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Pu#ng	
  the	
  Go	
  in	
  Governance	
  
	
  
Gary	
  Carlson	
  
gary@factorfirm.com	
  
@gc_taxonomy,	
  @taxobc	
  
2	
  November,	
  2015	
  
factorfirm.com	
  
factor?	
  	
  
•  Factor	
  specializes	
  enterprise-­‐scale	
  informaHon	
  and	
  experience	
  
challenges.	
  
•  We	
  have	
  outside	
  perspecHve	
  that	
  helps	
  you	
  gain	
  the	
  insight	
  
necessary	
  to	
  break	
  through	
  organizaHonal	
  barriers.	
  
•  Our	
  evidence-­‐based	
  approach	
  allows	
  us	
  to	
  truly	
  understand	
  what	
  
will	
  drive	
  your	
  success	
  -­‐and	
  help	
  you	
  get	
  there.	
  
•  Our	
  approach	
  is	
  to	
  understand	
  your	
  business	
  from	
  the	
  
perspecHve	
  of	
  both	
  your	
  customers	
  and	
  your	
  staff.	
  
•  You	
  need	
  a	
  clear	
  vision	
  of	
  success	
  –	
  we	
  ensure	
  all	
  your	
  efforts	
  are	
  
validated	
  by	
  research	
  and	
  focused	
  on	
  results.	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Gary	
  Carlson	
  PRINCIPAL	
  
Bringing	
  over	
  20	
  years	
  of	
  experience	
  as	
  
a	
  taxonomist,	
  consultant,	
  and	
  
informaHon	
  strategist	
  to	
  every	
  project,	
  
Gary’s	
  current	
  focus	
  is	
  helping	
  
companies	
  develop	
  their	
  informaHon	
  
infrastructure	
  to	
  deliver	
  business	
  
success	
  and	
  saHsfy	
  customer	
  goals.	
  
	
  
Governance	
  Overview	
  
A	
  few	
  random	
  musings	
  to	
  get	
  started	
  
	
  
Lessons	
  from	
  Sammy	
  Hagar	
  I	
  Can’t	
  Drive	
  55	
  
And	
  the	
  US	
  Department	
  of	
  Transporta3on	
  
	
  
“Raising	
  speed	
  limits...has	
  an	
  extremely	
  beneficial	
  effect	
  on	
  
drivers	
  complying	
  with	
  the	
  posted	
  speed	
  limits.”	
  
“Lowering	
  speed	
  limits...provides	
  a	
  noncompliance	
  rate	
  of	
  
approximately	
  67%.”	
  
Quote	
  From	
  
Effects	
  of	
  Raising	
  and	
  Lowering	
  Speed	
  Limits	
  
U.S.	
  Department	
  of	
  TransportaHon	
  
hcps://www.ibiblio.org/rdu/sl-­‐irrel.html	
  
	
  
Image	
  Source:	
  	
  
hcps://i.vimeocdn.com/video/93438962_640.jpg	
  
	
  
Taxonomy	
  governance	
  needs	
  to	
  work	
  
with	
  exisHng	
  processes	
  
Do	
  every	
  thing	
  you	
  
can	
  to	
  incorporate	
  
governance	
  into	
  
exisHng	
  processes.	
  
	
  
Going	
  off	
  trail	
  is	
  
messy	
  or	
  expensive	
  
or	
  both.	
  	
  
	
  
Governance	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  scaled	
  to	
  the	
  
size	
  of	
  the	
  problem	
  
Adding	
  synonyms	
  should	
  require	
  far	
  
less	
  oversight	
  than	
  adding	
  a	
  new	
  L1	
  
term	
  to	
  a	
  navigaHon	
  taxonomy	
  or	
  
product	
  taxonomy.	
  
Know	
  your	
  organizaHonal	
  readiness,	
  
technical	
  capabiliHes,	
  and	
  resources	
  
available	
  for	
  your	
  taxonomies	
  	
  
Why	
  Taxonomies	
  
•  Increase	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  customers	
  who	
  are	
  finding	
  and	
  
purchasing	
  your	
  products	
  and	
  services.	
  
•  Connect	
  content,	
  publishing,	
  and	
  data	
  systems	
  to	
  opHmize	
  
the	
  customer	
  experience	
  and	
  business	
  processes.	
  
•  Provide	
  informaHon	
  your	
  customers	
  truly	
  value,	
  across	
  
your	
  channels,	
  in	
  a	
  way	
  they	
  can	
  use	
  really	
  use.	
  
