SNAIL Project for IoT Connectivity

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SNAIL Project for IoT Connectivity

  1. 1. Jun. 25, 2014 Auto-ID Labs, KAIST Dept. Computer Science, KAIST SNAIL Project for IoT Connectivity Minkeun Ha minkeun.ha@kaist.ac.kr, http://oliot.org, http://autoidlab.kaist.ac.kr, http://resl.kaist.ac.kr, http://autoidlabs.org, http://gs1.org
  2. 2. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 2 History of the INTERNET (Early 1960s) We Do NOT have World Wide Network System such as the Internet. Early 1960s We Do NOT have World Wide Network System such as the Internet. PAST
  3. 3. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 3  The Arpanet project was started in 1962.  By the end of 1969, ARPANET was able to connect to four locations: UCLA, UC Santa Barbara, SRI, and Utah.  First Internet connection in Korea – In 1982, packet communication is succeeded between KEIT (Gumi) and SNU (Seoul). – This is the Second Internet Connection in the world. The INTERNET was born in 1969 In 1969 In 1977
  4. 4. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 4  Vint Cerf : The Father of the Internet The Fathers of the Internet Who is This young Guy?  Peter T. Kirstein: The European Father of the Internet  전길남 박사님: The Korean Father of the Internet This is ME!
  5. 5. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 5  In CERN – Researchers shares the experimental results, graphs, etc. through the Internet.  Problem was platform-dependency – The researchers suffer from platform-dependency  Tim Berners-Lee invented WWW in 1989 – Want to create a method to share data, multimedia, etc. without any difficulties – He created hyper-text based Web and opened this technology to public. The First World Wide Web (WWW) Tim Berners-Lee
  6. 6. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 6 How was the Early WWW  This was the Second revolution of the computer science – Sharing information and data without distance limitation But!!!  The Internet was So DIFFICULT!!! – Commad-line Interface  Only Researchers can use this amazing technology.  Non-experts
  7. 7. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 7  In 1993, – First mouse-click based Interface is created – Mosaic : First web browser Mosaic is the First Web Browser From this moment, Non-experts are able to easily use the Internet.
  8. 8. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 8  The number of Internet users worldwide was increasing with high rate  New Internet services and businesses are opened – E-commerce : Amazon, ebay, … – Search engines : Google, Yahoo, Daum, Naver, … – Blogs, social networks INTERNET is getting BIGGER Source: http://www.whatgoddoes.com/?p=476
  9. 9. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 9  Smart phone revolution in late-2000s INTERNET is getting BIGGER – Talking with our friends – Sharing our lives through Social Networking – Watching movies and listening to music – Lots.. Lots… of Internet services  Now, we can access the Internet everywhere Present
  10. 10. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 10 Next-Generation of the Internet Future
  11. 11. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 11  IDC said “The Internet of things will change everything and be a new construct in the information and communications technology world.“ – The IoT have a compound annual growth rate of 7.9 percent. # of Internet-connected Devices Source: Here's Why 'The Internet Of Things' Will Be Huge, And Drive Tremendous Value For People And Businesses Available: http://www.businessinsider.com/growth-in-the-internet-of-things-2013-10#ixzz2tlZJoJHe Internet of things: $8.9 trillion market in 2020, 212 billion connected things Available: http://www.zdnet.com/internet-of-things-8-9-trillion-market-in-2020-212-billion-connected-things-7000021516/ The Internet of things and the technology ecosystem surrounding it are expected to be a $8.9 trillion market in 2020, according to IDC.
