste such as prawn shell, crabs shells are abundantly found inIndonesia. Utilization of the fishery waste mentioned above to be useful product issuggested not only to recycle the fishery waste but also to reduce the environmentalpollution and to improve the economic situation such as to preparing of the fieldemployee occupation, to bring socio-economic benefit.. The remarkable rapid and successful expansion of prawn processing industry inIndonesia suggests the possibility of utilizing prawn-processing waste as raw material forthe manufacture of many valuable products such as chitin and chitosan. 1
  2. 2. The main activity of the research in waste recycle for industrial purpose is to do R & Dto provide data that will enable of shell seafood waste to be used in a commercialproduction of chitin, chitosan, its derivative and its modification.THE RESEARCH HAVE BEEN DONE1. The isolation of chitin /chitosan from waste of fish frozen industry. In the beginning of our research work was involved in making on the research advisability of the natural of resource for chitin and chitosan such as various kind of prawn and crab shell. The survey was done in side beach of north Java Island. We found that prawn and crabs shells are easily collected from the frozen prawn processing plant. Shell was ground using a blender. Then served to obtain particle size of 40 + 60 mesh. Isolation of chitosan Dried prawn shells Grinding 1N NaOH Deprotenization Washing 1 N HCl Demineralization Washing Drying Chitin Figure 1. Flow diagram of the chitin preparation 2
  3. 3. Chitosan can be obtained by treating chitin with 50 percent sodium hydroxide withliquid solid ratio 20 : 1 at 1000 C for 2 hr, 3 hr and 4 hr . After this process, solidsseparated from the alkali layer were extensively washed with distilled water to removethe traces of alkali. The resulting solids were dried in vacuum oven at 500 C for 24 hr.The preparation of chitosan can be seen in Figure 2. Chitin solids NaOH ,50 % Deacetylation Drying Chitosan Figure2. Flow diagram of the chitosan preparationResult of the experiment The average yield of isolation chitin from prawn shell is shown in Table I. The dataobtained shows that the number of extraction affected the yield of chitin . It was reportedthat the number of stage of extraction affected the mineral removal significantly. Table 1. The yield of chitin at various number of extraction Parameter Number of extraction Single Double Triple Yield ( %) 28,7 14,8 14,2 Visual appliance - Color Brown Brown-light Brown-light - Odor Weak No No From the Table it was seen that by single stage extraction . The average yield ofchitin was 28,7 % and the solids obtained were brown and still have a weak odor. Thisunexpected color and odor was caused by the presence of some protein mineral andpigment such as carotenoid. The double one gave an average 14,8 percent and no odor,the color was brown-light. So it is obvious that the number of extraction affected the 3
  4. 4. protein and mineral removal. However for three times extraction yield of the solid wasnot giving significantly different compare with double extraction. It was meaning thatdouble stage extraction was enough for isolation of chitin from prawn shell.The conversion of chitin to chitosan was achieved by extracting chitin in 50 percentsodium hydroxide with solid –liquid ratio = 1 : 20 at temperature 1000 C for 120, 240,and 300 minutes. The data obtained gave an average yield of chitosan from chitin were72,2 percent. Therefore the overall extraction yield of dried prawn shell in chitin formwas 14,8 percent and chitosan form was 10,6 %. The degree of deacetylation wasdetermined by means of FTIR spectrophotometer.It is determined by the base linemethod. An infrared spectrum was recorded in a range 3500 – 500 cm -1 and absorbencyat 2870 cm-1 ( the C-H ) and 1550 cm-1 (the amide band) were evaluated by base linemethod. The deacetylation degree ( D ) is calculated from equation : D (%) = 1-( A1655/ A3450 x 1 /1,33 ) x 100 %, A = log P0 / PWhere A1655 and A3450 are absorbencies at 1655 cm-1 ands 3450 cm-1 , respectively. Table 2. The degree of deacetylation at various time of reaction Parameter Time of deacetylation ( minutes) 120 240 300 Yield of chitosan from chitin 74,4 72,6 69,6 Degree of deacetylation 60,4 65,2 73,0 It can be seen in Table 2. That the deacetylation time gave significant effect ofdeacetylation. After 120 minutes degree of deacetylation reaches 60 4 % , it is graduallyincreased as the time increased. The highest degree of the acetylation was achieved for300 minutes. Sehchi Mima and coworkers reported deacetylation proceed to about 70 % within thefirst 1 hr of alkali treatment in 50 % NaOH solution at 100 0 C , but it progresses onlygradually after this reaching 80 % in 5 hr. Further alkali treatment does not deacetylatesignificant and only degrades the molecule chain . 4
