1

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Diving Safty and Decompression Meter
(Dive Computer, Decompression Computer (

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2
27/‫21 /د...
INTRODUCTION

3

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CERTIFICATES
-Professional Association of Diving Instructors
(PADI)
-National Association of Underwater
Instructors (NAUI)...
5

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6

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27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
7

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8

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2000-2006-Diving gasabeh47@gmail.com
Alert Network(DAN)

27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
9

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DISCUSSION

10

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A:Decompression Sickness (DCS)
History:

-DCS recognized in divers and compressed air workers
since late 1800s
-Prevailing...
Decompression Theory
-Body tissues absorbs nitrogen at depth
-Each tissue type absorbs nitrogen at different rate
-Slow, s...
Type I DCS
-Musculoskeletal pain (Limb bends)
Most common manifestation of DCS
Dull pain, not well localized; no change wi...
Type II DCS
-Risk of permanent disability or death
-Pulmonary DCS (“Chokes”)
-Venous gas emboli clog pulmonary arterial
ci...
Type II DCS (con’t)
Neurologic DCS
-Predilection for spinal cord
-Recreational divers doing short, deep dives
-Syndrome – ...
Type II DCS (con’t)
Vestibular DCS (“Staggers”)
-Sudden onset of dizziness, nausea, vomiting,
nystagmus, +/- hearing loss ...
17

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B:Decompression Meter (Dive Computer)
SCUBA DIVING SAFTY(most common)
(Self Contained Under-water Breathing Apparatus)

Me...
Dive Tables
-Traditionally dive tables are used for planning dives to
avoid risk of DCI
-Dive tables contain safety limits...
Dive Tables

20

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27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
Decompression Meter
(Dive Computer)

21

Console Dive Computer

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gasabeh47@gmail.com

Wrist Dive Computer

27/...
Decompression Meter
(Dive Computer)
Manufacturers
-Citizen
-Liquivision
-Seiko
-Suunto
-Uemis
-VR Technology
-Underwater T...
Decompression Meter
(Dive Computer)
• Sensors send data to the
•
•

23

gasabeh.com

Analog to Digital (A/D)
Converter.
A/...
Depth-Time Profile
Surface

00
'2
0
01 "
'4
0
03 "
'0
0
04 "
'2
0
05 "
'4
0
07 "
'0
0
08 "
'2
0
09 "
'4
0
11 "
'0
0
12 "
'...
Decompression Meter
(Dive Computer)
1- Mechanical models of gas uptake and release, such as the
movement of gas through re...
COMPUTERS vs. TABLES

26

*UNI LEVEL DIVING
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27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
COMPUTERS vs. TABLES

27

MULTI LEVEL DIVING
gasabeh47@gmail.com

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27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
Unsafe dives*
The following patterns in dive profiles are known
to cause DCI
-Rapid ascent(Detect)
-Sawtooth
-Reverse dive...
Rapid Ascent
-A pattern in the dive profile caused by the diver
rising rapidly to the surface
-Rapid ascent is the most cr...
Sawtooth
-A pattern in the dive profile caused by the diver
going down and up in quick succession
-This may not happen ver...
Reverse Profile
-This is a pattern observed at the level of a
whole dive profile.
-Ideally a diver is required to initiall...
Personal Charactristics*
1- Age
2- Sex
3-BMI-(Fatty Tissue Percent)