  12. 12. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 12 Expansion of Internet Services Information Sharing Social Networking Interconnection with Everyday Objects & Smart IoT Services  A dynamic global infrastructure that interconnects trillions of everyday objects together to give things intelligence via communication and computing capabilities. Everything in the World at your Fingertips Internet
  13. 13. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 13 IoT Service Example: Smart Healthcare Service 2013 2012 2011 Real-time Monitoring Data Historical Data Bio Optic Sensor Bio Optic Sensor Healthcare Watch Healthcare Watch EEG biotelemetry Blood Pressure Blood Pressure stick-on Heart Rate Sensor Virus Monitoring Virus Monitoring Foot SensorFoot Sensor Smart SensorsSmart Sensors ECG SensorECG Sensor EEG biotelemetry stick-on Heart Rate Sensor Machine Learning Machine LearningBig AnalyticsBig Analytics Prediction Disease knowledge
  14. 14. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 14  Tiny and Small – Need to be small to be embedded to any physical objects  Battery powered – High portion of Things in IoT cannot connected to unlimited power source due to mobility, infrastructure of power network, etc.  Small Resources – General MCU spec. for things: RAM : 16 Kbytes Flash : 256 Kbytes  Low network bandwidth & data rate – Packet Size  Ex) MTU of IEEE 802.15.4 : 127 bytes. (Payload : 102 bytes) – Data rates of 250 kbps, 40 kbps, and 20 kbps for each of the currently defined physical layers (2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, and 868 MHz, respectively)  Mobility – Things in IoT dynamically change their location (But, Not All things)  Ex) Body sensors for IoT healthcare IoT Connectivity Issue 1/2 : Characteristics of Physical Things
  15. 15. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 15
  16. 16. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 16  Wireless Sensor Network – Spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions (temperature, sound, pressure, etc.) – Cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. Traditional Wireless Sensor Networks Internet X
  17. 17. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 17  How to connect trillions of physical things to the Internet IoT Connectivity Issue 2/2 : Internet Protocol v4 vs. v6 But!! The last blocks of IPv4 Internet addresses have been allocated.  IPv4 – Address Size : 32 bits – # of Addresses : 232 Source: http://www.moxa.com/newsletter/connection/2009/06/IPv6-ready_Ethernet_Switches_for_Industrial_Networking.htm  IPv6 is often referred to as the "next generation" Internet standard and has been under development now since the mid- 1990s. – Address Size : 128 bits (written in hexadecimal)  Ex) 3ffe:1900:4545:3:200:f8ff:fe21:67cf – Larger Address Space : 2128 – Autoconfiguration – Simpler Header Next header = 6 (TCP) TCP hdr + payload Next header = 43 (routing) TCP hdr + payloadNext header = 6 (TCP)
  18. 18. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 18  IP-based Wireless Sensor Networks technologies can be a promising solution for the everyday objects – Open, long-lived, reliable standards – Global accessibility & seamless connectivity via the Internet – Transparent Internet integration and Global scalability – Large Address Space are required to address trillions of things – Lightweight Internet Connection Internet Connection of IoT Devices
  19. 19. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 19 Standards for IPv6-based IoT Connectivity Application Layer PHY/LNK MAC/PHY IEEE / Bluetooth SIG Adaptation Adaptation Layer IEEE 802.15.4 Bluetooth Low Energy Power Line Comm. Header Compression Neighbor Discovery Transmission Routing Auto-conf. ... IETF 6lo / 6TISCH WG NET Network Layer(IPv6) RPL IETF 6MAN WG / ROLL WG TRN Transport Layer IETF APP DTLS TCP UDP CoAP IETF CoRE / DICE WG
  20. 20. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 20  IETF 6LoWPAN WG – Formed to adapt IPv6 technology over IEEE802.15.4 networks  RFC 4944: “Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 networks”  RFC 4919: “6LoWPANs: Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals”  RFC 6282: “Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks”  IEEE 802.15.4 IETF 6lo Working Group This working group has completed.  A standard which specifies PHY and MAC for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR- WPANs) – CSMA, Duty-Cycling, and Low data- rate(250 kbit/s), multi-hop comm. – Allows 127 bytes MTU – Supports both star and mesh topologies PAN Coordinator (FFD) Coordinator (FFD) Network Device (RFD) Direct Comm. Indirect Comm.
