Processing Image And Thought In Speech Production


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A presentation focusing on Lev Vygotsky's psycholingusitic theory and how it may be applied through using poetry, haiku, readers' theatre and other dramatic vehicles.

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Processing Image And Thought In Speech Production

  1. 1. Processing Image and Thought in Speech Production Lev Vygotsky’s Theory And How it May be Implemented Presented by Dr. Gary Carkin, Ph.D. The Institute for Language Education Southern New Hampshire University Manchester, NH At the Northern New England TESOL Conference November 11, 2006
  2. 2. Processing Image and Thought in Speech Production By Gary B. Carkin, Ph.D. Copyright©2006 I. Theory The summary of this presentation in your leaflets is a bit of a misrepresentation, as I also submitted this proposal to the TESOL Conference in Seattle under the aegis of the SPLIS – or the Speech, Pronunciation, and Listening Interest Section and thus, wanted to emphasize the speech pronunciation aspect. Actually, this presentation will be much more inclusive, because it will address all areas of language acquisition – drawing, as it does, from the theoretical works of Lev Semenovich Vygotsky, the Belo-Russian psycholinguist whose pioneering work in the 1920s and 1930s has only recently won recognition in the West. The reason for that was the long-time suppression of his work during the Soviet era. Today, we are gaining full access to his work through good translations of his papers and books. And what a treasure trove they are! Most interesting to me are his ideas about how language and, more specifically, a second language, is acquired and how the use of drama in language teaching is supported by his second language acquisition theory. Two concepts of Vygotsky’s have received the most attention – and both of these concern the way second language acquisition occurs. His most well known concept is the “Zone of Proximal Development”. The zone of proximal development – as stated by Vygotsky in his Mind and Society (1978) -- is “the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.” This concept has come to be labled as “the interactive approach” to language learning as it emphasizes, not the individual learning process only, but how the learning process occurs with others – in collaboration. In practical terms, in the language classroom, the learner not only learns through the teacher and the materials provided, but also – and more importantly – through peers as they interact, communicate, and feed vocabulary and grammar to one another.
  3. 3. This means that the stronger learners, or higher-level students, play a part in helping the less linguistically sophisticated students as they work together on projects – of whatever nature. Of course, one can see how drama can support such interactive process as the very nature of drama demands negotiation, planning, communication for building the project – not only in terms of subject matter – but also in terms of function. Many of you are very familiar with this process – the process of building a play and/or nurturing role plays in your classrooms. However, it is Vygotsky’s next major contribution to language acquisition theory that remains glossed over – and into which I want to delve today. For a long time, I have been working with scripted drama in my language classes – well aware that the ESL/EFL community to a great extent negated the value of scripted works. It was all well and good to use role plays and scenarios in which negotiation for effective communication occurred, but not so scripted drama – because –“people were only memorizing”. Thus, it was inferred, this was a mechanical process through which no language acquisition actually occurred! A waste of time! I knew, intuitively, and by experience, that his was not true. But how to debunk this outdated concept? And, how did people arrive at this concept anyway!? A study of Vygotsky provides the answer, for we will see that much language teaching focuses on the upper levels of speech production rather than the beginnings or its roots. Vygotsky’s penetrating analysis, I believe, leads us to the core. The elaboration and sophistication of Vygotsky’s thought you will have to delve into on your own through his seminal work, Thought and Language (1986) and his earlier mentioned work, Mind in Society. Today, because of time restrictions and the nature of this presentation, I will cut to the chase: briefly, we turn to Vygotsky’s model of how language acquisition occurs and then I would like to involve you in some exercises that stem from his approach. I am excerpting liberally from Vygotsky’s work in a synoptic fashion. I urge you to read his works yourself to get a vital linkage. I can only give you a grossly simplified – but I hope, accurate – rendition. Vygotsky saw that “ego-centered speech” – that speech that we all use and know so well, commonly directed to the duties we must perform (“gotta go to bed now, wash the dishes next, sign this letter) “stems from the insufficient individualization of primary social speech…It’s culmination lies in the future…It develops into inner speech…Ego-centric speech represents a transition from speech for others to speech for oneself. It already has the function of inner speech (Thought and Language, p 235).
