Open Content, Open Courses, Open Degrees by Gary Matkin, UCI


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The purpose of this presentation is to describe the progress and current state of the Open Educational Resources movement as it faces the last crucial and important step, from OpenCourseWare to Open Degrees.

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  • The purpose of this presentation is to describe the progress and current state of the Open Educational Resources movement as it faces the last crucial and important step, from OpenCourseWare to Open Degrees.
  • By the end of 2009, MIT had experienced 50 million visits.
  • Around 2005/06 MIT’s example was attracting the interest of other universities around the world and MIT began convening meetings of those interested in emulating its example. These meetings eventually led to the formation of the OpenCourseWare Consortium (OCWC) which has gained separate legal status as a non-profit corporation chartered in the State of Massachusetts.
  • Here you see the OCWC home page.
  • This membership includes 22 U.S. institutions including of course, MIT, but also including UC Berkeley, Notre Dame, Johns Hopkins, Tufts, Utah State, and UCI—the first UC and first west coast university to join the OCWC.
  • But, of course, the OCWC is not the only game in town. There are many other sources of open courses, including most prominently iTunes U which focuses on the video capture of classroom activity.
  • The list of universities adding to the iTunes inventory is growing rapidly as well.
  • Now the general public is taking notice of OCW and is posting ratings of open offerings.Examples: The University of California, Berkeley and MIT began posting recorded video versions of courses to various publically available sites including Google, YouTube, and iTunes.Other UC campuses are considering doing this as well.
  • Video capture is becoming easier and easier—we now have ratings of pod casts.
  • The growing supply of open courses has clearly stirred attention about how this wonderful set of learning assets might be used to best benefit the world. Certainly the need for such material is very great.
  • Again, we have the broadest vision of what the open educational movement is all about and I have already positioned open degrees on the pathway to open knowledge.
  • With OCW well developed, people are working on the next level of the sense-making hierarchy – open degrees. They are inspired by a lofty vision.The need for open degrees is urgent.
  • On this slide we see the names of the various movements related to openness in education. We start with open source which is generally applied to the software industry and usually refers to publically available and free software code which has been developed and is maintained by a community of users. The remaining open movements were inspired by this early open source movement, but differ in some respects, primarily in that there are only very rudimentary communities established to date around the other open movements. But, the remaining open movements often utilize open source software in what they do (Moodle, for instance). I have already talked about OER, OCW, open degrees and open knowledge. The open text book movement has a life of its own and can be viewed as an offshoot of the OER movement. But as open textbooks are developed and as they begin to take advantage of the technology that hosts them, they begin to take on the aspects of an open course.
  • But there are more practical considerations as well.
  • However, the step from open courses to open degrees is a big one and those involved in this process face some very significant hurdles. Among them:Content and courseware are a relatively small part of the total cost of degree education.Degrees require construction of a social context for learning and communities of learners in open environments are formed and supported in ways not well understood.Awarding credit for coursework requires either an instructor/evaluator or a learning assessment process that is expensive and complex to create.The degree awarding authority must be seen as legitimate and trustworthy, attributes which are achieved at a cost.Just as courses need to be constructed of learning objects which fit the context created by the course, so too do degrees need to be constructed of courses that form a coherent experience. This is especially important when open degrees are offered across international and cultural boundaries.
  • I hope I have made the case for OCW and the progression to open degrees. This holds the promise for a positive world-wide impact, which in itself should spark interests in institutions for joining the movement.I have enough of a practical understanding of how institutions work, that I know something more is needed to prod institutions into making public service contributions. I firmly believe that there is clearly a self interest involved in getting institutions to join the OCW movement and the OCWC in particular.