  21. 21. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 21  A key standard of IPv6 adaptation – Header Compression in adaptation layer to allow the IPv6 transmission over constrained node networks  Over IEEE 802.15.4 – IPv6 MTU (1,280 bytes) vs. IEEE 802.15.4 MTU (127 bytes) – IPv6 Header Size : 40 bytes, UDP: 8 bytes, TCP : 20 bytes – Fragmentation/Reassembly: to support large-size IPv6 packets – Neighbor Discovery / Autoconfiguration IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4
  22. 22. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 22  IETF 6LoWPAN WG – Formed to adapt IPv6 technology over IEEE802.15.4 networks  RFC 4944: “Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 networks”  RFC 4919: “6LoWPANs: Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals”  RFC 6282: “Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks” IETF 6lo Working Group This working group has completed.  IETF 6Lo WG – A successor to 6LoWPAN WG – Formed to facilitate IPv6 connectivity over constrained node networks – Work closely with the IETF 6man working group  IETF 6man WG – responsible for the maintenance and advancement of the IPv6 protocol specifications and addressing architecture. – IPv6 over foo  IEEE 802.15.4  TSCH mode of IEEE 802.15.4e (IETF 6tisch WG)  Bluetooth Low Energy  IEEE 1901.2 (Narrowband PLC)  DECT Ultra Low Energy  Etc.
  23. 23. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 23  Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks (RPL) – A IETF standard for routing in Low power and Lossy Networks(LLNs) – RPL supports three basic traffic flows :  Multipoint-to Point (MP2P) : Collection traffic  Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) : Configuration traffic  Point-to-Point (P2P) : combined method of MP2P and P2MP – Route-over routing  Routing decision is taken in the network layer – DODAG(Direction-Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph)-based Topology – Different Objective Function for special requirements  Adaptive routing – Traffic characteristics – Scalability – Auto-configuration and management IETF ROLL Working Group 1 1211 23 24 13 21 22 3534333231 4241 4443 45 46 LBR
  24. 24. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 24  CoAP is a RESTful application protocol for use with low-power and lossy networks IETF CoRE Working Group Image Source: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/6LoWPAN – Asynchronous Request / Response interaction method between application endpoints – Small message overhead – Includes key concepts of the Web such as URIs and Internet media types – Easily interface with a generic Web protocol (e.g. HTTP) for interaction with the Web
  25. 25. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 25  SNAIL (Sensor Networks for an All-IP worLd) – The lightweight IPv6 Networking Platform for the Internet of Things  Provide global IPv6 connectivity to small and low-power embedded devices  Fully compatible with IETF standards  Special Features – Mobility, HTTP, Time Sync., Security, GW platforms for easy construction, etc.  History of SNAIL About SNAIL Project 2007 SNAIL Team Establishment SNAIL v0.5 (IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4) 2008 SNAIL v1.0 (L3 Mobility, Time Sync, HTTP, SSL) 2010 SNAIL 1.0 SNAIL v1.0 (L3 Mobility, Time Sync, HTTP, SSL) SNAIL v1.5 (New GW platforms, Mobility enhancement, PaaS Cloud, RPL, CoAP) 2011 SNAIL v2.0 (6Lo over ble, Android GW, latest 6lo standards, etc.) 2014 SNAIL 2.0 SNAIL v2.0 (6Lo over ble, Android GW, latest 6lo standards, etc.) "SNAIL: An IP-based Wireless Sensor Network Approach Toward the Internet of Things," IEEE Wireless Communications, 17(6):34-42, Dec. 2010. New SNAIL 2.0 Paper is in preparation
  26. 26. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 26  Three essential components in mobility management:  Movement detection – to recognize movement of the mobile node (MN) and to trigger their handoff  Handoff management – to maintain ongoing connections of MNs during handoffs  Location management – to keep track of location information of the MNs Mobility Management Mobility Management Handoff ManagementMovement Dectection Location Management
  27. 27. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 27 Movement Detection in Mobility Management Without additional sensor assumption like GPS, PIR, etc. RF transceiver / Receiver is the only clue to know its movement. Hey! Are you there? Yes! I’m here! Hey! Are you there? Yes! I’m here! Hey! Are you there? (1 time) No answer… Am I out of his boundary? I have to check it! Hey! Are you there? (2 time) Hey! Are you there? (3 time) Oh. I moved out his boundary! I have to find a new access point! Movement is Detected Data Req.Poll Req. ACK MACNET Poll confirm Data Req.Poll Req. POLL Interval Retransmissions { Poll fail # of Poll Req. Fail : 1 Retransmissions { Poll fail # of Poll Req. Fail : 2 Retransmissions { Poll fail # of Poll Req. Fail : 3 Data Req. Data Req. Movement Detection Total 12 data requests are transmitted to detect MN's movement MN MR Time t0 Time t1 Time t2 Timeline Poll Req. Poll Req. MAC
  28. 28. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 28 Handoff Management in Mobility Management I’m looking for a new Access Point! Searching….