•  Understand	
  and	
  implement	
  the	
  most	
  efficient	
  internal	
  
processes	
  for	
  your	
  business.	
  
•  Increase	
  overall	
  staff	
  saHsfacHon	
  	
  and	
  reduce	
  points	
  of	
  
frustraHon	
  or	
  inefficiency.	
  
What	
  does	
  this	
  mean?	
  
•  Taxonomies	
  need	
  to	
  adapt	
  to	
  new	
  requirements.	
  
•  Systems	
  and	
  integraHons	
  that	
  store	
  and	
  manage	
  
taxonomies	
  must	
  stay	
  up	
  to	
  date.	
  	
  	
  
•  Content/informaHon	
  personalizaHon	
  requires	
  that	
  
taxonomies	
  be	
  shared	
  across	
  mulHple	
  systems	
  and	
  
workflows.	
  
•  Taxonomies	
  must	
  work	
  within	
  exisHng	
  workflows.	
  
•  People	
  using	
  and	
  managing	
  taxonomies	
  must	
  have	
  
visibility	
  into	
  the	
  evoluHon	
  of	
  the	
  taxonomies.	
  
•  TesHng	
  is	
  an	
  essenHal	
  part	
  of	
  managing	
  taxonomies.	
  
What	
  does	
  this	
  really	
  mean?	
  
What	
  does	
  this	
  really	
  mean?	
  
•  Managing	
  and	
  improving	
  system-­‐wide	
  taxonomies	
  requires	
  
coordinaHon	
  across	
  business	
  units	
  
-­‐	
  People	
  need	
  to	
  talk	
  to	
  each	
  other	
  
-­‐	
  Processes	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  realisHc	
  and	
  flexible	
  
•  Not	
  all	
  changes	
  are	
  equal	
  
-­‐	
  Different	
  types	
  of	
  changes	
  require	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  
governance	
  
-­‐	
  Level	
  of	
  effort	
  for	
  change	
  =	
  level	
  of	
  impact	
  
•  Taxonomies	
  need	
  to	
  reflect	
  business	
  needs	
  over	
  Hme	
  
-­‐	
  Know	
  your	
  business	
  goals	
  
-­‐	
  Taxonomy	
  maintenance	
  is	
  forever	
  
Enterprise	
  Taxonomy?	
  
•  All	
  taxonomies	
  require	
  maintenance.	
  
•  This	
  presentaHon	
  is	
  primarily	
  about	
  enterprise	
  
taxonomies.	
  
•  An	
  enterprise	
  taxonomy	
  is	
  one	
  that	
  spans	
  mulHple	
  
systems,	
  interfaces,	
  business	
  units,	
  user	
  profiles,	
  etc.	
  
Long	
  term	
  viability	
  and	
  sustainability	
  
of	
  enterprise	
  taxonomies	
  is	
  
dependent	
  on	
  governance,	
  tools,	
  
resources,	
  and	
  organizaHonal	
  support.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
These	
  things	
  are	
  7ghtly	
  connected.	
  
Approaches	
  to	
  Governance	
  
This	
  is	
  what	
  we	
  
usually	
  think	
  ...	
  
AcribuHon	
  -­‐	
  By	
  Daderot	
  (Own	
  work)	
  [Public	
  domain],	
  via	
  Wikimedia	
  Commons	
  
hcps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AOblique_facade_1%2C_US_Supreme_Court.jpg	
  
This	
  is	
  what	
  we	
  
usually	
  do	
  ...	
  
This	
  is	
  good	
  
governance	
  
Five	
  Goals	
  of	
  Taxonomy	
  Governance	
  
1-­‐	
  Allow	
  for	
  management	
  and	
  evoluHon	
  of	
  taxonomies.	
  
	
  
2-­‐	
  Support	
  organizaHonal	
  goals.	
  
	
  
3-­‐	
  Work	
  with	
  exisHng	
  workflows	
  /	
  realiHes.	
  
	
  
4-­‐	
  Provide	
  transparency.	
  
	
  
5-­‐	
  Don’t	
  break	
  anything.	
  
Why	
  do	
  we	
  need	
  to	
  manage	
  and	
  evolve	
  
taxonomies?	
  