  • Why Should Your Institution Join and Support the OER Movement?From the experience of the current member of the OCWC, becoming active in the OER movement, particularly with OCW have the following advantages:Fosters the common institutional goal of making a contribution to the social welfare of the worldShowcases the institution’s top instructional efforts and makes course materials free on a global scale to educators, students, and self-learnersProvides a high quality and high visibility example of the educational offerings of the institution to the general public, prospective students, and parentsCreates a repository where faculty and researchers can deposit their work and have is seen by the worldProvides potential funding agencies with attractive and useful opportunities for disseminating research results
  • Attracts funding for public service projectsAttracts traffic to the institution’s OCW Web site, and through that site to other institutional sitesProvides a channel for the training of institution staffIncreases the legitimacy of the use of high quality material from other sources by the institution’s own facultyProvides entree to a world wide community of dedicated educators
  • One of the barriers to open educational movements has to do with intellectual property rights and digital rights management. Without going into the details, this barrier has been addressed by the Creative Commons license upon which most of the OER and OCW is now based. The increase in the use of CC licenses has seen geometrical increases.
  • Another barrier has been what is called “discoverability”—the ability for users to find the appropriate open material they want. Currently this barrier is being addressed in three ways. First we have the general search through web browsers such as Google. One can refine one’s search by adding in the CC license as part of the search parameters. There are also searches now available and being developed which search in a more focused way on parts of the open spectrum such as OCW. You see a list of these on the screen.Specialized search engines are making open resources easier to find. There are two types: those that actually crawl the internet looking for CC licensed materials. (Google Advanced Search); and those that search for RDF descriptions of OCW content or aggregate RSS feeds. OCWC, OERCommons, Creative Commons search, and OCWC Course Finder are all doing this.
  • Open content is increasing rapidly. Specific collections of open material that have been developed. This slide presents a large, but by no means exhaustive list. For instance, the CSU Center for Distributed Learning developed MERLOTand it has now expanded. The University of Georgia System, Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, University of North Carolina System, and the California State University System created an informal consortium representing almost one hundred campuses serving over 900,000 students and over 47,000 faculty.Connexions is a learning object repository of over 6,314 reusable items sponsored by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, The Maxfield Foundation, and individual sponsors.Research and Corporate Support includes: The National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation Program, National Instruments, and the Hewlett-Packard Corporation, George R. Brown Endowment for Undergraduate Education, The CLASS Foundation with university support from Rice University.
  • Finally we have university websites with significant collections. I have listed UCI on this page just for your reference—compared with the others we have a relatively small collection of about 20 open courses now.
  • MIT was really the first and the initiator of the OER and OCW movements beginning in about 2001 with its first postings. It has consistently tracked its progress; the next few slides show some interesting statistics about the volume and patterns of use of the MIT material.
  • Here you see the MIT OCW web site.OpenCourseWare really got started at MIT in 2001. MIT now has 1,800 courses openly available.
  • Open Content, Open Courses, Open Degrees by Gary Matkin, UCI

    2. 2. The Sense Making Hierarchy OPEN Knowledge M A OPEN Degrees/Curriculum K I Combine N OCW G OPEN Courses S E Instructional N Design S E OPEN Learning Objects OPEN Content
    3. 3. Related OPEN Movements  Open Source  Open Content  Open Educational Resources  Open Textbooks  Open Degrees  Open Knowledge
    4. 4. Creative Commons Licenses Explode Past 130 Million! Millions
    5. 5. Search Engines  Those that crawl the Internet looking for CC licensed materials  Google Advanced Search   Those that search for descriptions of OCW content or RSS feeds  OCW Consortium (OCWC) and Course Finder   Creative Commons search   OERCommons 
    6. 6. Collections and Repositories  Wikipedia  Wikiversity  Connexions (Rice University)  MERLOT  Knowledge Hub  Flicker CC  UNESCO  Internet Archive  I Tunes  You Tube
    7. 7. University Websites with Large Collections  MIT  Open University  United Nations University  UC Irvine
    8. 8. MIT AND OCW
    9. 9.