  5. 5. II. Preliminary studies of chitin sterilized by irradiation Over the past several years, chitosan has been receiving increased attention for itsapplications in the chemical, biomedical, and food industries. Chitin’s key properties areits ability to act as a cationic flocculent, viscosifier and selective chelator of metal ion.The major commercial application for chitin currently is used for waste processing, butthere is growing interest as non-toxic cationic polymer in the hair treatment and skin care.Clear solution form clear film that adhere to skin or hair, primary due to chitin’s cationiccharacter. Chitin is an excellent moisturizer, attributesto wound healing, make an attractive biopolymer for cosmetics a personal careapplication. Hun-Lee and coworkers reported for the antimicrobal activity of chitin asnatural preservatives in cosmetic product against some microorganisms . Formulapreserved with 0,5 % chitosan had an effective antimicrobial activity against the Gram(+) and Gram (-) bacteria but not fungi. In order to develop application of chitin as cosmetic additive it is necessary to choosethe best way of its sterilization. Chitin easily undergoes thermal destruction, chemicalsterilization by ethylene oxide or formaldehyde was proved to reduce itsbiocompatibility. On the other hand, the radiation sterilization leads even to improvementof some biocompatibility factors. The aim of our work was to determine of irradiation sterilization dose of chitin fromshell waste of prawn (penaeus monodon). Analysis of change in infrared spectra andthermal stability before and after irradiation also studied. The knowledge of theseprocesses is essential to optimize production technologies of chitin containingbiopolimer used as additive for cosmetic.Material and ExperimentChitin extracted from prawn shell ( Penaeus monodon ), it was got from Muara Karang ,North Jakarta. They were initially washed by water and then dried at 800 C overnight andconditioned at room temperature for 24 hr. All other chemicals NaOH, HCl wereanalytical grade reagents from E Merck. 5
  6. 6. 60 The irradiation of sample for sterilization was carried out in a Co – Gammairradiation source. The dose of irradiation were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy with a dose rate of2,0 kGy / hrResult of ExperimentResults concerning the effect of radiation sterilization by various doses on thetotal number of bacteria of chitin are presented in Table 3. Table 3. Total number of bacteria No Irradiation dose Bacteria Yeast/ Mold ( kGy ) 1 0 1,5 x 104 3 x 103 2 2 1,5 x 103 3 x 10 3 4 1,5 x 10 0 4 6 0 0 5 8 0 0 6 10 0 0 It was found that at a dose of 4,0 kGy the number of yeast and mold was eliminatedand for bacteria was at 6,0 kGy. On the basic of the above result, it shows that the doseof irradiation sterilization was not so high . So it was irradiation seems to be beststerilization method for sterilized of chitin.III. Studies on radiation graft-copolymerization of monomer with selective functional group onto chitin as adsorbent. The natural chelating marine polymer chitin, Polly(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) and itsdeacetylated derivative chitosan are useful for removing heavy metal ion waste fromdischarge water . Chitin , the most abundant naturally is undoubtedly one of the mostpromising and attracting resources present in quantity. Among some interestingproperties of chitin , chelating ability arising from its characteristic structure is especiallynoteworthy. Many researchers have explored the feasibility of this approach. Kurita.Ket.,all, conducted experiments with a number of heavy metals. The adsorption behavior of chitin and its concerns with various degree of deactylization. This high adsorption capacity was ascribable primarily to its remarkable hydrophilicity in cooperation with the relatively high amino group content. It is indicate 6