4-Health State (DM-HLP-Nutrition-Metabolism)
5-Body P...
CONCLUSIONS

33

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27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
‫با توجه به کاهش زمان صعود غواصان استفاده کننده از‬
‫‪ DECOMPRESSION COMPUTERS‬وبنابراین افزایش احتمال‬
‫بروز عالیم بالینی...
‫4- همانند استاندارد کردن زمان براساس ساعت گرینویچ‬
‫،غوص استاندارد بر اساس یک مبدا قابل قبول بین المللی وبا‬
‫حداقل ریسک ...
SAFETY GUIDELINES
1-Fully understand how to use the Dive Computer(instruction/ Authorized
Oceanic Dealer )
2- Any display ...
SAFETY GUIDELINES
9-Decompression diving, or diving deeper than 130 FT (39 M)(greatly
increase your risk of decompression ...
Refrences
1- Petar J. Denoble, MD., D.Sc Alessandro Marroni, MD. D.S Richard
D. Vann, Ph.D.Common Factors in Diving Fatali...
THANKS FOR
YOUR
ATTENTION
39

gasabeh.com

gasabeh47@gmail.com

27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
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Diving safty & decompression meter

  1. 1. 1 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  2. 2. Diving Safty and Decompression Meter (Dive Computer, Decompression Computer ( gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 2 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬ Dr.A.EBADI.AEROSPACE & DIVING MEDICINE,ARMY UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 3 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  4. 4. CERTIFICATES -Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) -National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI) -British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC) -Confederation Mondiale des Activites Subaquatiques (CMAS) 4 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  5. 5. 5 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  6. 6. 6 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  7. 7. 7 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  8. 8. 8 gasabeh.com 2000-2006-Diving gasabeh47@gmail.com Alert Network(DAN) 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  9. 9. 9 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  10. 10. DISCUSSION 10 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  11. 11. A:Decompression Sickness (DCS) History: -DCS recognized in divers and compressed air workers since late 1800s -Prevailing guideline was to ascend slowly Standards ranged from 1.5 ft/min to 5 ft/min -DCS still occurred but less frequently -DCS associated with nitrogen bubbles -Haldane: Shorter/shallower dives associated with less frequent/less severe DCS 11 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  12. 12. Decompression Theory -Body tissues absorbs nitrogen at depth -Each tissue type absorbs nitrogen at different rate -Slow, staged ascent (“decompression”) releases nitrogen harmlessly and is exhaled Stages determined by time/depth of each dive -Ascent without adequate decompression causes nitrogen bubble formation Clinical manifestations = “Decompression Sickness” (Destructive,compressive,obstructive) -Typically presents minutes to hours after dive-95% within 6 hours 12 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  13. 13. Type I DCS -Musculoskeletal pain (Limb bends) Most common manifestation of DCS Dull pain, not well localized; no change with movement Knees, elbows, or shoulders most commonly involved -Cutaneous DCS (Skin bends) Pruritis and erythema of trunk -Treatment: Recompression 13 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  14. 14. Type II DCS -Risk of permanent disability or death -Pulmonary DCS (“Chokes”) -Venous gas emboli clog pulmonary arterial circulation -Rare; occurs with rapid ascent from deep dive -Substernal discomfort, cough; worse with deep inspiration -May lead to right-sided heart failure and cardiovascular collapse 14 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  15. 