Respond	
  to	
  user	
  needs	
  
	
  
Business	
  needs	
  
-­‐  New	
  products	
  
-­‐  New	
  or	
  updated	
  systems	
  
-­‐  New	
  or	
  updated	
  workflows	
  
-­‐  Expanded	
  publicaHon	
  channels	
  
-­‐  Regulatory	
  changes	
  
-­‐  Improved	
  operaHonal	
  efficiency	
  
	
  
General	
  maintenance	
  
Organiza7onal	
  Goals?	
  
•  Omni	
  channel	
  publishing	
  
•  Search	
  and	
  findability	
  
•  Compliance	
  and	
  regulaHons	
  
•  Content	
  re-­‐use	
  
	
  
•  Improve	
  operaHonal	
  efficiency	
  
Organiza8onal	
  goals	
  should	
  be	
  driving	
  the	
  en8re	
  taxonomy	
  
project.	
  	
  Governance	
  needs	
  to	
  align	
  with	
  these	
  as	
  well.	
  
Workflows,	
  really?	
  
Governance	
  needs	
  incorporate	
  exisHng	
  workflows	
  as	
  
much	
  as	
  possible.	
  
	
  
Governance	
  processes	
  need	
  to	
  reflect	
  organizaHonal	
  
realiHes.	
  
-­‐  Taxonomists	
  don’t	
  always	
  get	
  to	
  call	
  the	
  shots	
  
-­‐  Taxonomy	
  models	
  may	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  adjusted	
  to	
  
address	
  governance	
  needs	
  
Transparency?	
  
Transparent	
  governance	
  goals	
  and	
  processes.	
  	
  	
  
-­‐  Help	
  people	
  see	
  the	
  “why”	
  as	
  much	
  as	
  the	
  “what”	
  
	
  
Understand	
  and	
  account	
  for	
  all	
  the	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  
changes.	
  	
  	
  	
  
-­‐  One	
  “suggesHon	
  box”	
  is	
  not	
  going	
  to	
  work	
  
	
  
Expose	
  the	
  process	
  
-­‐  Roles	
  
-­‐  Timeframe	
  
-­‐  Decision	
  criteria	
  
Don’t	
  Break	
  Anything	
  
•  Systems	
  
•  IntegraHons	
  
	
  
•  UI/UX	
  
•  AnalyHcs	
  or	
  reports	
  
	
  
•  Compliance	
  
Things	
  Needing	
  
Governance 	
  	
  
Taxonomy	
  terms	
  
Taxonomy	
  definiHons	
  
Taxonomy	
  structure	
  
Taxonomy	
  acributes	
  
RelaHonships	
  between	
  terms	
  
Types	
  of	
  relaHonships	
  
ProperHes	
  of	
  relaHonships	
  
IntegraHons	
  
Systems	
  
Acributes	
  
Content	
  Types	
  
Add	
  /	
  Modify	
  /	
  Delete	
  
Archive	
  
NoHficaHons	
  
Guidelines	
  
Inputs	
  for	
  change	
  
Stakeholders	
  
Timeframe	
  
	
  
Ac7ons	
  and	
  Inputs 	
  	
  
Checklists 	
  	
  
For	
  each	
  object	
  and	
  type	
  of	
  change	
  that	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  
governed	
  
	
  
-­‐  Types	
  of	
  acHons	
  that	
  need	
  oversight	
  	
  
-­‐  Add,	
  delete,	
  modify,	
  archive,	
  etc	
  
-­‐  PotenHal	
  impacts	
  to	
  assess	
  and	
  account	
  for	
  
-­‐  Systems,	
  integraHons,	
  reports,	
  etc	
  
-­‐  Roles	
  involved	
  
-­‐  Who	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  weigh	
  in	
  on	
  the	
  decision,	
  who	
  
needs	
  to	
  be	
  noHfied	
  
	
  
Sample	
  –	
  Ac7ons 	
  	
  
Governance	
  Process	
   Descrip7on	
  
Name	
   Name	
  of	
  the	
  governance	
  acHon	
  
DescripHon	
   Business	
  descripHon	
  of	
  the	
  desired	
  change	
  
System	
  Profiles	
   List	
  of	
  systems	
  	
  or	
  profiles	
  impacted	
  by	
  the	
  change	
  
Frequency	
   How	
  oven	
  are	
  the	
  updates	
  made	
  
Objects	
  called	
   Object	
  being	
  acted	
  on	
  
AcHons	
   Full	
  descripHon	
  of	
  the	
  acHons	
  being	
  taken	
  
ValidaHon	
  Processes	
  
What	
  	
  validaHon	
  or	
  tesHng	
  processes	
  are	
  necessary,	
  
if	
  any	
  
NoHficaHons	
  
Who	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  noHfied	
  before,	
  during,	
  or	
  aver	
  
the	
  change	
  
Sample	
  –	
  Roles 	
  	
  
Role	
   Descrip7on/Example	
  Responsibili7es	
  
Governance	
  
Steering	
  
Commicee	
  
Consists	
  of	
  representaHves	
  from	
  all	
  major	
  roles.	
  	