  7. 7. that the importance of hydrophlicity and suggest that , in order to develop adsorbents ofhigh capacity , it is make indicate the importance of hydrophilicity essential to makechitin derivatives highly hydrophilic and yet insoluble in water. Chitosan is natural polysaccharide and has the same skeleton structure ascellulose, by a radiation modification such as graft-copolymerization ofhydrophilic monomer expected to improve its hidrophilicity.and performance forapplication as an ion exchange adsorbent. In the field of Radiation Process, freeradical formation is the key role of the modification technique. Graft modified ofchitosan with hydrophilic functional monomers was suitable method to develop itsas ion exchange adsorbent The experiment have been done were list above :A. The effect of total irradiation dose on graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto chitin . The effect of total irradiation dose on graft copolymerization of acrylic acid ontochitin by pre-irradiation technique at nitrogen atmosphere has been carried out. The aimof this research was to find out the optimum of total dose of grafting with water assolvent at various times of reaction and temperature. Instead of that the effect of totaldose on the molecular weight and the free radicals formation were evaluated. Theinfluence of monomer concentration and solvent composition were studied at optimumtotal dose. The result showed that the percentage of grafting increased with increasing ofthe total dose and the optimum condition was achieved at the total dose of 12 kGy . Thesolvent composition has significant effect on the degree of grafting . The bestcomposition was obtained in the acetic acid /methanol weight ratio 1 : 1. The percentageof grafting increased with increasing the monomer concentration. Visual observationshowed that the formation of homopolymer was affected by the reaction temperature andconcentration of monomer.B. The effect of solvent composition on grafting of acrylic acid onto chitin by irradiation technique. 7
  8. 8. The effect of solvent composition on grafting of acrylic acid onto chitin by irradiation technique have been carried out. The aim of the research is to find out the optimum solvent composition to the increase swelling properties of chitin so that acrylic acid could carry in the active site of chitin. In this experiment the trapped radical and peroxide graft irradiation co-polymerization method were employed . The influence of solvent compositions e.g. water – methanol, water – acetic acid, and methanol –acetic acid and the grafting method that affected to the degree of grafting have been studied. The result showed that the percentage of grafted chitin by pre- irradiation peroxide method is higher than trapped radical’s method . The methanol-acetic acid in the composition of 7 / 3 was the good solvent for grafting of chitin. The percentage of grafting was found 47,2 %.C. Study on radiation grafting of acrylamida onto chitin Studies on radiation grafting of chitin were examined. Chitin is aminopolysaccharides and thus anticipated to have high potential as specialty polymericmaterials compared with cellulose. They are, however, utilized scarcely because ofproblems associated with poor solubility, hidrophilicity , and low reactivity. Graftcopolymerization induced by radiation is one of the methods for polymer modification inorder to improve its properties such as hydrophilicity and reactivity. In this presentstudy , modified chitin was prepared by grafting of acrylamide using gamma ray. Thegrafted functional group onto chitin are expected to increase its hydrophilicity andreactivity.Isolation of chitin involved basic operations such as deproteinization, demineralization, 60and decolorization by acetone . The irradiation of samples was carried out in Cogamma irradiation source . In the present experiment, the pre- radiation –peroxidizedmethod was employed. In this method chitin was irradiated in presence of atmosphericoxygen at room temperature. A monomer acrylamide solution than introduced intoirradiated chitin and the graft polymerization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere ata certain time of reaction. The grafted chitin obtained was washed and dried in vacuumand the percentage of grafting was measured by gravimetric method. 8
  9. 9. The percentage of grafting has been determined as a variation of total dose, monomerconcentration and temperature as a function of time of reaction. The results showed theoptimal total dose for the grafting process was 12 kGy. The percentage of graftingincreases as increasing total dose, acrylamide concentration and temperature. Theoptimal conditions were total dose of 12 kGy. acrylamide concentration of 30 %,temperature of 70 0C and reaction period of 3 hours. The yield of grafting was found94,3 %. The presence of acrylamide on chitin was demonstrated by IR spectrum and thethermal stability by DSC.THE RESEARCH STILL BE DOINGI. Removal of heavy metals from solution by using modified chitosan (Chito-g-Aac ) Selective removal of heavy metal such as Cu, Hg, Cd and Pb from solution atlaboratory scale was carried out. The most promising method of removing of heavymetal from solution is the use of a cation –exchange materials having a chelating groupsuch as Chitos-g-Aac or Chitos-g-Aam.. A previous study in our