    10. 10. Unlocking Knowledge Project Phases Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Courses 50 500 950 1,300 1,550 1,800 1,800 Pilot Ramp Up Enhancement 10 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    11. 11. Empowering Minds Visits to OCW and Translations Web Traffic to OCW and OCW Translations since 2003 2,250,000 2,000,000 SBU Chulalongkorn 1,750,000 CORE 1,500,000 OOPS Universia 1,250,000 OCW 1,000,000 750,000 500,000 250,000 - ril ril ril ril ril O ly O ly O ly O ly O ly Ja ber Ja ber Ja ber Ja ber Ja ber Ja ber y y y y y y ar ar ar ar ar ar Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap o o o o o o nu nu nu nu nu nu ct ct ct ct ct ct O Visits since 10/1/2003 11 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    12. 12. Empowering Minds Traffic by Region 18.1% 41.8% 21.0% 4.9% 8.4% 1.4% Visits Since Visits Region 10/1/03 % 4.4% North America 19,586,175 41.8 East Asia/Pacific 9,818,810 21.0 Europe/Central 8,470,908 18.1 Asia South Asia 3,917,728 8.4 MENA 2,297,341 4.9 Latin America/ 2,076,902 4.4 Caribbean Sub-Sah. Africa 661,193 1.4 TOTAL VISITS 46,829,057 12 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    13. 13. Empowering Minds Traffic by Region 18.1% 41.8% 21.0% 4.9% 8.4% 1.4% Visits Since Visits Region 10/1/03 % 4.4% North America 19,586,175 41.8 East Asia/Pacific 9,818,810 21.0 Europe/Central 8,470,908 18.1 Asia South Asia 3,917,728 8.4 MENA 2,297,341 4.9 Latin America/ 2,076,902 4.4 Caribbean Sub-Sah. Africa 661,193 1.4 Mirror sites — Approx. 209 around the globe TOTAL VISITS 46,829,057 13 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    14. 14. Empowering Minds Traffic by Country – Feb 09 Country Visits Country Visits 1 United States 537,249 11 France 17,301 2 India 112,261 12 Turkey 15,823 3 China 95,417 13 Italy 12,130 4 South Korea 59,246 14 Japan 11,703 5 Canada 39,063 15 Australia 11,369 6 United Kingdom 35,506 16 Spain 10,896 7 Iran 29,685 17 Egypt 10,079 8 Brazil 24,341 18 Mexico 9,764 9 Germany 21,851 19 Singapore 9,045 10 Pakistan 17,755 20 Romania 9,040 14 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    15. 15. Empowering Minds Visitors by Role Other Educators 5% 15% Self learners 50% Students 30% 15 Unlocking Knowledge, Empowering Minds
    17. 17. Afghanistan Korea, Republic Of Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Venezuela Kabul Polytechnic University Handong Global University Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona Universidad Central de Venezuela Australia Inha University Universitat de Girona Universidad de Los Andes University of Southern Queensland Korea University Universitat de Valncia Universidad Fermn Toro Austria Kyung Hee Cyber University Universitat Jaume I Universidad Metropolitana Klagenfurt University Kyung Hee University Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Universidad Montevila Brazil Pukyong National University Universitat Rovira i Virgili Universidad Nacional Experimental del Tchira Fundação Getulio Vargas - FGV Online Pusan University University of Deusto Universidad Rafael Belloso Chacin Uniso- Universidade de Sorocaba Seoul National University of Technology UPV/EHU Viet Nam Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora Lebanon Switzerland EduNet Vietnam Canada Global University University of Lausanne Athabasca University Mexico Taiwan Capilano University Tecnologico de Monterrey Aletheia University Matou Campus Affiliate Organizations Chile Universidad de Monterre Chang Jung Christian University California Psychological Association Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile Netherlands Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology Center for Open and Sustainable Learning Universidad de Chile Open University Netherlands Diwan University Chia Nan University of Pharmacy & Science China TU Delft National Cheng Kung University Chulalongkorn University China Open Resources for Education Peru National Chengchi University Commonwealth of Learning (COL) Colombia Universidad Nacional de Ingenier National Chiao Tung University Connexions Universidad de Manizales Puerto Rico National Tsing Hua University Creative Commons Universidad Icesi Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico Tainan National University of The Arts enPraxis Universidad Nacional de Colombia University of Puerto Rico Taipei Medical University European Association of Distance Teaching Universities (EADTU) Dominican Republic Russian Federation Thailand Fahamu - Networks for Social Justice Las Americas Institute of Technology Institute for Social Sciences and Humanities Thailand Cyber University France Saudi Arabia Turkey GEM4 Grenoble Ecole de Management Alfaisal University Middle East Technical University HETS Paris Tech King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Turkish OpenCourseWare Consortium iBerry Iran, Islamic Republic Of Saudi Aramco United Kingdom Institute for Electronic Governance Baha'i Institute for Higher Education South Africa Mathematical Institute, Oxford