15. Type II DCS (con’t) Neurologic DCS -Predilection for spinal cord -Recreational divers doing short, deep dives -Syndrome – over minutes to hours after ascent -Tingling in trunk -Progressive numbness and paresthesias -Ascending motor weakness -Bowel/bladder incontinence -Severe cases may present with LOC/paraplegia -Cerebral manifestations: memory impairment, aphasias, visual disturbances, personality changes 15 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  16. 16. Type II DCS (con’t) Vestibular DCS (“Staggers”) -Sudden onset of dizziness, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus, +/- hearing loss and tinnitus -Not common in recreational divers -Confused with middle ear barotrauma Treatment of Type II DCS: -Rapid recompression with hyperbaric oxygen Supportive care: Fluids 16 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  17. 17. 17 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  18. 18. B:Decompression Meter (Dive Computer) SCUBA DIVING SAFTY(most common) (Self Contained Under-water Breathing Apparatus) Medical Planning Equipmental 18 Environmental gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  19. 19. Dive Tables -Traditionally dive tables are used for planning dives to avoid risk of DCI -Dive tables contain safety limits of depth and time -There are many standard dive tables, Original UK, US Navy etc. -Dive tables can be generated by an algorithm (many variations possible) -Dive computers run these algorithms(Different Algorithm*) 19 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  20. 20. Dive Tables 20 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  21. 21. Decompression Meter (Dive Computer) 21 Console Dive Computer gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com Wrist Dive Computer 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  22. 22. Decompression Meter (Dive Computer) Manufacturers -Citizen -Liquivision -Seiko -Suunto -Uemis -VR Technology -Underwater Technology Center 22 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  23. 23. Decompression Meter (Dive Computer) • Sensors send data to the • • 23 gasabeh.com Analog to Digital (A/D) Converter. A/D Converter changes analog data to digital signals. The Micro Processor calculates the data and presents it to the diver via the LCD Display. gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  24. 24. Depth-Time Profile Surface 00 '2 0 01 " '4 0 03 " '0 0 04 " '2 0 05 " '4 0 07 " '0 0 08 " '2 0 09 " '4 0 11 " '0 0 12 " '2 0 13 " '4 0 15 " '0 0 16 " '2 0 17 " '4 0 19 " '0 0 20 " '2 0 21 " '4 0 23 " '0 0 24 " '2 0 25 " '4 0 27 " '0 0 28 " '2 0 29 " '4 0 31 " '0 0 32 " '2 0 33 " '4 0 35 " '0 0 36 " '2 0 37 " '4 0 39 " '0 0 40 " '2 0 41 " '4 0 43 " '0 0 44 " '2 0 45 " '4 0 47 " '0 0" 0 -5 -10 -15 0.85% MaximumDepth MaximumDepth Depth -20 -25 -30 -35 Bottom Zone -40 A -45 A Bottom Time -50 Time Risky dive with some minor problems. Because your bottom time of 12.0min exceeds no-stop limit by 4.0min this dive is risky. But you performed the ascent well. Your buoyancy control in the bottom zone was poor as indicated by ‘saw tooth’ patterns marked ‘A’ on the depth-time profile. 24 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  25. 25. Decompression Meter (Dive Computer) 1- Mechanical models of gas uptake and release, such as the movement of gas through restricted orifices.(SOS -1960s) 2-Electronic models of the established decompression tables( Suunto USN meter.)-unilevel diving 3-Electronic models using the decompression theories on which different tables.(VEO 100 Nx)-multi-level diving 25 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  26. 26. COMPUTERS vs. TABLES 26 *UNI LEVEL DIVING gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  27. 27. COMPUTERS vs. TABLES 27 MULTI LEVEL DIVING gasabeh47@gmail.com gasabeh.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  28. 28. Unsafe dives* The following patterns in dive profiles are known to cause DCI -Rapid ascent(Detect) -Sawtooth -Reverse dive profile etc. 28 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  29. 29. Rapid Ascent -A pattern in the dive profile caused by the diver rising rapidly to the surface -Rapid ascent is the most critical factor causing bubbles in body tissues -Therefore has higher chance of causing DCI 29 -Most dive computer software detect rapid ascents and sound alarms gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  30. 