laboratory hasindicated that Cu ion can be successfully remove from the solution using chitosanmodified with value of 8 times compare only non modified chitosan. The goal of thestudy was to investigate the possibility of removing toxic heavy metal such as Hg, Cd,and PbII. Study of composition on formulation of chitosan as film forming for nail polish The effect of solvent composition on formulation of chitosan as film forming has beencarried out. The aim of this research was to find out the best composition of solvent usingchitosan as film forming for nail polish. The solvent used were ethyl alcohol, butyl aceticacid, and acetic acid. The physical and mechanical properties of the resulting film wereexamined, e.g. hardness, adhesion and glossy of the film, viscosity and flow properties ofthe formulations.The results shows that the best formulation for chitosan as film forming were as follows;concentration of chitosan 2 %, the composition of the solvent was ethyl alcohol / acetic 9
  10. 10. acid = 1 / 3 with the value of the hardness of the film B, adhesion 78,5 %, glossy 68,2 %and the viscosity of the formulation was 1113 cps with a good flow properties.In this research we continue study of effect an organic pigment and some additive likehardener etc for make a good film for nail polish .THE RESEACH WILL BE DOING1. Science and technology for rural areas development This research will begin next year it was our division proposal to our government fordeveloping of rural people in north sea side Java Island , which that area rich with shellshrimp or crab waste. In that proposal we will introduce and teach them how to makechitin from that waste after that they can make by themselves and sells the product toprivate company as distributor of chitin. Chitin from distributor was send to our institute for irradiation and we process tomake oligo-chitosan with high degree of deacetylization and we send to distributor againfor distribute oligo-chitosan to industry in Indonesia. For this project we begin with thecapacity of 1000 kg chitin/ month / area, and we plans for four area there are 2 inCirebon and 2 in Semarang.2. Research and development of oligo-chitosan for bioplastic materials. One objective of research is to make biodegradable films from renewable sources such as oligo-chitosan. These films can then be applied to replace some petroleum- based film or to new specialized niche areas made available by increasing environmental concern. We choice oligo-chitosan as basic material for bioplastic because from our experience research on chitosan as film forming we found that oligo-chitosan can form a good film. Casting on glass plate at elevated temperature can form Chitosan films. For getting a good film some additive must be added on the formulation such as crosslingking agents and plastisizer.CONCLUSION 10
  11. 11. ∗ It is clear that the research give highlights the probability of utilizing. The waste product of the sea food industry (prawn, crabs shell) to products which are useful in a number of different area.∗ Irradiation treatment was applicable on upgrading of the chitosan. Such as sterilization, degradation to make oligo-chitosan and modification of chitin by irradiation grafting. REFERENCES1. Goosen,M.F.A. , Aplication of Chitin and Chitosan, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA. 1997, 297 –305.2. Purwatiningsih, “ Isolasi kitin dan komposisi senyawaan kimia dari limbah udang windu”, Tesis .Jurs. Kimia – ITB ,1992, 5 – 30.3. Kurita, K; Koyama,Y ; and Taniguchi, A. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 1986 , 31, 1169 – 1176.4. Hong, K.N.O ; Mayers, S.P; Lee, K.S. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1989 , 37 ,(3) , 575 – 579.5. Gatot Trimulyadi Rekso; Anik sunarni; Kadariah; Isni Marliyanti; and Rahayuningsih Chosdu, Preliminary Studies of Chitin Sterilized by Irradiation, Proceedings book of 4th Scientific Conference of The Asian Societies of Cosmetic Scientists, Bali, Indonesia, 7 - 9 April ,1999.6. Gatot Trimulyadi Rekso; dan N.M. Surdia, Pengaruh Dosis Total Iradiasi Kopolimerisasi Cangkok Asam Akrilat Pada Khitin, Prosiding Temu Ilmiah Jaringan Kerjasama Kimia Indonesia Seminar Nasional VIII Kimia dalam Industri dan Lingkungan, Hotel Santika Yogyakarta, 16-17 November,1999.7. Gatot Trimulyadi Rekso; dan N.M. Surdia; Pengaruh Pelarut Pada Kopolimerisasi Cangkok Asam Akrilat Pada Khitin Dengan Teknik Iradiasi, Seminar Kimia Bersama ITB-UKM IV, Yogyakarta, 9-10 Februari ,1999. 11
  12. 12. 8. Dewi Wulandari, dan Gatot T.M, Pengaruh Iradiasi Kobalt-60 Terhadap Khitosan Yang diperoleh dari Isolasi Kulit Kepala dan Badan udang putuh, Tesis Universitas Pancasila Fakultas Farmasi, Jakarta, 1999. 12