University Intelligent Television International University of Iran University of the Western Cape Korea Education & Research Information Service Israel Spain The Open University MERLOT - Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and The Open University of Israel IE University The University of Nottingham Online Teaching Japan OpenCourseWare Universia United States Monterey Institute for Technology and Education Doshisha University Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Arizona State University National Institute of Multimedia Education Hokkaido University Universidad Cadiz College of Eastern Utah Novell, Inc. Japan OCW Consortium Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Dixie State College of Utah OCW Translations Inc. Kagawa Nutrition University Universidad de Alicante Johns Hopkins OER Africa Kansai University Universidad de Cantabria Kaplan Higher Education OOPS Keio University Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Massachusetts Institute of Technology Open Courseware Iran Kyoto Seika University Universidad de Granada Michigan State University Open High School of Utah Kyoto University Universidad de Huelva Open Institute of Law, Int. Open Learning Exchange Kyushu University Universidad de Malaga Tufts University Scribd Meiji University Universidad de Murcia UC Berkeley Vietnam Education Foundation Nagoya University Universidad de Navarra University of Alaska Fairbanks Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) Osaka University Universidad de Oviedo University of California, Irvine Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Universidad de Salamanca University of Massachusetts Boston Ritsumeikan University Universidad de Sevilla University of Michigan Tokyo Institute of Technology Universidad de Valladolid University of Notre Dame United Nations University Universidad de Zaragoza University of Utah University of Tokyo Universidad Extremadura University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire University of Tsukuba Universidad Internacional de Andaluca Utah State University Waseda University Universidad Nacional de Educacion Utah Valley State College UNIVERSIDAD POLITCNICA DE CARTAGENA Weber State University Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Universidad Politecnica Madrid Western Governors University Wheelock College http:
    18. 18. OCWC — U.S. Member Institutions  Arizona State University  University of California, Irvine  College of Eastern Utah  University of Massachusetts Boston  Dixie State College of Utah  University of Michigan  Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School  University of Notre Dame of Public Health  University of Utah  Kaplan Higher Education  University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire  Massachusetts Institute of  Utah State University Technology  Utah Valley State College  Michigan State University  Weber State University  Open Institute of Law, Int.  Western Governors University  Tufts University  Wheelock College  University of California, Berkeley  University of Alaska Fairbanks
    19. 19. 45 Universities on iTunes University Slide 15
    21. 21. Factors Driving the Open Degree Movement  To make the entire sum of human knowledge available to everyone, anywhere, at any time — for free!
    22. 22. Factors Driving the Open Degree Movement  What is the world going to do with the estimated one billion people in developing countries who want and can benefit from higher education? What will happen if they can’t get it?
    23. 23. Barriers to Open Degrees  Content and courseware are a small part of total cost  Degrees require construction of a social context  Award of credit is difficult  Degree awarding authority must be identified  The coherent/context problem across international and cultural boundaries
    25. 25. The OCW Institutional Value Proposition 1. To meet the university’s desire to play a significant role in the contribution to the social welfare of the world 2. To showcase the university’s top instructional efforts and make course materials free on a global scale to educators, students, and self-learners 3. Provide high quality, high visibility examples to the public, prospective students, and parents 4. To create a repository where faculty and researchers can have their work seen by the world 5. To provide potential funding agencies with attractive and useful opportunities for disseminating research results
    26. 26. The OCW Institutional Value Proposition 6. Attract independent funding for public service projects 7. Attract traffic to the institution’s OCW site 8. To provide a vehicle for training incumbent staff and faculty 9. To more fully and legitimately take advantage of material produced elsewhere 10. Provide entree to a world wide community of dedicated educators
    27. 27. How Can Your Institution Become Involved ? Join the OCW Consortium Click on “How to Join” at
    28. 28. Gary W. Matkin, Ph.D. Dean, Continuing Education University of California, Irvine