  4. 4. The rule of inner speech is abbreviation of syntax, as we have seen above. “In another way, it is like writing a first draft. We have a mental draft before the written one. This is inner speech. Predication is the natural form of inner speech; psychologically it consists of predicates only…Inner speech is speech almost without words…Inner speech works with semantics, not phonetics” (Ibid. pp. 236--244). These are the peculiarities of inner speech. “The first and basic (peculiarity) is the preponderance of sense of a word over its meaning -- the sum of all the psychological events aroused in our consciousness by the word. A word acquires a sense from the context in which it appears; in different contexts, it changes its sense. This enrichment of words by the sense they gain from the context is the fundamental law of the dynamics of word meanings. A word in a context means both more and less than the same word in isolation.”…In inner speech, this prevalence of sense over meaning, of sentence over word, and of context over sentence is the rule” (Ibid. p. 245). “In inner speech, a single word is so saturated with sense that the title, Dead Souls, becomes a concentrate of sense. To enfold it into overt speech, one would need a multitude of words” (Ibid. p. 247). Vygotsky goes on to say, “We can confidently regard (inner speech) as a distinct plane of verbal thought…It is evident that the transition from inner speech to external speech is not a simple translation from one language into another. It cannot be achieved by merely vocalizing silent speech. It is a complex, dynamic process involving the transformation of the predicative, idiomatic, structure of inner speech into syntactically articulated speech intelligible to others” (Ibid. pp. 248-249). In other words -- from the sense experienced in language one to articulate(d) communication in language two. “In inner speech, words die as they bring forth thought. Inner speech is to a large extent thinking in pure meanings…Every thought creates a connection, fulfills a function, solves a problem. The flow of thought has its own structure, and the transition from it to speech is no easy matter. The theatre faced the problem of thought behind the words before psychology did. In teaching his system of acting, Konstantin Stanislavski required the actor to uncover the “subtext” of their lines in the play…Every sentence we say in real life has some kind of subtext, or thought hidden behind it…Just as one sentence may express different thoughts, one thought may be expressed in different sentences…Thought unlike speech, does not consist of separate units. When I wish to communicate the thought that today I saw a barefoot boy in a blue shirt running down the street, I do not see every item separately: the boy, the shirt, its color, his running, the absence of shoes. I conceive of all of this in one thought…A thought may be compared to a cloud shedding a shower of words. Precisely because thought does not have its counterpart in words, the transition
  5. 5. from thought to word leads through meaning. In our speech, there is always the hidden thought, the subtext. …………………To overcome this problem, new paths from thoughts to word leading through new word meanings must be cut. But thought is not the superior authority in the process. Thought is not begotten by thought; it is engendered by motivation, i.e., by our desires and needs, our interests and emotions. (AFFECT). Behind every thought there is an affective-volitional tendency which holds the answer to the other last “why” in the analysis of thinking…To understand another’s speech, it is not sufficient to understand his words – we must understand his thought. But even this is not enough – we must understand its motivation. ……………..…The development of verbal thought takes (the) course from the motive which engenders a thought to the shaping of the thought, first in inner speech, then in meanings of words, and finally in words. ………………...The relationship between thought and words is a living process; thought is born through words. A word devoid of thought is a dead thing” (Ibid. pp. 248-255). Drama, and the dramatic approach to language acquisition, brings language to life, as it brings life to the language. REFERENCES Burke, Ann F. and O’Sullivan, Julie C (2002) Stage by Stage: A Handbook for Using Drama in the Second Language Classroom, Heinemann: Portsmouth, NH Di Pietro, Robert J. (1987) Stratefic Interactions: Learning Language through Scenarios, New Directions in Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, England Carkin, Gary (2006) Teaching English through Drama: The State of the Art, Carlisle Publications, Manchester, NH Carkin, Gary, Hall, D. and Day, C (2003) Ten Plays for the ESL/EFL Classroom, Carlisle Publications: Manchester, NH Carkin, Gary (2004) Ten More Plays for the ESL/EFL Classroom, Carlisle Publications: Manchester, NH Finger, Alexis Gerard, (2000) The Magic of Drama, Full Blast Productions: Lewiston, NY Vygotsky, Lev S. (1978) Mind in Society, Ed. by Michael Cole et al, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts
  6. 6. Vygotsky, Lev S. (1986) Thought and Language, Ed. by Alex Kozulin, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts For further reference, go to:
  7. 7. II. PRACTICE Processing the Image – Word in Context – Word and Sense A. Haiku B. Short Poems C. Adding Movement D. Readers Theatre – Short blocks, chunks—Short Strories II. Introducing Motive (Objectives, Intentions) A. Through characters in plays – process drama—mantle of the expert (Dorothy Heathcote) B. Through characters in scripted drama III. Developing the Subtext A. Test Time B. The Office V. Putting it all together A. Strategic Interactions B. Role Plays C. Improvised Drama Situations to role play: A. You are an ESL/EFL teacher in a private language institute. You have been working there for five years and have not received a raise. You believe that it is high time you got a raise, especially as you have heard that a colleague who has been working at the same institute for the same amount of time has received an increase. You know your work is good and can back it up. You also need the money for your daughter’s college tuition and a number of increased expenses including those related to health issues and medical care. You go to the director’s office determined to get a raise.
  8. 8. B. You are the director of a private language institute whose numbers are down and you are feeling the pinch financially. Recently, you have received complaints that A’s not teaching well. The complaints stem from three students in his/her class. In addition, A has appeared less enthusiastic about her/his work and has been absent from class due to illness a number of times. You are just about on the point of writing her/him a letter of dismissal, when s/he comes into the office.