  Defines	
  
governance	
  processes,	
  sets	
  overall	
  direcHon	
  of	
  governance	
  and	
  
assesses	
  its	
  performance	
  
Taxonomy	
  
Governance	
  
Manager	
  
Receives	
  change	
  requests	
  and	
  manages	
  governance	
  for	
  those	
  
where	
  appropriate.	
  	
  Performs	
  day	
  to	
  day	
  acHviHes	
  associated	
  
with	
  governance	
  processes.	
  	
  	
  
Content	
  Owners	
  
Responsible	
  for	
  escalaHng	
  changes	
  idenHfied	
  within	
  their	
  
sphere	
  of	
  effort,	
  reviewing	
  impacts,	
  and	
  working	
  with	
  the	
  
Governance	
  Manager	
  to	
  communicate	
  these.	
  	
  	
  
Taxonomy	
  
Owners	
  and	
  
Stakeholders	
  
These	
  are	
  a	
  special	
  subset	
  of	
  	
  stakeholders	
  responsible	
  for	
  
detailed	
  knowledge	
  of	
  the	
  taxonomy	
  model	
  and	
  how	
  it	
  is	
  used	
  
across	
  an	
  organizaHon.	
  
Stakeholders	
  
Stakeholders	
  who	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  directly	
  engaged	
  in	
  taxonomy	
  
creaHon	
  and	
  management,	
  but	
  where	
  visibility	
  into	
  the	
  
taxonomy	
  might	
  impact	
  their	
  work	
  
Example	
  1	
  -­‐	
  Transparency 	
  	
  
Problem	
  –	
  a	
  mid	
  sized	
  city	
  department	
  was	
  having	
  difficulty	
  
maintaining	
  a	
  consistent	
  taxonomy	
  used	
  for	
  content	
  tagging.	
  	
  
This	
  was	
  part	
  of	
  a	
  larger	
  problem	
  that	
  involved	
  the	
  content	
  
creaHon	
  process	
  in	
  general.	
  
	
  
Result	
  –	
  Increase	
  in	
  changes	
  going	
  through	
  standard	
  
governance	
  workflows	
  along	
  with	
  increased	
  saHsfacHon	
  in	
  the	
  
overall	
  process.	
  
	
  
Example	
  1	
  -­‐	
  Transparency 	
  	
  
Role	
  of	
  Taxonomy	
  Governance	
  –	
  In	
  alignment	
  with	
  the	
  general	
  
content	
  governance	
  processes	
  the	
  taxonomy	
  process	
  was	
  well	
  
documented	
  and	
  made	
  readily	
  accessible	
  to	
  all	
  stakeholders.	
  	
  
This	
  included:	
  
-­‐  Types	
  of	
  changes	
  
-­‐  Timeframe	
  for	
  change	
  
-­‐  General	
  overview	
  of	
  the	
  process	
  
-­‐  Roles/stakeholders	
  involved	
  
Example	
  2	
  –	
  A	
  Flexible	
  Enterprise	
  Taxonomy
	
  	
  
Problem	
  –	
  Microsov	
  had	
  strong	
  requirements	
  for	
  a	
  centralized	
  
taxonomy	
  to	
  support	
  enterprise	
  goals,	
  but	
  very	
  licle	
  control	
  
over	
  different	
  business	
  units.	
  
Result	
  –	
  Created	
  a	
  governance	
  model	
  and	
  taxonomy	
  model	
  that	
  
allowed	
  individual	
  business	
  units	
  to	
  adapt	
  the	
  enterprise	
  
taxonomy	
  to	
  their	
  own	
  needs	
  with	
  licle	
  impact	
  on	
  their	
  exisHng	
  
workflows	
  or	
  processes.	
  
The	
  governance	
  process	
  for	
  the	
  local	
  taxonomies	
  was	
  
streamlined,	
  non-­‐invasive,	
  and	
  simple.	
  