30. Sawtooth -A pattern in the dive profile caused by the diver going down and up in quick succession -This may not happen very frequently, but when it happens it may cause the tissues to absorb excess gas bubbles -Therefore may cause DCI -Dive computer software does not detect them 30 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  31. 31. Reverse Profile -This is a pattern observed at the level of a whole dive profile. -Ideally a diver is required to initially reach the planned maximum depth and then all the subsequent dive should be performed at a depth shallower than the maximum -A reverse profile is a dive profile where the diver performs the reverse of the ideal 31 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  32. 32. Personal Charactristics* 1- Age 2- Sex 3-BMI-(Fatty Tissue Percent) 4-Health State (DM-HLP-Nutrition-Metabolism) 5-Body Position & Activity 32 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  33. 33. CONCLUSIONS 33 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  34. 34. ‫با توجه به کاهش زمان صعود غواصان استفاده کننده از‬ ‫‪ DECOMPRESSION COMPUTERS‬وبنابراین افزایش احتمال‬ ‫بروز عالیم بالینی ‪ DCS‬ونیاز به ‪Hyperbaric Chamber‬‬ ‫توصیه می شود :‬ ‫1- غواصان به صورت کمکی وبه همراه جداول برداشت فشار‬ ‫استاندارد از این دستگاه ها استفاده نمایندو این موضوع را‬ ‫بخصوص در غوص های بیش از 03 متر مد نظر قرار دهند.‬ ‫2- درصورت استفاده ازاین دستگاه ها می بایست به منظورکنترل‬ ‫وبهبود عالیم بیماری برداشت فشاراحتمالی ‪Hyperbaric‬‬ ‫‪ Chamber‬درمحل غوص حاضرباشد.‬ ‫21 /دسامبر/72‬ ‫‪gasabeh47@gmail.com‬‬ ‫‪gasabeh.com‬‬ ‫43‬
  35. 35. ‫4- همانند استاندارد کردن زمان براساس ساعت گرینویچ‬ ‫،غوص استاندارد بر اساس یک مبدا قابل قبول بین المللی وبا‬ ‫حداقل ریسک بیماری برداشت فشاربرای غواصان مطرح،‬ ‫وازسوی سازمان های مرتبط مورد تایید جهانی قرارگرفته‬ ‫وانواع مختلف ‪ DECOMPRESSION COMPUTERS‬براساس‬ ‫آن تنظیم گردد.‬ ‫5- لزوم انجام تحقیقات بیشتر دراین زمینه درجهت ارتقائ ایمنی‬ ‫غواصی با ‪DECOMPRESSION COMPUTERS‬‬ ‫21 /دسامبر/72‬ ‫‪gasabeh47@gmail.com‬‬ ‫‪gasabeh.com‬‬ ‫53‬
  36. 36. SAFETY GUIDELINES 1-Fully understand how to use the Dive Computer(instruction/ Authorized Oceanic Dealer ) 2- Any display or function varies from the information presented in the Operating Manual (Authorized Oceanic Dealer ) 3- Low battery condition (do not dive until the battery is replaced) 4- Each Nitrox dive(Dive Computer must be verified, or set) 5- The bar graphs (if available) in normal zones throughout your dives. 6- Always make your deepest dive first 7- Always limit your dive to the level of your training and experience 8- Allow an adequate surfacegasabeh.com between each dive interval gasabeh47@gmail.com 36 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  37. 37. SAFETY GUIDELINES 9-Decompression diving, or diving deeper than 130 FT (39 M)(greatly increase your risk of decompression sickness 10-Decompression diving is inherently hazardous and greatly increases your risk of decompression sickness, even when performed according to the Dive Computer’s calculations. 11- Using a Dive Computer, just as dive tables, is no guarantee of avoiding decompression sickness 37 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  38. 38. Refrences 1- Petar J. Denoble, MD., D.Sc Alessandro Marroni, MD. D.S Richard D. Vann, Ph.D.Common Factors in Diving Fatalities Fatality Workshop, Durham April 8-10, 2010 2-www. DivingCaribbeanNicheMarkets. 3-www. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia- Dive computer 4- Carl Edmonds M.B., B.S. (Sydney), Christopher Lowry M.B., B.S., John Pennefather B.SC. Robyn Walker M.B., B.S., Dip. D.H.M. Diving and Subaquatic Medicine 4th Edition 2002 5-Wilmshurst peter.Technological advances in scuba diving do not always increase safety.Bjsm.bmj.com.2011 . 38 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬
  39. 39. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION 39 gasabeh.com gasabeh47@gmail.com 27/‫21 /دسامبر‬

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