  29. 29. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 29 Handoff Management in Mobility Management Can I be connected to you? Yes!
  30. 30. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 30 Handoff Management in Mobility Management Unified these processes into simple one operation.
  31. 31. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 31 Location Management in Mobility Management Hey Everybody! Now, I’m Here!! Broadcast its location to the whole Network nodes
  32. 32. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 32  Not use broadcasting  Simple pointer setting to previous AP – Previous AP -> new AP – Unicast to previous AP Location Management in Mobility Management This is your stuff.
  33. 33. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 33  MLEq: Multi-GW Load Balancing Scheme for Equilibrium – Capacity – gateway bottleneck is dominant reason for network capacity – Fairness – GW’s bandwidth is shared by all 6LRs. Capacity for each 6LR is depended on the number of 6LRs sharing the bandwidth. – Reliability – improper load balancing causes more congestions on the links nearby Gws and significant packet loss because of the lossy links MLEq: Multi-GW Load Balancing Scheme for Equilibrium Internet ER 1 ER 2 Internet ER 1 ER 2 6LR A Links toward ER 2 Links toward ER 1 6LoWPAN Router (6LR) Edge Router (ER) 6LR A (a) Well-balanced traffic flow (b) Imbalanced traffic flow Overloaded ER6LoWPAN 6LoWPAN
  34. 34. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 34  Gateway Bottleneck MLEq: Multi-GW Load Balancing Scheme for Equilibrium  No Load Balancing Only One Gateway? Multiple GW. But, only use one GW?
  35. 35. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 35  MLEq: Multi-GW Load Balancing Scheme for Equilibrium  Virtual 3D-Terrain (Water flow) – Modeled using real-time network traffic MLEq: Multi-GW Load Balancing Scheme for Equilibrium . Capacity – gateway bottleneck is dominant reason for network capacity . Fairness – GW’s bandwidth is shared by all 6LRs. Capacity for each 6LR is depended on the number of 6LRs sharing the bandwidth. . Reliability – improper load balancing causes more congestions on the links nearby Gws and significant packet loss because of the lossy links Internet ER 1 ER 2 Internet ER 1 ER 2 6LR A Links toward ER 2 Links toward ER 1 6LoWPAN Router (6LR) Edge Router (ER) 6LR A (a) Well-balanced traffic flow (b) Imbalanced traffic flow Overloaded ER6LoWPAN 6LoWPAN GW MR Level: 0 Level: 1 Level: 2
  36. 36. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 36  The Internet of Things reflects physical world  Physical world is dynamic world Global Time Synchronization
  37. 37. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 37  6LNTP: 6LoWPAN Network Time Protocol – A Global Time Synchronization protocol for IP-WSN – Server-Client Time Sync Model – Multi-hop time synchronization – Root delay is accumulated and forwarded by intermediate nodes Global Time Synchronization Internet of Things Reference Time
  38. 38. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 38  Browsing Architecture with HTML5 – Presentation server Manages Rich Interface comprised of HTML, CSS, and muilti-media files – JavaScript posts a message to obtain sensor data – HTML5 CDM solves the “Same origin policy”  allows application code from presentation server to request data to sensor node, which is in different domain. – Web server and CoAP server embedded in a sensor node (a thing in IoT) Web Browsing Architecture with HTML5