The	
  governance	
  process	
  for	
  the	
  enterprise	
  taxonomy	
  happened	
  
outside	
  the	
  processes	
  of	
  the	
  business	
  units	
  and	
  was	
  much	
  more	
  
rigorous.	
  
Example	
  2	
  –	
  A	
  Flexible	
  Enterprise	
  Taxonomy
	
  	
  
Approach	
  –	
  Using	
  SharePoint	
  and	
  a	
  few	
  basic	
  reports	
  run	
  against	
  
the	
  term	
  store	
  we	
  designed	
  a	
  taxonomy	
  model	
  that	
  included	
  a	
  
definiHve	
  set	
  of	
  taxonomies	
  managed	
  by	
  dedicated	
  taxonomists	
  to	
  
support	
  the	
  enterprise	
  goals.	
  
	
  
The	
  model	
  also	
  allowed	
  for	
  individual	
  groups	
  to	
  uHlize	
  subsets	
  of	
  
the	
  taxonomies	
  and	
  create	
  their	
  own	
  addiHons	
  to	
  the	
  subsets.	
  	
  	
  
The	
  enterprise	
  taxonomist	
  received	
  a	
  report	
  with	
  any	
  addiHon	
  to	
  
“local”	
  taxonomies.	
  	
  New	
  terms	
  were	
  either	
  added	
  to	
  the	
  
corporate	
  taxonomy,	
  lev	
  as	
  local	
  terms,	
  or	
  merged	
  with	
  exisHng	
  
terms.	
  
For	
  a	
  full	
  descripHon	
  of	
  this	
  case	
  study	
  see:	
  
hcp://goo.gl/DlwbWN	
  
Example	
  3	
  –	
  I	
  Can’t	
  Drive	
  55...	
  
Problem	
  –	
  Taxonomy	
  was	
  a	
  new	
  discipline	
  for	
  an	
  organizaHon	
  that	
  
considered	
  itself	
  to	
  be	
  nimble	
  with	
  few	
  pesky	
  processes.	
  	
  This	
  lead	
  
to	
  very	
  inefficient	
  content	
  management,	
  content	
  duplicaHon,	
  and	
  
poor	
  communicaHon	
  with	
  customers.	
  	
  A	
  taxonomy	
  governance	
  
project	
  was	
  not	
  going	
  to	
  change	
  corporate	
  culture.	
  
	
  
Result	
  –	
  Compliance	
  was	
  improved	
  by	
  creaHng	
  processes	
  which	
  
directly	
  aligned	
  with	
  the	
  exisHng	
  workflows	
  and	
  corporate	
  culture.	
  
	
  
	
  
Example	
  3	
  –	
  I	
  Can’t	
  Drive	
  55...	
  
Approach	
  –	
  	
  
-­‐  Keep	
  the	
  taxonomies	
  extremely	
  simple.	
  
-­‐  Do	
  not	
  allow	
  end	
  users	
  to	
  modify	
  the	
  taxonomies	
  but	
  allow	
  
then	
  to	
  add	
  keywords	
  (which	
  were	
  then	
  assessed	
  by	
  the	
  
taxonomist).	
  
-­‐  Provide	
  tool	
  Hps	
  whenever	
  possible	
  for	
  terms.	
  
-­‐  Create	
  simple	
  and	
  usable	
  reports	
  for	
  the	
  taxonomists.	
  
	
  	
  	
  
Where	
  is	
  your	
  organiza7on?	
  
Assessing	
  organizaHonal	
  readiness	
  is	
  an	
  essenHal	
  part	
  of	
  a	
  
comprehensive	
  taxonomy	
  roadmap.	
  
	
  
Understanding	
  where	
  you	
  are	
  today	
  idenHfies	
  what	
  you	
  can	
  
do	
  today.	
  
	
  
Building	
  and	
  managing	
  the	
  taxonomy	
  is	
  rarely	
  the	
  issue.	
  
QuesHons?!?!?!	
  
gary@factorfirm.com
http://factorfirm.com
@factorfirm
@gc_taxonomy
design	
  and	
  modeling	
  of	
  informaHon	
  and	
  experiences	
  

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Putting Governance into Taxonomies

  • 1. Pu#ng  the  Go  in  Governance     Gary  Carlson   gary@factorfirm.com   @gc_taxonomy,  @taxobc   2  November,  2015   factorfirm.com  
  • 2. factor?     •  Factor  specializes  enterprise-­‐scale  informaHon  and  experience   challenges.   •  We  have  outside  perspecHve  that  helps  you  gain  the  insight   necessary  to  break  through  organizaHonal  barriers.   •  Our  evidence-­‐based  approach  allows  us  to  truly  understand  what   will  drive  your  success  -­‐and  help  you  get  there.   •  Our  approach  is  to  understand  your  business  from  the   perspecHve  of  both  your  customers  and  your  staff.   •  You  need  a  clear  vision  of  success  –  we  ensure  all  your  efforts  are   validated  by  research  and  focused  on  results.        
  • 3. Gary  Carlson  PRINCIPAL   Bringing  over  20  years  of  experience  as   a  taxonomist,  consultant,  and   informaHon  strategist  to  every  project,   Gary’s  current  focus  is  helping   companies  develop  their  informaHon   infrastructure  to  deliver  business   success  and  saHsfy  customer  goals.    
  • 4. Governance  Overview   A  few  random  musings  to  get  started    
  • 5. Lessons  from  Sammy  Hagar  I  Can’t  Drive  55   And  the  US  Department  of  Transporta3on     “Raising  speed  limits...has  an  extremely  beneficial  effect  on   drivers  complying  with  the  posted  speed  limits.”   “Lowering  speed  limits...provides  a  noncompliance  rate  of   approximately  67%.”   Quote  From   Effects  of  Raising  and  Lowering  Speed  Limits   U.S.  Department  of  TransportaHon   hcps://www.ibiblio.org/rdu/sl-­‐irrel.html     Image  Source:     hcps://i.vimeocdn.com/video/93438962_640.jpg    
  • 6. Taxonomy  governance  needs  to  work   with  exisHng  processes   Do  every  thing  you   can  to  incorporate   governance  into   exisHng  processes.     Going  off  trail  is   messy  or  expensive   or  both.      
  • 7. Governance  needs  to  be  scaled  to  the   size  of  the  problem   Adding  synonyms  should  require  far   less  oversight  than  adding  a  new  L1   term  to  a  navigaHon  taxonomy  or   product  taxonomy.  
  • 8. Know  your  organizaHonal  readiness,   technical  capabiliHes,  and  resources   available  for  your  taxonomies    
  • 9. Why  Taxonomies   •  Increase  the  number  of  customers  who  are  finding  and   purchasing  your  products  and  services.   •  Connect  content,  publishing,  and  data  systems  to  opHmize   the  customer  experience  and  business  processes.   •  Provide  informaHon  your  customers  truly  value,  across   your  channels,  in  a  way  they  can  use  really  use.   •  Understand  and  implement  the  most  efficient  internal   processes  for  your  business.   •  Increase  overall  staff  saHsfacHon    and  reduce  points  of   frustraHon  or  inefficiency.  
  • 10. What  does  this  mean?   •  Taxonomies  need  to  adapt  to  new  requirements.   •  Systems  and  integraHons  that  store  and  manage   taxonomies  must  stay  up  to  date.       •  Content/informaHon  personalizaHon  requires  that   taxonomies  be  shared  across  mulHple  systems  and   workflows.   •  Taxonomies  must  work  within  exisHng  workflows.   •  People  using  and  managing  taxonomies  must  have   visibility  into  the  evoluHon  of  the  taxonomies.   •  TesHng  is  an  essenHal  part  of  managing  taxonomies.  
  • 11. What  does  this  really  mean?  
  • 12. What  does  this  really  mean?   •  Managing  and  improving  system-­‐wide  taxonomies  requires   coordinaHon  across  business  units   -­‐  People  need  to  talk  to  each  other   -­‐  Processes  need  to  be  realisHc  and  flexible   •  Not  all  changes  are  equal   -­‐  Different  types  of  changes  require  different  types  of   governance   -­‐  Level  of  effort  for  change  =  level  of  impact   •  Taxonomies  need  to  reflect  business  needs  over  Hme   -­‐  Know  your  business  goals   -­‐  Taxonomy  maintenance  is  forever  