  39. 39. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 39 Security IoT(Internet Of Things) Every Things are connected Every information can be stolen???  CoAP over DTLS – Datagram Transport Layer Security  TLS is a Security Protocol for byte-stream oriented protocol  TLS cannot be used directly in datagram environments – To make only the minimal changes to TLS required to fix this problem Attacker Message Forgery Tampering Eavesdropping Transport Layer (UDP) DTLS Record Protocol DTLS Handshake Protocol DTLS Alert Protocol ChangeCipherSpe c Protocol CoAP DTLS
  40. 40. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 40  SNAIL Platform over Bluetooth LE – Devices such as mobile phones, notebooks, tablets and other handheld computing devices which will include Bluetooth LE. – An example of a use case for a Bluetooth LE accessory is a heart rate monitor that sends data via the mobile phone to a server on the Internet. SNAIL over Bluetooth LE Internet BLE Service App Traditional Bluetooth Low Energy IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy End-to-End Communication Cloud Computing
  41. 41. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 41 Demo Video
  42. 42. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 42 SNAIL Node H/W Platform
  43. 43. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 43 Dual-mode Gateway H/W Platform  A New Type of SNAIL Gateway which supports dual wireless access points for WiFi and 6LoWPAN – Support both IEEE 802.11 b/g/n based WiFi AP and IP-WSN gateway – Implemented on the OpenWRT which is a GNU/Linux based firmware program for embedded devices
  44. 44. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 44 SNAIL Adaptor H/W Platform  A New Type of IP-WSN Gateway which supports easy setup and easy deployment of SNAIL networks in home / office – SNAIL adaptor is connected to the Internet through a common access points or routers. – No modification & no custom firmware are required – Implemented on the Raspberry Pi
  45. 45. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 45  Off-the-Shelf Product for BLE platform – TI CC2541 SoC : 2.4-GHz Bluetooth® low energy and Proprietary System- on-Chip – Flash : 128KB – RAM : 8KB – Data Rate: 2000 kbps SNAIL Bluetooth LE H/W Platform  Google Nexus 5 for Mobile SNAIL Gateway – 6LoWPAN over Android ble – Mobile Broadband for Internet Connection
  46. 46. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 46 SNAIL S/W Stack CO2 Sensor Humidity & Temperture Sensor Temperture Sensor 3-axis accelerometer (upgradable) 2-axis Analog Giro MCU MSP430F5438 RF transceiver CC2520 Relay RS232 USB-to-Serial JTAG SNAIL GW (Buffalo WZR-HP-G300NH) PAN Coordinator PAN Coordinator SNAIL GW (Raspberry Pi model B) TCP/IP NET Layer SNAILNetLayer SNAILNetServices IEEE 802.15.4 PHY/MAC Link Status Manager Mobility Management lwIPv6 Movement Detection Handoff Management Location Management Load Balancing Pkt Forwarder One-hop Neighbor Table Virtual Level Manager TimeSync. Neighbor DiscoverylwICMPv6 lwNEMOlwMIPv6 Route-over Routing (RPL) TRN Layer lwTCP lwUDP Applications APP Layer lw Web Server (HTTP) CoAP Server lwSSL Default Page TCP/IP SNAILNetLayer SNAILNetServices Link Status Manager Mobility Management Movement Detection Handoff Management Location Management Load Balancing Pkt Forwarder Virtual Level Manager TimeSync. Applications APP Layer Web Server (HTTP) HTML5 WebSocket Proxy -WSCoAP Daemon SSL TCP/IP TUN/TAP 6in46to4NET Layer IPv6 Neighbor DiscoveryICMPv6 NEMOMIPv6 Route-over Routing (RPL) TRN Layer TCP UDP Ethernet/WiFi SNAIL Conf. Interface IPAdaptation Autoconfiguration Bootstrapping Header Compression Fragmenation/Reassembly Node Registration Mesh-under Routing IPAdaptation Autoconfiguration Bootstrapping Header Compression Fragmenation/Reassembly Node Registration Mesh-under Routing Bluetooth Low Energy IEEE 802.15.4 PHY/MAC Bluetooth Low Energy DTLS
  47. 47. © Auto-ID Lab Korea / KAIST Slide 47 Q / A

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