  • 13. Enterprise  Taxonomy?   •  All  taxonomies  require  maintenance.   •  This  presentaHon  is  primarily  about  enterprise   taxonomies.   •  An  enterprise  taxonomy  is  one  that  spans  mulHple   systems,  interfaces,  business  units,  user  profiles,  etc.  
  • 14. Long  term  viability  and  sustainability   of  enterprise  taxonomies  is   dependent  on  governance,  tools,   resources,  and  organizaHonal  support.         These  things  are  7ghtly  connected.  
  • 16. This  is  what  we   usually  think  ...   AcribuHon  -­‐  By  Daderot  (Own  work)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   hcps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AOblique_facade_1%2C_US_Supreme_Court.jpg  
  • 17. This  is  what  we   usually  do  ...  
  • 18. This  is  good   governance  
  • 19. Five  Goals  of  Taxonomy  Governance   1-­‐  Allow  for  management  and  evoluHon  of  taxonomies.     2-­‐  Support  organizaHonal  goals.     3-­‐  Work  with  exisHng  workflows  /  realiHes.     4-­‐  Provide  transparency.     5-­‐  Don’t  break  anything.  
  • 20. Why  do  we  need  to  manage  and  evolve   taxonomies?   Respond  to  user  needs     Business  needs   -­‐  New  products   -­‐  New  or  updated  systems   -­‐  New  or  updated  workflows   -­‐  Expanded  publicaHon  channels   -­‐  Regulatory  changes   -­‐  Improved  operaHonal  efficiency     General  maintenance  
  • 21. Organiza7onal  Goals?   •  Omni  channel  publishing   •  Search  and  findability   •  Compliance  and  regulaHons   •  Content  re-­‐use     •  Improve  operaHonal  efficiency   Organiza8onal  goals  should  be  driving  the  en8re  taxonomy   project.    Governance  needs  to  align  with  these  as  well.  
  • 22. Workflows,  really?   Governance  needs  incorporate  exisHng  workflows  as   much  as  possible.     Governance  processes  need  to  reflect  organizaHonal   realiHes.   -­‐  Taxonomists  don’t  always  get  to  call  the  shots   -­‐  Taxonomy  models  may  need  to  be  adjusted  to   address  governance  needs  
  • 23. Transparency?   Transparent  governance  goals  and  processes.       -­‐  Help  people  see  the  “why”  as  much  as  the  “what”     Understand  and  account  for  all  the  different  types  of   changes.         -­‐  One  “suggesHon  box”  is  not  going  to  work     Expose  the  process   -­‐  Roles   -­‐  Timeframe   -­‐  Decision  criteria  
  • 24. Don’t  Break  Anything   •  Systems   •  IntegraHons     •  UI/UX   •  AnalyHcs  or  reports     •  Compliance  
  • 25. Things  Needing   Governance     Taxonomy  terms   Taxonomy  definiHons   Taxonomy  structure   Taxonomy  acributes   RelaHonships  between  terms   Types  of  relaHonships   ProperHes  of  relaHonships   IntegraHons   Systems   Acributes   Content  Types   Add  /  Modify  /  Delete   Archive   NoHficaHons   Guidelines   Inputs  for  change   Stakeholders   Timeframe     Ac7ons  and  Inputs    
  • 26. Checklists     For  each  object  and  type  of  change  that  needs  to  be   governed     -­‐  Types  of  acHons  that  need  oversight     -­‐  Add,  delete,  modify,  archive,  etc   -­‐  PotenHal  impacts  to  assess  and  account  for   -­‐  Systems,  integraHons,  reports,  etc   -­‐  Roles  involved   -­‐  Who  needs  to  be  weigh  in  on  the  decision,  who   needs  to  be  noHfied    
  • 27. Sample  –  Ac7ons     Governance  Process   Descrip7on   Name   Name  of  the  governance  acHon   DescripHon   Business  descripHon  of  the  desired  change   System  Profiles   List  of  systems    or  profiles  impacted  by  the  change   Frequency   How  oven  are  the  updates  made   Objects  called   Object  being  acted  on   AcHons   Full  descripHon  of  the  acHons  being  taken   ValidaHon  Processes   What    validaHon  or  tesHng  processes  are  necessary,   if  any   NoHficaHons   Who  needs  to  be  noHfied  before,  during,  or  aver   the  change  
  • 28. Sample  –  Roles     Role   Descrip7on/Example  Responsibili7es   Governance   Steering   Commicee   Consists  of  representaHves  from  all  major  roles.    Defines   governance  processes,  sets  overall  direcHon  of  governance  and   assesses  its  performance   Taxonomy   Governance   Manager   Receives  change  requests  and  manages  governance  for  those   where  appropriate.    Performs  day  to  day  acHviHes  associated   with  governance  processes.       Content  Owners   Responsible  for  escalaHng  changes  idenHfied  within  their   sphere  of  effort,  reviewing  impacts,  and  working  with  the   Governance  Manager  to  communicate  these.       Taxonomy   Owners  and   Stakeholders   These  are  a  special  subset  of    stakeholders  responsible  for   detailed  knowledge  of  the  taxonomy  model  and  how  it  is  used   across  an  organizaHon.   Stakeholders   Stakeholders  who  may  not  be  directly  engaged  in  taxonomy   creaHon  and  management,  but  where  visibility  into  the   taxonomy  might  impact  their  work  
  • 29. Example  1  -­‐  Transparency     Problem  –  a  mid  sized  city  department  was  having  difficulty   maintaining  a  consistent  taxonomy  used  for  content  tagging.     This  was  part  of  a  larger  problem  that  involved  the  content   creaHon  process  in  general.     Result  –  Increase  in  changes  going  through  standard   governance  workflows  along  with  increased  saHsfacHon  in  the   overall  process.    
  • 30. Example  1  -­‐  Transparency     Role  of  Taxonomy  Governance  –  In  alignment  with  the  general   content  governance  processes  the  taxonomy  process  was  well   documented  and  made  readily  accessible  to  all  stakeholders.     This  included:   -­‐  Types  of  changes   -­‐  Timeframe  for  change   -­‐  General  overview  of  the  process   -­‐  Roles/stakeholders  involved  
  • 31. Example  2  –  A  Flexible  Enterprise  Taxonomy     Problem  –  Microsov  had  strong  requirements  for  a  centralized   taxonomy  to  support  enterprise  goals,  but  very  licle  control   over  different  business  units.   Result  –  Created  a  governance  model  and  taxonomy  model  that   allowed  individual  business  units  to  adapt  the  enterprise   taxonomy  to  their  own  needs  with  licle  impact  on  their  exisHng   workflows  or  processes.   The  governance  process  for  the  local  taxonomies  was   streamlined,  non-­‐invasive,  and  simple.   The  governance  process  for  the  enterprise  taxonomy  happened   outside  the  processes  of  the  business  units  and  was  much  more   rigorous.  
  • 32. Example  2  –  A  Flexible  Enterprise  Taxonomy     Approach  –  Using  SharePoint  and  a  few  basic  reports  run  against   the  term  store  we  designed  a  taxonomy  model  that  included  a   definiHve  set  of  taxonomies  managed  by  dedicated  taxonomists  to   support  the  enterprise  goals.     The  model  also  allowed  for  individual  groups  to  uHlize  subsets  of   the  taxonomies  and  create  their  own  addiHons  to  the  subsets.       The  enterprise  taxonomist  received  a  report  with  any  addiHon  to   “local”  taxonomies.    New  terms  were  either  added  to  the   corporate  taxonomy,  lev  as  local  terms,  or  merged  with  exisHng   terms.   For  a  full  descripHon  of  this  case  study  see:   hcp://goo.gl/DlwbWN  
  • 33. Example  3  –  I  Can’t  Drive  55...   Problem  –  Taxonomy  was  a  new  discipline  for  an  organizaHon  that   considered  itself  to  be  nimble  with  few  pesky  processes.    This  lead   to  very  inefficient  content  management,  content  duplicaHon,  and   poor  communicaHon  with  customers.    A  taxonomy  governance   project  was  not  going  to  change  corporate  culture.     Result  –  Compliance  was  improved  by  creaHng  processes  which   directly  aligned  with  the  exisHng  workflows  and  corporate  culture.      
  • 34. Example  3  –  I  Can’t  Drive  55...   Approach  –     -­‐  Keep  the  taxonomies  extremely  simple.   -­‐  Do  not  allow  end  users  to  modify  the  taxonomies  but  allow   then  to  add  keywords  (which  were  then  assessed  by  the   taxonomist).   -­‐  Provide  tool  Hps  whenever  possible  for  terms.   -­‐  Create  simple  and  usable  reports  for  the  taxonomists.        
  • 35. Where  is  your  organiza7on?   Assessing  organizaHonal  readiness  is  an  essenHal  part  of  a   comprehensive  taxonomy  roadmap.     Understanding  where  you  are  today  idenHfies  what  you  can   do  today.     Building  and  managing  the  taxonomy  is  rarely  the  issue.